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Aldehydes - 487 entries found

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  • Aldehydes

1984

CIS 84-1908 Hakes D.C., Johnson G.D., Marhevka J.S.
Procedure for elimination of phenol interference in the chromotropic acid method for formaldehyde
This interference can be considerably reduced or eliminated from formaldehyde samples collected in impingers containing 1% sodium bisulfite solution. The phenol is removed by passing the sampling solution through a column containing XAD-7 polymeric sorbent before colorimetric analysis. Phenol removal efficiency is 95 to 99.5% at concentrations up to 100µg/cm3 and does not affect the formaldehyde level in the sample.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.274-277. 12 ref.

CIS 84-1903 Williams T.M., Levine R.J., Blunden P.B.
Exposure of embalmers to formaldehyde and other chemicals
Surveys were conducted in 7 funeral homes in the USA. Personal and area sampling revealed TWA concentrations of formaldehyde ranging from 0.3 during the embalming of intact bodies to 0.9ppm in the case of autopsied bodies. Concentrations of other airborne chemicals (isopropanol, isopentane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene) and particulates were negligible.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1984, Vol.45, No.3, p.172-176. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 84-2022 Cassebras M., Rolin A.
Flux-cored soldering wires - Harmful chemical substances released during their use
Fils à souder à flux incorporé - Nuisances chimiques lors de la mise en ¿uvre [in French]
During industrial soldering, workers are exposed to pyrolysis products of colophony and its additives. The main health hazard is the irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory organs, due to the presence of aldehydes in the fumes. INRS (the French national OSH organisation) has analysed fumes released during the pyrolysis of soldering fluxes in laboratory tests at 250°C and 400°C, and in actual industrial use. Using current analytical techniques, only traces of formaldehyde (the substance mainly responsible for the toxic effect of such fumes) were found. There is not enough experimental data to suggest other toxic agents.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1984, No.116, Note No.1492-116-84, p.347-352. 22 ref.

CIS 84-1656 Coldiron V.R., Janssen H.E.
Safe decontamination of hospital autopsy rooms and ventilation system by formaldehyde generation
Description of a procedure for the safe decontamination of autopsy facilities in a hospital, using formaldehyde gas and including all the ventilation system and 3 associated air incinerators.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.136-137. 9 ref.

CIS 84-1749 Smith K.A., Williams P.L., Middendorf P.J., Zakraysek N.
Kidney dialysis: ambient formaldehyde levels
5 kidneys dialysis clinics were surveyed and air sampling was performed in all major areas during the disinfection of dialysis equipment with formaldehyde. Exposure levels were found to be all below the 1ppm exposure limit with an average of 0.5ppm. Feasible engineering controls that would further reduce employee exposure are proposed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.48-50. 9 ref.

CIS 84-1684 Gottschling L.M., Beaulieu H.J., Melvin W.W.
Monitoring of formic acid in urine of humans exposed to low levels of formaldehyde
Urine samples from a group of veterinary medicine students were analysed for formic acid content. Normal baseline levels were established for each student. Pre- and post-exposure data collected showed that variations were not statistically significant. Monitoring of urine for formic acid concentration changes is not a viable technique for measuring formaldehyde exposures <0.5ppm.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.19-23. 7 ref.

CIS 84-1682 Benson W.G.
Case report - Exposure to glutaraldehyde
Case report of sensitisation, manifested as constant irritation of the eyes and as a reduction in respiratory function (peak-flow levels dropped from weekend values of 400l/min to 300l/min during the work week), in a hospital nurse with steady exposure to glutaraldehyde, a commonly used disinfectant. After exposure ceased, the reduction in respiratory function disappeared.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, May 1984, Vol.34, No.2, p.63-64. Illus.

CIS 84-1380 Hamilton M.
Formaldehyde and the cancer risk
A review of the proven hazards of exposure to formaldehyde (irritation of the eyes and of the respiratory tract, allergic reactions including asthma, dermatitis), and of its possible carcinogenic effect. Animal experiments show a strong carcinogenic effect (nasal cancer) at exposure to a concentration of 15ppm (7.5 times the British exposure limit), but lower exposure levels for animals and epidemiological studies in humans with occupational exposure to formaldehyde show no such effects. Teratogenicity has also been shown to be absent. There is no reason to lower the British exposure limit (2ppm) to the ACGIH TLV of 1ppm adopted in the US.
Safety Practitioner, Mar. 1984, Vol.2, No.3, p.4-6. Illus.

