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Alkaline materials - 59 entries found

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CIS 06-1158 Jargot D.
Industrial chemical paint strippers
Les décapants chimiques industriels [in French]
Paint strippers consist of concentrated formulations of varying complexity containing one or the other of the following substances: dichloromethane (50% of paint strippers); sodium or potassium hydroxide (25% of paint strippers are alkaline with a pH>13); phosphoric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, nitric or sulfuric acid (90% of pickling liquors and 70% of strippers for ovens). Being mostly caustic and corrosive, these substances can give rise to possibly severe irritation of the skin, and the respiratory and ocular mucous membranes. There is also a risk of inflammation from hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds, together with the harmful and suspected carcinogenic effects of dichloromethane (classified R40).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.202, p.91-96. 6 ref.$File/PR22.pdf [in French]


CIS 03-353
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical cleaners
This information note describes the health hazards associated with the use of chemical cleaners used, for example, for cleaning building facades, statues and monuments, and provides safety and health guidance for their use or the supervision of their use. Topics covered: health hazards due to skin contact or inhalation of fumes and mist; informed to be obtained on the damages caused by strong acids and alkalis before their use; precautionary measures (preventing or controlling exposure, use of appropriate protective equipment, personal hygiene); protection of the public; cleaning of scaffolds and equipment after use; spillages; first aid. Reprinted with updated references (replaces CIS 99-2009).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 2p. 6 ref. [in English]


CIS 00-1274 Check list - Acids and bases
Liste de contrôle - Acides et bases [in French]
Checkliste - Säuren und Laugen [in German]
Lista di controllo - Acidi e liscive [in Italian]
Check list of 20 safety measures for the handling and storage of acids and bases. Topics: acids; bases, alkalis; check lists; corrosive substances; personal protective equipment; plant safety organization; safe working methods; Switzerland; training manuals; training material.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, [1999?]. 4p. Illus.


CIS 99-2009
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical cleaners
Replaces CIS 93-276. This information note describes the health hazards associated with the use of chemical cleaners used for cleaning building facades, statues, etc. and provides safety and health guidance for their use or the supervision of their use. Topics: caustic substances; cleaning; construction industry; data sheet; first aid; harmful substances; limitation of exposure; neighbourhood protection; personal hygiene; personal protective equipment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Sep. 1998. 2p. 6 ref.


CIS 98-210 de Gaudemaris R., Gary Y., Romazini S., Coudert M., Teinturier P., Grosset-Janin J.P.
From epidemiological studies to the implementation of a prevention policy in SMEs: Example of a programme undertaken in surface treatment workshops in Savoie and Haute-Savoie
De la mesure épidémiologique à la mise en place d'une politique de prévention dans les P.M.E.: exemple d'une action conduite dans les ateliers de traitement de surface de Savoie et Haute-Savoie [in French]
Topics: caustic substances; chemical burns; chrome ulcer; cohort study; electroplating; France; health hazards; irritants; irritation; perforation of the nasal septum; plant safety organization; plating solutions; small enterprises; ulceration of the nasal mucosa.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 1997, Vol.58, No.5, p.440-448. 16 ref.


CIS 99-612 Working with caustic substances
Umgang mit Laugen [in German]
Replaces Merkblatt M 34 (CIS 90-964). Topics: Austria; calcium hydroxide; calcium oxide; potassium hydroxide; sodium hydroxide; sodium carbonate; caustic substances; data sheet; handling and storage; harmful substances; hazard identification; personal protective equipment; safe working methods; safety guides.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, 1996. 16p. Illus.

CIS 97-165 Lessenger J.E.
Anhydrous ammonia injuries and their treatment
The characteristics of ammonia are described along with sources of exposure and effects on human tissue caused by freeze-dry and caustic burns. Effects on the eyes, respiratory tract, skin and gastrointestinal tract are outlined. First aid care involves evacuation and decontamination, and hospital treatment of patients with respiratory distress. Long-term complications are mainly limited to the eyes and respiratory tract.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, Vol.3, No.3, p.13-26. 34 ref.