CIS 84-1022 Acheson E.D., Barnes H.R., Gardner M.J., Osmond C., Pannett B., Taylor C.P.
Formaldehyde in the British chemical industry - An occupational cohort study
This epidemiologic study examined the mortality record of 7680 men with long-term exposure to formaldehyde in British factories. Rates of cancer deaths among these workers were compared with expected rates according to standardised mortality ratios for England and Wales, adjusted geographically by reference to the Atlas of Cancer Mortality for England and Wales. Particular attention was paid to nasal and lung cancer. No significant increases in death rates due to cancer were found. A follow-up letter in the 18 Aug. 1984 issue of Lancet (p.403) indicates that no living cases of nasal cancer were found among the workers. There is no support for the hypothesis that formaldehyde is a carcinogen in man.
Lancet, 17 Mar. 1984, Vol.1, No.8377, p.611-616. 29 ref.

1983

CIS 89-598 Priha E., Ahonen I., Aijala M.J.
Methods for measuring formaldehyde
Formaldehydin mittausmenetelmät [in Finnish]
From a survey of methods for the measurement of formaldehyde, some methods were chosen for a laboratory test. Based on the test some detector tubes were considered suitable only for preliminary, semiquantitative measurements. Some of the quantitative measurement methods had better sensitivity and specificity than the Finnish method in current use. Some solid sorbent tubes suitable for personal sampling might be used for routine measurements.
National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, 1983. 54p. 62 ref. Bibl. Illus.

CIS 85-501 Precautions to be taken when "cooking" narcissus bulbs in formalin
Opgepast bij het "koken" van narcissenbollen met formaline [in Dutch]
Narcissus bulbs are heated for 2h at 40-43.5°C before packing; formaldehyde is added to the water as a biocide. Harmful concentrations of formaldehyde were measured in the air during filling of the baths and during draining and drying of the bulbs. To prevent excessive exposure of personnel, the treatment should not be conducted indoors unless ventilation is excellent, and workers should wear respirators (even when working outdoors).
De veiligheid, Oct. 1983, Vol.59, No.10, p.503.

CIS 85-419 Safronkina Ė.I., Kiseleva A.V., Gafurova E.V.
Bases for the MAC for isovaleraldehyde
K obosnovaniju PDK izovalerianovogo al'degida [in Russian]
Isovaleraldehyde (2-methyl-4-butanal) is an intermediate in the production of alkyd resins for paints and coatings. The compound affected many organs and systems when administered perorally, epicutaneously or by inhalation to rats, mice and guinea pigs. Although it produced dermatitis or necrosis, it was not absorbed by the skin, and did not seem to be a cumulative poison. The similarity of the results to those obtained with other similar aldehydes supports the application of the MAC for those aldehydes (10mg/m3) to isovaleraldehyde as well.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1983, No.5, p.60-61. 4 ref.

CIS 85-105 Clary J.J., Gibson J.E., Waritz R.S.
Formaldehyde: toxicology, epidemiology, mechanisms
The 11 papers presented at a meeting sponsored by the Formaldehyde Institute (3 Nov. 1982, USA) are reproduced. Contents: occupational exposure to formaldehyde; mathematical cancer risk assessment; case-control study of cancer deaths in DuPont workers with potential exposure to formaldehyde; mortality of Ontario undertakers; skin initiation-promotion study in mice; mutagenic effects in bacterial and human cells; formaldehyde effect on the nasal mucociliary apparatus; effect of formaldehyde exposure in cytotoxicity and cell proliferation; toxicity mechanisms and risk evaluation.
Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1983. 280p. Illus. 144 ref. Index.

CIS 84-1994 Main D.M., Hogan T.J.
Health effects of low-level exposure to formaldehyde
21 subjects exposed to formaldehyde at 0.12-1.6ppm levels in mobile trailers used as temporary office facilities in a police department, and 18 unexposed workers, were examined by questionnaire and spirometry. Symptoms of eye, nose and throat irritation, increased headache and fatigue, and shortness of breath were significantly more common among the exposed workers than in the control group. No decrease in ventilatory function was found in exposed workers. An adverse health effect from exposure at these low levels is indicated which may have implications for the permissible exposure limit value in the USA.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1983, Vol.25, No.12, p.896-900. 14 ref.

CIS 84-2020 Lindahl R., Nilsson C.A., Norström Å., Hagberg M., Kolmodin-Hedman B.
Sampling and analysis of chain saw exhaust. I. Exhaust emissions measured under controlled laboratory conditions. II. Exposure levels during logging. III. Lung function, carboxyhemoglobin and complaints among chain saw operators...
Provtagning och analys av motorsågsavgaser. I. Avgasemissioner under kontrollerade betingelser i laboratoriemiljö. II. Exponeringsstudier under skogsarbete. III. Lungfunktion, koloxidhemoglobin och upplevda besvär hos skogsarbetare efter exponering för motorsågsavgaser [in Swedish]
I. There was no difference in the emission compositions and levels of different brands of chain saws, and none between new and used saws. Lean fuel-air mixtures gave higher proportions of aldehydes and nitrogen oxides and lower proportions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons than did rich mixtures. Methanol containing fuel gave twice as much formaldehyde as did normal gasoline, and methanol was a major component of the exhaust. II. Lumberjacks complained of cough and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Complaints and exposure levels were aggravated by deep snow, thick stands of timber and calm weather. Felling gave higher exposure than did limbing or cutting. Exposure can be reduced by improved working methods, which are described. III. Clinical and field studies confirmed the observations of Part II. Average exposures were well below Swedish TLVs. The correlation of carboxyhaemoglobin concentration with CO exposure was too poor to permit its use as an indicator of exposure.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 104p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 84-1601
Health and Safety Executive
Formaldehyde in air - Colorimetric field method using 4,5-dihydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulphonic acid (chromotropic acid)
Contents of this guidance note: properties, uses, toxicity and first aid in case of massive exposure to formaldehyde. Determination method: sampling is done through a glass midget impinger containing ammonium acetate, which dissolves the formaldehyde. An aliquot of the absorbing solution is reacted with the chromotropic acid reagent to produce a purple chromogen which can then be measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 570nm. Scope: suitable for measurements over periods ranging from 10min to 8h, both for personal and area sampling. Analytical range: 0.25-100mg/m3 for 10l air samples, with the limits extendable by varying the sample volume. Precision: <10%. The only serious interference is from phenol, when present in concentrations much higher than formaldehyde. Some organic compounds, when present, give a yellow colour.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, Mar. 1983. 5p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: £1.00.

CIS 84-1314 Skisak C.M.
Formaldehyde vapor exposures in anatomy laboratories
Personal and area samples were taken in 8 medical school laboratories over a 12-week period, using the NIOSH P & CAM 125 impinger method. 44% of all breathing zone samples exceeded the 1ppm ceiling value recommended by ACGIH. Only 11% of the area samples were in excess of 1ppm. Overall concentrations measured ranged from 0.3 to 2.6ppm.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1983, Vol.44, No.12, p.948-950. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 84-1449 Coldiron V.R., Ward J.B., Trieff N.M., Janssen H.E., Smith J.H.
Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in a medical center autopsy service
Estimated TWA exposures for pathologists, residents and technicians were 0.61-1.32ppm, with little difference between work roles. Technicians were exposed to a baseline level of formaldehyde for a longer period of time, while physicians were exposed for shorter times with peaks during specific tasks. While most TWA exposures were within OSHA limits, several exceeded the 3ppm TWA standard. Most of the personnel in the autopsy service reported exposure to be irritating. Ventilation and work practices are briefly discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1983, Vol.25, No.7, p.544-548. 21 ref.

CIS 84-122 Konopinski V.J.
Formaldehyde in office and commercial environments
Investigation of potential causes of discomfort and illness in workers in various non-industrial situations. Formaldehyde was detected in 4 office and commercial establishments which had poor ventilation. Concentrations measured ranged from 0.01 to 1.01ppm. Sources of formaldehyde were urea-formaldehyde foam, particle board, plywood subflooring and furniture. Sealing of these sources and increased fresh air supply achieved substantial reduction in discomfort.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1983, Vol.44, No.3, p.205-208. 9 ref.