CIS 97-164 Matsuno K.
The treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns
Properties and uses of hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are outlined, the hazards of hydrofluoric acid burns are described, and treatments and first aid procedures are reviewed. Hydrofluoric acid causes severe and painful burns to the skin and eyes. Immediate dilution and decontamination of the exposed areas is most important followed by application of a topical modality. An injection of calcium gluconate solution should also be considered.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.46, No.4, p.313-317. 20 ref.


CIS 93-1673 Kristensen P.
Nordic Expert Group for the Documentation of Exposure Limits. 102. Inorganic acid aerosols
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 102. Uorganiske syreaerosoler [in Norwegian]
Review and evaluation of data on sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric and phosphoric acid aerosols. Occupational exposure limits should be based on their corrosive and inflammatory properties. Their possible role in the development of laryngeal cancer should also be taken into account.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 45p. 154 ref.

CIS 93-276
Construction Industry Advisory Committee
Chemical cleaners
This information sheet describes the health hazards associated with the use of chemical cleaners used for cleaning building facades, statues, etc. and provides health and safety guidance for their use or the supervision of their use. Contents: health effects; preventing and controlling exposure; personal protection; hygiene; protecting the public; spillages; first aid.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. 5 ref.


CIS 92-1764 Acids and bases - Directive [Switzerland]
Säuren und Laugen - Richtlinie [in German]
Acidi e liscive - Direttive [in Italian]
Acides et bases - Règles [Suisse] [in French]
Safety rules applicable to the use and storage of acids and bases. They concern: generalities (documentation, ventilation, warning labels, prevention of spills, review of safety measures, waste treatment provisions); rules for safe use (installations, personal protection, working methods); storage; construction, equipment and configuration of workplaces; maintenance; training; first aid; personal hygiene; environmental protection. List of other applicable legal texts and standards. Extensive commentary.
Eidgenössische Koordinationskommission für Arbeitssicherheit, Richtlinienbüro, Fluhmattstrasse 1, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1990. 18p. 1 ref.

CIS 90-923 Barregård L., Sällsten G., Järvholm B.
Mortality and cancer incidence in chloralkali workers exposed to inorganic mercury
Mortality and cancer incidence were studied in men exposed to inorganic mercury at eight Swedish chloralkali plants where individual biological monitoring data were available. Urinary mercury excretion has declined from about 200µg/L during the 1950s to less than 50µg/L today. These workers had also been exposed to chlorine and static magnetic fields. At some of the plants there had been a low degree of exposure to asbestos. In total, 1190 men had been monitored for at least one year between 1946 and 1984. Their mortality and cancer incidence were compared with those of the general male population. Mortality from all causes was not significantly increased. Cardiovascular mortality was slightly increased for no known reason. An excess of lung tumours was seen possibly caused by previous exposure to asbestos. Mortality from non-malignant diseases of the brain and the kidneys, the main target organs in mercury poisoning, was not increased, nor was the incidence of brain tumours (3 observed v 1.1 expected) or kidney tumours (3 observed v 1.9 expected).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.47, No.2, p.99-104. 28 ref.


CIS 89-1938 Piikivi L., Tolonen U.
EEG findings in chlor-alkali workers subjected to low long term exposure to mercury vapour
The cerebral effect of long term (mean 15.6, SD 8.9 years) and low (about 25µg/m3 air) exposure to mercury vapour was studied in a group of 41 workers in a chlor-alkali plant and in a group of matched controls by electroencephalography (EEG). In the visually interpreted EEGs only a tendency for an increased number of EEG abnormalities, especially focal ones, could be seen in the exposed subjects. In the computerised EEG (cEEG), however, the exposed workers had significantly slower and more attenuated EEGs than the controls. This difference was most prominent in the occipital region, became milder parietally, and was almost absent frontally. Our results suggest that cEEG may show early effects on the brain of exposure to mercury vapour.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1989, Vol.46, No.6, p.370-375. 19 ref. Illus.