CIS 84-111 Smith D.L., Bolyard M., Kennedy E.R.
Instability of formaldehyde air samples collected on a solid sorbent
Additional evaluation of NIOSH method P & CAM 318 for formaldehyde (see CIS 80-1609) indicates that samples collected on SKC lot No. 124 charcoal are unstable beyond storage periods exceeding one week at ambient temperature. NIOSH has abandoned this method and recommends the use of method P & CAM 354 for monitoring worker exposure to formaldehyde.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1983, Vol.44, No.2, p.97-99. 5 ref.

CIS 84-109 Meadows G.W., Rusch G.M.
The measuring and monitoring of formaldehyde in inhalation test atmospheres
Two procedures for the determination of formaldehyde concentrations in animal testing inhalation chambers, using chromotropic acid, were evaluated. In the first, the chromogen was mixed with sulfuric acid prior to use, and in the second, the reagents were added sequentially. The 2nd procedure gave more reliable results. Collection of airborne samples of formaldehyde in impingers containing 1% aqueous sodium bisulfite provided more stable storage conditions than collection in water alone. When shipping samples, great care must be exercised to avoid contamination with materials commonly used for sample bottle caps and seals that can cause interferences.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1983, Vol.44, No.2, p.71-77. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 83-2008 Araszkiewirz G.
Low-temperature gas sterilisation in the hospital - Occupational hazards and their prevention
La stérilisation à basse température par les gaz à l'hôpital. Risques professionnels et prévention [in French]
This thesis summarises the present state of knowledge of low-temperature sterilisation with ethylene oxide or formaldehyde. An evaluation of the health risks of these two agents emphasises recent indications that they are mutagenic or carcinogenic in man. The two agents are compared in terms of occupational hygiene for the benefit of personnel responsible for choosing a method of gas sterilisation. Safety measures and medical supervision are discussed, and relevant laws and regulations are presented.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France. 1983. 70p. 84 ref.

CIS 83-1945 Gibson J.E.
Formaldehyde toxicity
This book provides the latest toxicity studies and data about formaldehyde. Toxicological properties, sources, occurrences, metabolism, sensory irritation, inhalation, distribution, topical exposure disposition and teratogenicity are discussed in an overview. A toxicology section covers genetic and transforming activity, inhalation studies on animals, mechanism of toxicity, morphological changes and cell turnover. A human studies section covers the effects and interactions with the skin, the respiratory system, problems with home insulation, prenatal and infant studies and various occupational health reports. A fourth section deals with risk assessment.
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 19 West 44th Street, New York, N.Y. 10036, USA, 1983. 312p. Illus. Bibl. Price:US$49.95.

CIS 83-1990 Bender J.R., Mullin L.S., Graepel G.J., Wilson W.E.
Eye irritation response of humans to formaldehyde
Test-panel members sensitive to formaldehyde eye irritation were exposed to low concentrations of formaldehyde vapour (0.35 to 1.0ppm) for 6min. Eye irritation was evaluated by time to detection of the first trace of irritation and by subjective ranking of severity. Both time to response and severity appeared to be a function of formaldehyde concentration. Severity of response was "above slight" only with the highest test concentration of 1.0ppm.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1983, Vol.44, No.6, p.463-465. 14 ref.

1982

CIS 89-1122
USSR Commission for UNEP
Formaldehyde
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.5mg/m3. Toxicity: strong irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes; sensitisation; mutagenic effects.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1982. 20p. 65 ref.