CIS 89-834 Piikivi L., Hänninen H.
Subjective symptoms and psychological performance of chlorine-alkali workers
Subjective symptoms and psychological performances on a computer-administered test battery were studied among a group of 60 chlorine-alkali workers and their matched referents. The exposure time of the group exposed to inorganic mercury vapour had been about 14 years, and the estimated long-term average exposure had been about 25µg/m3 of air. The exposed workers had an actual mercury concentration of 51.9 (SD 25.0, range 15-150) nmol/L in blood and 84.1 (SD 56.6, range 15-260) nmol/L in urine. Neither perceptual motor nor memory or learning abilities of the mercury-exposed workers showed any disturbances in a comparison with the referents. However, the exposed group reported statistically significantly more memory disturbances than the referents. Strain caused by three-shift work was a possible cofactor for other increased subjective symptoms, namely, for sleep disorders, fatigue, and confusion.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.69-74. Illus. 24 ref.


CIS 91-1475 WHMIS right to know: Class E: Corrosive material. Module E, Participant's guide
This booklet provides basic information on how to work safely with corrosive materials. It includes resource information which can be used during and after a training programme. Subjects covered: definition and examples of corrosives, health effects, safe handling methods and emergency response measures.
Occupational Health and Safety Education Authority of the Workers' Compensation Board of Ontario, 2 Bloor Street East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C3, Canada, Sep. 1988. 20p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 89-1918 Leung H.W., Paustenbach D.
Setting occupational exposure limits for irritant organic acids and bases based on their equilibrium dissociation constants
The most common adverse effect of exposure to chemicals in the workplace is irritation. Although there is a great diversity among irritants, a large number of them are organic acids and bases. This study showed that there is an association between the equilibrium proton dissociation constant and the occupational exposure limits (OELs) of organic acids and bases that produce irritation as the primary adverse effect. On the basis of this relationship, preliminary occupational exposure limits for other similar compounds with no existing Threshold Limit Values or workplace Environmental Exposure Limits can be estimated.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Apr. 1988, Vol.3, No.4, p.115-118. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 89-1625 Eye irritation testing
This report discusses the Draize rabbit eye test and alternatives. The test may overestimate the ocular hazard to man in some cases, but appears to be effective in demonstrating the absence of ocular hazards. More data on human eye irritation must be collected if the correlation is to be improved. Alternative tests are insufficiently validated to replace the rabbit model, but some may be useful for initial screening. The various present systems for classifying ocular hazards are so different that a given chemical can be classified in several different ways on the basis of the same experimental data. Recommendations: modification of the test to minimise the number of animals used and the discomfort to which they are subjected; harmonisation of classification systems.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, B.63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 1988. 65p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 88-2033 Norman E.C.
The use of foam for vapor mitigation
Guide on the choice and use of extinguishing foams for the suppression of vapours evolving from spills of organic, acidic or basic materials.
Fire Command, Apr. 1988, Vol.55, No.4, p.18-20. Illus.


CIS 90-964 Using caustic substances
Umgang mit Laugen [in German]
Having described the properties of caustic soda, potassium hydroxide, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and sodium carbonate, this leaflet deals with: storage, handling, personal protective measures, and first aid.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 15p.

CIS 89-1617 Josset P., Pelosse B., Blomet J., Vieux N., Meyer M.C.
Eye injuries by caustic substances - study of various eye irrigation methods
Augenverätzungen durch Laugen - Studie über die verschiedenen Spültechniken [in German]
Eyes injured by caustic substances are usually irrigated with water or with isotonic, buffered or unbuffered solutions. Animal experiments using these irrigation methods yielded the highest recovery rate of endothelial cells and the fastest restoration of intraocular pH-values with buffered isotonic solutions applied within 30 minutes after the injury occurred.
BAD-Intern, 1987, No.2, p.1-4. Illus.


CIS 86-1701 Lachapelle J.M.
Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis
Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis is commonly observed in many factories. Examples of airborne irritants include fibres (such as fibreglass or rockwood), various kinds of dust particles (such as cement, slag, sludge, insulating foam, wood chips), acids and alkalis, gases and vapours. Airborne contact allergens are unequivocally numerous. The clinical symptoms of both irritant and allergic airborne contact dermatitis are reviewed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1986, Vol.14, No.3, p.137-145. Illus. 37 ref.


CIS 86-345 Liquid degreasing of small metal parts
Aspects covered in this data sheet: materials commonly used in grease removal (halogenated solvents, alkaline solutions, emulsifying cleaners, blends of flammable and halogenated solvents); fire hazards, prevention and control; health hazards (skin and inhalation hazards); ventilation; storage and handling of solvents; safe work practices; personal protection.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 5p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 86-396 Jakobsen B.M., Astrup Jensen A.
Nordic Expert Group on the Documentation of Threshold Limit Values - 56. Hydrazine and hydrazine salts
Hydrazin og hydrazinsalte [in Danish]
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 56. Hydrazin och hydrazinsalter [in Swedish]
Hydrazine and its salts are readily absorbed into the body through the skin, the lungs and the gastro-intestinal tract. Absorbed hydrazine is distributed to most organs, but the highest concentrations are found in the kidneys. Hydrazine is metabolically degraded by mixed-function oxidases, mainly to nitrogen and water. Other important metabolites are N-acetylhydrazine and 1,2-diacetylhydrazine. Hydrazine and its metabolites are mainly excreted via the urine or via exhalation. The oral LD50 of hydrazine in rodents is about 60mg/kg body weight. The toxicological mechanism is probably inhibition of enzymes in the gamma-aminobutyrate system. Pure hydrazine is highly corrosive, and dilute solutions of hydrazine and salts are irritating to the skin and to the mucous membranes. Hydrazine and its salts are also potent sensitisers. In long-term exposure experiments, the liver is the most sensitive organ: fatty liver has been produced in mice (but not in rats). In rodent studies, hydrazine is carcinogenic, teratogenic and embryotoxic, and its effects the morphology of sperm. Hydrazine and its salts damage DNA and produce mutations in bacterial and mammalian cell cultures. Occupational exposure limits should be based on the carcinogenic and reproductive effects of hydrazine and its salts.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 64p. Illus. 158 ref.


CIS 86-487
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Polymer-coated materials for protective clothing and hand and arm protection - Method for determining their resistance to acids and alkalis
Materialy s polimernym pokrytiem dlja special'noj odeždy i sredstv zaščity ruk - Metod opredelenija stojkosti k dejstviju kislot i ščeločej [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) applies to materials with polymeric coatings (synthetic leather and rubberized materials) and defines a method to be used for determining their resistance to alkalis and acids. The method is based on the measurment of rigidity and of resistance to abrasion and repeated bending. Contents: method of sampling; testing equipment; materials and reagents; preparation for testing and testing; treatment of results; safety requirements.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984, 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 86-484
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Synthetic leather for hand and arm protection - Method for determination of acid and alkali permeability
Iskusstvennye koži dlja sredstv zaščity ruk - Metod opredelenija pronicaemosti kislot i ščeločej [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) establishes a method to be used for determining the resistance of synthetic leather for hand and arm protection to alkalis and acids at different concentrations. The method is based on the measurement of the time required for these substances to penetrate a test sample. Contents: method of sampling, testing equipment, preparation for testing and testing, treatment of results, safety requirements.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 85-1996
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet po standartam)
Personal protective equipment-Method to determine the resistance to alkalis
Sredstva individual'noj zaščity. Metod opredelenija ščeločepronicaemosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1985) applies to protective clothing and protective head gear and defines a method for determining the resistance to alkalis of seams of clothing components, fabrics and non-woven materials. The method is based on the measurement of the time required for a solution of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to penetrate a test sample and is used for the design of protective clothing. Contents: method of sampling, testing equipment, preparation for testing and testing, processing of results, safety requirements.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 85-1391
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Leather boots and shoes protecting against petroleum, petroleum products, acids, alkalis, non-toxic and explosive dust - Technical requirements
Obuv' special'naja kožanaja dlja zaščity ot nefti, nefeproduktov, kislot, ščeločej, netoksičnoj i vzryvoopasnoj pyli [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1985) covers leather safety boots and shoes protecting against crude petroleum, products of heavy petroleum fractions and mineral oils, acids and alkalis in concentrations up to 20%, non-toxic and explosive dust. Contents: types and sizes (in tables); technical requirements (methods of sole attachment in accordance with the use to be made of the footwear); materials for footwear components, permissible thicknesses, strength criteria for seams, soles and heels, criteria for stiffness of counter and toe, mass and flexibility; acceptance criteria; methods of testing; marking, transport, storage; instructions for use; guarantee by the manufacturer.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1983. 16p. Price: Rbl.0.05.