CIS 88-86 trans-Crotonaldehyde
Krotonaldehydi [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Highly flammable liquid. Toxicity: LD50 = 300mg/kg; TLV = 6mg/m3; narcotic; irritates the mucous membrances of the eyes and the respiratory tract and causes lacrymation; the liquid strongly irritates the skin and can cause chemical burns of the cornea: is absorbed through skin. Long term exposure can cause conjunctivitis. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R11, R23, R36, R37, R38, S29, S33, S44.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 87-1214 Butyraldehyde
Butyyrialdehydi [in Finnish]
Butyraldehyde is a highly flammable toxic liquid (LD50 = 2490mg/kg). The liquid is corrosive. The vapour irritates the eyes and the mucous membranes and can cause coughing and watering of the eyes. High concentrations can cause emphysema. Long term exposure to the liquid can cause eczema. Mandatory European labelling: F, R11, S9, S29, S33.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 87-1198 Benzaldehyde
Bentsaldehydi [in Finnish]
Benzaldehyde is a toxic liquid (LD50 = 1300mg/kg). The liquid irritates the skin and can cause eczema. The vapour irritates the eyes and the mucous membranes and can cause headache, vertigo and nausea. In high concentrations it has a narcotic effect. Mandatory European labelling: F, XN, R22, R24.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 87-820 Formaldehyde
Formaldehydi [in Finnish]
Formaldehyde is a toxic, corrosive liquid (LD50 = 800mg/kg; TLV = 3mg/m3). The liquid is an irritant causing hardening and cracking of the skin, long-term exposure causes allergic eczema and other allergies. The vapour is narcotic and irritates the mucous membranes and the eyes. A strong reducing agent. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R23, R24, R25, R38, R101, S2, S28, S23, S38, S46, S101.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 84-696 Information from the Soviet Toxicology Centre
Informacija sovetskogo toksikologičeskogo centra [in Russian]
Covered are: sulfotrinaphthalenofuran, styrene, acetophenone, Freon 114 B2, decane, crotonaldehyde, Freon 13 B1, triethanolamine, ethanol, dimethylphenylcarbinol, monoethanol ethylenediamine. Data given include: acronyms and synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, biological effects, toxicity to animals by various routes of administration, methods of determination.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1982, No.8, p.53-56.

CIS 84-142
Canada Safety Council
Formaldehyde - HCHO
Contents of this data sheet: identification and physical properties; industrial uses; hazards (routes of entry, toxic effects, fire); emergency action information (fire, spills, first aid); occupational exposure limit (ACGIH TLV: 2ppm); preventive measures (process control, personal protective equipment, disposal, air monitoring, medical monitoring); transportation; storage and handling; training and supervision; glossary; 2-page summary for poster displays.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1982. 13p. 10 ref.

CIS 84-116 Damgård Nielsen G., Kragh Hansen M., Mølhave L.
Toxicological evaluation of a number of substances that may pollute the workplace air
Toksikologisk vurdering af en række forureningsstoffer i indeluften [in Danish]
Summary of this report based on literature surveys: dose-effect relations (synergic effects, odours, carcinogens, extrapolation models); alkanes; benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons; phenyl alkenes (styrene, etc.); terpenes; cyclohexanes; alkenes; alcohols; ketones; aldehydes; esters; halogenated hydrocarbons. In total, 80 organic compounds are discussed from the points of view of biological effects, toxicity (acute and subacute), genetic and carcinogenic effects. Each chapter is followed by a table summarising toxicological data.
Arbejdstilsynet, Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet, Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Aug. 1982. 102p. Illus. 268 ref. Price: Dan.cr.25.00.

CIS 84-163 Alexandersson R., Hedenstierna G., Kolmodin-Dehman B.
Exposure to formaldehyde: effects on pulmonary function
Symptoms and pulmonary function were studied in 47 male subjects exposed to formaldehyde at a concentration of 0.45mg/m3 and 20 unexposed subjects, all of whom were employed in a carpentry shop. Symptoms involving eyes and throat as well as chest oppression were significantly more common in the exposed subjects than in the controls. Spirometry and single-breath nitrogen washout were normal before exposure. Reductions were observed in forced expiratory volume and maximum mid-expiratory flow and an increase in closing volume in percentage of vital capacity, after 1 day of work with exposure, suggesting bronchoconstriction. Smokers and non-smokers displayed similar changes in spirometry and nitrogen washout.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1982, Vol.37, No.5, p.279-283. 14 ref.