CIS 84-878 Söderlund S.
A harmful substance in your eyes? Rinse them quickly and well
Skadligt ämne i ögat? Spola snabbt och länge [in Swedish]
Advice on the protection of workers' eyes where caustic, corrosive or irritant substances (including some dishwashing detergents) are used: wearing of eye protection; immediate rinsing after a splash in the eye; installation of eyewash stations near every work station which presents a hazard; copious rinsing for 15-20 min if alkaline material has gotten into the eyes; worker training (advice for training in the workplace); advantages and disadvantages of running water; water temperature (water that is too warm may promote absorption of the foreign substance).
Arbetsmiljö, 1984, No.1, p.23-26. Illus.


CIS 83-1339 Krasuska E.
Methods to determine sodium hydroxide in workplace air
Metody oznaczania wodorotlenku sodowego w powietrzu na stanowiskach pracy [in Polish]
Literature survey of the uses and health hazards of this substance (table of caustic effects on eyes in different concentrations). Description of several determination techniques: colorimetry; spectrophotometry with bromthymol blue; sampling methods; a filter sampling method developed by the Polish Central Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, June 1983, No.6, p.15-17. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 85-1335 Caustic soda (sodium hydroxyde)
Aspects covered in this data sheet: hazards, shipping, containers, storage and handling, waste disposal, exposure limits, ventilation, personal protection, first aid.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1982. 4p. Bibl.


CIS 82-2057 The caustic liquor room
Sequence of operations for caustic liquor in a sulfate pulp mill where cooking liquors are made or reconverted for use in processing wood chips by cooking in digesters. Use of lime and attendant hazards; green liquor; chemical splash hazards; emergency shower and eye wash facilities; white liquor; black liquor; preventive maintenance to eliminate possibility of liquor leakage; sampling points; guarding of openings into tanks and vats at floor level; splash aprons and other protective clothing (cotton material, rubber footwear, as alkalis attack wool and leather); access (ladders, platforms, catwalks).
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Il.60611, USA, revised 1981. 4p. Illus.

CIS 81-1138 Knobloch S., Röhm W.
A new material: Bristar
"Bristar" - ein neuer Arbeitsstoff [in German]
Presentation of a new material which increases greatly in volume when dissolved in water. This substance can be substituted for explosives in certain cases. Inserted into rick, or into a concrete wall, for instance, it cracks open and disintigrates the rock or concrete after about 10 hours. It is non-toxic, noiseless, and does not cause vibration or flying particles. Its use, however, involves the hazard of caustic burns, due to its principal constituent: caustic lime. This necessitates the wearing of protective goggles and clothing. An off-limits hazard area should be fenced or marked off around the object to be disintegrated, until the operation is completed and checked. Final demolition work on buildings treated in this manner requires special safety precautions.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Mar. 1981, Vol.93, No.3, p.184-189. Illus.


CIS 81-160 Toropkov V.V.
Clinical and morphological study of the ocular effects of isopropanolamines
Kliniko-morfologičeskoe issledovanie dejstvija izopropanolaminov na glaza [in Russian]
Studies in rabbits are reported showing that spraying of mono-, di- or triisopropanolamine into the eye can cause chemical burns. Precautions and the wearing of safety glasses when these substances are being used are recommended. In the event of an accidental burn, the eye should be rinsed immediately with fresh water and medical advice sought.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.48-50. 2 ref.

CIS 80-2056
French National Health Insurance Fund (Caisse nationale française de l'assurance-maladie)
Burns due to caustic droplets in the textile industry
Brûlures dues aux gouttelettes caustiques dans l'industrie textile. [in French]
Recommendation adopted by the Technical Committee for the French Textile Industry (Comité technique national des industries textiles) on 30 Oct. 1979. Safety measures for the storage, handling, liquid transfer and use of caustic materials, with advice on personal protective measures, information and personal training.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1980, No.100, Note No.1276-100-80 (Recommendation No.175), p.439-440.


CIS 82-162 Metal hydrides
1979 revision: properties of lithium hydride, sodium hydride, calcium hydride, lithium aluminium hydride, sodium aluminium hydride, sodium borohydride and potassium borohydride; uses, containers and shipping regulations, labelling, storage, handling; health hazards (caustic burns, toxicity); personal protective equipment; fire and explosion hazards, extinguishing agents (dry powdered dolomite or dry graphite powder; never use water, carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride or soda ash), dust explosions, firs aid and treatment of burns, waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1979. 4p.

CIS 80-244 Tavarjan V.R., Abramjan S.A., Nazarjan A.A., Bagiev A.A.
A safe method for the transfer of dangerous liquids
Bezopasnyj sposob perelivanija agressivnyh židkostej [in Russian]
Description and schematic illustration of a method for transferring hazardous liquids with a manual, portable suction pump and a 3-way tap. Compared with known procedures (back flow syphoning, suction by jet pump), this method has the advantage of improving safety conditions, increasing flow rate, facilitating flow and, because it is a hermetically closed system, preventing the formation of toxic vapours.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, May 1979, No.5, p.47-48. Illus.

CIS 79-1726
Comité technique des départements d'outre-mer, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie, Paris, 10 Nov. 1978.
Spreading magnesian limestone soil conditioners and magnesian lime in agriculture
Epandage des amendements calcaires magnésiens et des chaux magnésiennes en agriculture. [in French]
Magnesian limestone soil conditioners and magnesian lime can cause burns, and workers should be aware of this. To avoid risk they should be provided with personal protective equipment and wear appropriate working clothes. Conditioners should not be spread against the wind or in rainy weather.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1208-96-79 (Recommendation No.163), p.481-482.

CIS 79-1640 Caustic soda and lyes
Kaustisk soda og lut [in Norwegian]
Contents of these directives: responsibilities; properties of sodium hydroxide and reactions with other substances; risk of chemical burns, eczema, respiratory tract irritation (TLV: 2mg/m3); personal protection; first aid; precautions during preparation of lyes; packing and transport; marking of packages.
Bestillingsnr. 195, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, Apr. 1979. 7p. Illus. Gratis.


CIS 80-654 Lihou D.A.
The use of case studies in hazard workshops.
Case study, with question/answer presentation for use at a training hazard workshop, of a worker badly burned by hot, aqueous caustic liquor when a hose burst when he was closing a valve. The case is offered as a useful example for training seminars. Rescue methods, inadequacy of personal protective clothing, keeping defective hoses in use, steam pressure of 7bar in the system, behaviour of rubber at temperatures over 160°C, and immediate availability of washing and showering facilities are discussed.
Health and Safety at Work, Sep. 1978, Vol.1, No.1, p.41-42, 46. Illus.