CIS 83-1342 Kring E.V., Thornley G.D., Dessenberger C., Lautenberger W.J., Ansul G.R.
A new passive colorimetric air monitoring badge for sampling formaldehyde in air
The Pro-Tek C-60 Series II formaldehyde badge is designed to be used as a personal monitor worn near the breathing zone or as an area monitor. The badge incorporates a multicavity diffuser element and an absorbing solution of sodium bisulfite. Laboratory validation and field test data indicated that the badge could be used for sampling time weighted average formaldehyde exposures in the range 2-55ppm-h or 0.25-6.8ppm for 8h with an accuracy greater than that required by NIOSH or OSHA for an analytical and sampling method.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1982, Vol.43, No.10, p.786-795. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 83-1332 Determination of formaldehyde in air
Bestämning av formaldehyd i luft [in Swedish]
Description of standard methods for the sampling and analysis of formaldehyde: limits of application; principle (reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, desorption with diethyl ether, chromatography); sampling (reagents, preparation of sampling tube); analysis (gas chromatography with packed or capillary column and electron-capture detector, high-pressure liquid chromatography); mathematical evaluation of results; determination protocol.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Forskningsavdelningen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, Dec. 1982, 11p. 9 ref.

CIS 83-1323 Formaldehyde toxicology: An up-dating of the ECETOC technical reports 1 and 2
This report contains recent animal toxicity and epidemiologic data which confirm that the nasal cancers observed in experimental animals develop only at concentrations which produce chronic tissue irritation. Where exposure is so low that metaplasia resulting from irritation does not occur, it is unlikely that tumours will develop. New epidemiological data confirm that there is no relationship between formaldehyde exposure and cancer in humans.
European Chemical Industry, Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1982, 9p. 12 ref.

CIS 83-1316 Septon J.C., Ku J.C.
Workplace air sampling and polarographic determination of formaldehyde
Air samples are collected in midget fritted-glass bubblers containing an aqueous solution of 10% methanol, and the formaldehyde in the absorbent solution is converted to a hydrazone derivative. The resulting solution is analysed by differential pulse polarography at a dropping mercury electrode. The sample generation system, impinger collection, polarographic analysis and precisions and accuracy data are described. The method was validated over the range 5.8-17.7mg/m3, which corresponds to 0.5-2 times the OSHA permissible exposure limit for a 30l sample at a flow rate of 1l/min. The average recovery was 103%, and the pooled coefficient of variation or relative standard deviation was 0.08.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1982, Vol.43, No.11, p.845-852. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 83-1083 Harding D.H.
Health effects of formaldehyde
It is suggested that formaldehyde is not a carcinogen by virtue of its chemical composition, but that it is an epigenetic carcinogen based on its irritancy and high reactivity: the irritancy induces the chain of events leading to malignancy. If the threshold for irritation of formaldehyde, 0.1ppm, were used to control exposure, the risk of formaldehyde-induced cancer would be greatly reduced.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Apr. 1982, Vol.3, No.2, p.64-80. 23 ref.

CIS 83-460 Andersson K., Hallgren C., Levin J.O., Nilsson C.A.
Sampling and analysis of organic substances on the TLV list - X. Chemisorption of crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde and p-methylbenzaldehyde
Provtagning och analys av organiska ämnen på gränsvärdeslistan - X. Kemosorption av krotonaldehyd, bensaldehyd och p-metylbensaldehyd [in Swedish]
Following an assessment of methods used to sample and analyse these 3 aldehydes, the materials, methods and instruments required for their quantitative determination in air are described (solvents, purification of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, reference substances and solutions, Amberlite XAD-2, preparation of chemisorption tube, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The chemisorption and desorption trial procedures are detailed, and typical HPLC diagrams are reproduced. Brief descriptions of the sampling and analysis procedures to be followed for determining crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde and p-methylbenzaldehyde concentrations in air.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 14p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 83-456 Miksch R.R., Anthon D.W.
A recommendation for combining the standard analytical methods for the determinations of formaldehyde and total aldehydes in air
An analytical method is described for the detemrination of formaldehyde, by the chromotropic acid method, in samples already analysed for total aliphatic aldehydes by the 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone hydrazone method. The combined method increases efficiency, and decreases costs of field measurements because only a single sampling train is required to determine formaldehyde and total aldehyde content in the sampled atmosphere. Laboratory analysis is simplified and streamlined by maximising the overlap of procedures and incorporating improved techniques.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1982, Vol.43, No.5, p.362-365. 5 ref.