CIS 79-562 Vroege D.
Incidence and prevention of reactions to chemical and vegetable substances in Rotterdam dock workers
Het vóórkomen en de preventie van reacties op chemische en plantaardige stoffen bij havenwerkers te Rotterdam [in Dutch]
Results are reported of a study on allergenic, irritant, caustic, photosensitising and toxic substances loaded and unloaded in large quantities in the port of Rotterdam. Measures for protection and information (distribution of leaflets) of workers taken by the authorities are reviewed. Health impairments due to these substances account for some 9% of accidents. The principal reactions observed are described (allergies; eye, skin and mucosal irritation; chemical burns; photosensitivity reactions; poisoning; dilatation of the pupils). Attention is drawn to particular hazardous substances such as sodium hydroxide, and the need for improved packaging.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 8 Nov. 1978, Vol.56, No.22, p.724-729. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 79-188
GOST 12.4.048-78, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 27 Apr. 1978.
Cotton and cotton mixture fabrics for protective clothing - Method for determining permeability to alkalis
Tkani hlopčatobumažnye i smešannye dlja specodeždy - Metod opredelenija ščeločepronicaemosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1979) applies to the testing of fabrics made of cotton or other fibres, with anti-alkali protective finish. Contents: sampling; description of apparatus for testing and measuring the duration of impermeability; preparation of samples; test procedure (with a 10% KOH solution); evaluation of results.
Izdatel'svto standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1978. 3p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 78-2001
Dirección general de trabajo (General Directorate of Labour), Madrid.
Protective gloves against aggressive chemicals
Guantes de protección frente a agresivos químicos [in Spanish]
Statutory technical standard approved on 6 May 1977. Contents: scope and general remarks (classification of gloves); characteristics (materials, shape, dimensions, thickness); requirements (weight loss on application of heat, impermeability to air, penetration resistance, tensile strength, resistance to corrosive chemicals); testing (visual inspection, weight loss on application of heat, impermeability to air, mechanical strength and resistance to chemicals). Appendix: text of the Ministerial Order of 17 May 1974 concerning approval of personal protective equipment.
Norma MT-11, Colección textos legales n° 020.00.14, Servicio social de higiene y seguridad del trabajo, Madrid, Spain, 1978. 33p. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 84-1644
British Cast Iron Research Association
Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials in the foundry - binder materials for sodium silicate processes
This data sheet describes hazards from the use of sodium silicate and CO2 in mould and core making and recommends measures to prevent accidental exposure.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1977. 3p. 3 ref.


CIS 78-1958 Duprat P., Delsaut L., Gradisky D.
Irritative power of common acids and bases on the rabbit skin and eye mucosa
Pouvoir irritant des acides et bases usuels sur la peau et les muqueuses oculaires du lapin. [in French]
Report on studies with various concentrations of ammonia, sodium and potassium hydroxides, and sulfuric, hydrochloric and chromic acids in aqueous solution based on Draizo's method, the official cosmetics testing method, and Kay and Calandra's method of interpretation. The nature, severity and course of the lesions caused by each product according to concentration is recorded, and findings obtained by other authors in animals and man are compared. Concentrations causing little or no irritation were determined, and skin and eye irritation scales established.
Notes scientifiques et techniques de l'INRS, No.10, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Aug. 1976. 63p. 27 ref.

CIS 77-1355 Ascher R.
Corrosive burns - Problems of safe handling
Les brûlures par produits corrosifs: problème du conditionnement de la manipulation. [in French]
Communication presented to the Regional Joint Technical Committee for the Chemicals Industry (Comité technique régional des industries chimiques), Lille, France. Statistics of accidents involving corrosive burns are followed by considerations on various causes of accidents of this kind (human error, secondary reaction, latent defect, invisible leakage, stuck flanges, blocked valves, etc.) and appropriate preventive measures. Description of 2 typical accidents, stressing the nature and gravity of corrosive burns (particularly to the eyes), and considerations on: personal protective equipment (choice of safety spectacles, type of face shield and protective gloves); first-aid stations with eye bath and complete decontamination facilities (shower and bath); staff training; extraction from carboys (various devices, precautions); pertinent French regulations.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 4th quarter 1976, No.110, p.30-44. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 77-489 Vickers H.R., Edwards D.H.
Cement burns.
Reports on 4 men who sustained severe burns on the legs after contact with premixed concrete. In 2 cases contact occurred when the concrete spilled over the top of their boots as they were using their feet and lower legs to spread it in a trench. As such "treading" is a common method of spreading cement in the construction industry, and such injuries are rare, the liquid in the wet cement must have had an unusually high alkalinity.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.73-78. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 77-518 Porcq F.
Health and safety in treatments for the preparation of metal surfaces
Hygiène et sécurité dans les traitements de préparation de surface des métaux. [in French]
Study on pickling and acid vat hazards submitted to the Regional Technical Committee for the Metal Trades (Comité technique régional de la métallurgie), Lille, France. Required specifications for acid storage premises and tanks, and precautions to be taken in filling tanks (especially by the compressed-air method); hazards of pickling processes (splashes when preparing acid vats or dipping metal parts, acid fumes during hot pickling processes); preventive measures (fixing of metal part to prevent slipping, limitation of height of pickling vats, drainage of overspill towards neutralising baths, safe distances for workers, rim of pickling vats sufficiently high to prevent workers from falling in, fume exhaust (rim exhaust plus push-pull ventilation on vat lip). The hazards involved in the regeneration of sulfuric acid baths are mentioned.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 1976, No.109, p.13-21. Illus.

CIS 77-139 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 40. Inorganic hydroxides
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 40. Hydroxydes inorganiques. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions of alkaline hydroxides, ammonium, potassium and sodium hydroxides, alkaline earth hydroxides, iron(II) hydroxide and mercury hydroxide with various organic and inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1976, No.84, Note No.1023-84-76, p.421-425.

CIS 76-1061 Van Dijk W.J.W.M., Van Leeuwen J.B., De Jong J.M.
Chlorine crash plan
Aanvalsplan chloor [in Dutch]
Reproduction of an emergency plan for coping with chlorine leakages drawn up by a Dutch communal fire brigade. Contents: physical, chemical and toxic properties of chlorine; liquefaction; transport and storage; chlorine leakages and their possible causes; measures to cope with chlorine leakages (action in the event of gas cloud or fog, meteorological considerations, etc.); plugging of leakages in cylinders or tanks; fire fighting tactics in case of outbreak near a chlorine tank; first aid.
De Brandweer, Apr. 1976, Vol.30, No.4, p.77-83. Illus.


CIS 76-1806 Recommended practice - Loading and unloading liquid caustic - Tank cars (caustic soda and caustic potash).
Recommendations for basic conditions of safe handling during shipping and/or receiving liquid caustics. Placement of car, safety precautions, cold weather handling (steaming procedure, sampling, unloading (by air pressure, gravity, pump), loading, preparation of empty cars for movement, return of empty cars, "defect" notification, examination of empty cars, service, materials and equipment, delivery lines, and first aid are considered. Diagrams showing unloading connections through a dome or through the bottom are appended. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Technical Bulletin TC-28, Manufacturing Chemists' Association, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, USA, 1975. 11p. Illus.

CIS 76-1916 Caution - Inorganic metal cleaners can be dangerous.
This profusely illustrated booklet, intended as a handy information sheet for workers, deals with the following points: uses of inorganic acids and caustics in metalworking; chemical burn hazards and other health hazards (causes and symptoms); preventive measures (handling, dispensing, mixtures, storage; dangerous chemical reactions; correct ways to clean up spills; local exhaust ventilation; protective clothing and respirators); first aid.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-110, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1975. 21p. Illus.

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