CIS 83-502 Marsh G.
Proportional mortality patterns among chemical plant workers exposed to formaldehyde
Report of a proportional analysis of deaths between 1950 and 1976 among 136 men employed a month or more in 1 of 5 formaldehyde-related areas of a chemical works, to examine the possible health risks of formaldehyde exposure. No statistically significant excesses or deficits in proportional mortality were observed in formaldehyde workers when compared with general population groups or with 456 male decedents who had not had a month or more formaldehyde exposure. Although this study was limited, no trends or patterns in proportional mortality that could be linked to exposures to formaldehyde were found.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov.1982, Vol.39, No.4, p.313-322. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 83-492 Hendrick D.J., Rando R.J., Lane D.J., Morris M.J.
Formaldehyde asthma: challenge exposure levels and fate after five years
Long term follow up of 2 nurses with asthma resulting from exposure to formaldehyde in a renal dialysis unit. Inhalation provocation tests originally carried out in 1973 and 1975 were repeated in 1981. One nurse who had not worked with formaldehyde since 1976 had no further asthmatic symptoms on provocation testing. In the other nurse, who had continued working with formaldehyde, but under much improved conditions, provocation testing produced a reaction similar to that observed in 1975. In sensitised subjects, late asthmatic reactions may be provoked by brief exposures at about 3ppm.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1982, Vol.24, No.11, p.893-897. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 83-479 Fleig I., Petri N., Stocker W.G., Thiess A.M.
Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to formaldehyde in formaldehyde manufacturing and processing
Cytogenetic evaluation of 15 workers who had been exposed to formaldehyde when manufacturing and processing this chemical for between 23 and 35 years (average 28 years). The mean formaldehyde concentrations at the workplaces did not exceed 5ppm before 1971 and 1ppm after that date. Analyses of the data for aberrant cells, including chromatid and isochromatid gaps, did not reveal any significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberrations between the exposed workers and controls. There is no evidence at present that formaldehyde may cause mutagenic effects in mammals and man.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1982, Vol.24, No.12, p.1009-1012. 18 ref.

CIS 83-410 Kolmodin-Hedman B., Nordman H.
Nordic group of experts for documentation on threshold limit values - 37. Formaldehyde
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 37. Formaldehyd [in Swedish]
A literature survey of the health hazards of formaldehyde designed to provide a basis for setting an appropriate TLV in the Scandinavian countries. Chapters are devoted to: physical and chemical properties, metabolic model, toxicological mechanisms, organ effects, allergy, genotoxic effects, carcinogenic effects, exposure indicators. The irritant effect is of prime importance in the setting of a TLV. Formaldehyde has been reported to be carcinogenic in animals. An appendix lists the TLV for formaldehyde in 21 countries.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 46p. 99 réf.

CIS 83-181 Lindskov R.
Contact urticaria to formaldehyde
Report of a case of contact urticaria in a laboratory worker following exposure to formaldehyde vapour. Since formaldehyde releases histamine from the skin of susceptible persons and passive transfer testing with formaldehyde proved negative, the action mechanism must be different from IgE-mediated hypersensitivity.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.5, p.333-334. 5 ref.

CIS 83-179 Nethercott J.R., Albers J., Guirguis S., Ching G., Hofstader S., From L.
Erythema multiforme exudativum linked to the manufacture of printed circuit boards
Report of 4 cases of erythema multiforme major (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) in men working in a factory producing printed circuit boards and having exposure to palladium chloride, copper sulfate, formaldehyde, expoxy-fibreglass, lead, trichloroethylene and ammoniumm persulfate. Signs and symptoms developed after 6-12 weeks of exposure. There was liver involvement in 3 cases. The manufacturing processes, clinical findings and investigational procedures are described. On the basis of positive epicutaneous tests in 2 of the 4 workers, formaldehyde is presumed to be the cause of the reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.5, p.314-322. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 82-1606 Morel C., Reynier M., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Glutaraldehyde
Glutaraldéhyde [in French]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air; fire hazards (not combustible in water); pathology and toxicology (acute toxicity in animal studied gives evidence of liver damage; USA (ACGIH) TLV: 0-2ppm or 0.8mg/m3). French OSH regulations; French and international regulations concerning transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1982, No.108, p.449-451. 13 ref.

CIS 82-1406
Special Advisory Committee on Formaldehyde (Bijzondere Adviescommissie Formaldehyde)
Formaldehyde and cancer in man
Formaldehyde en kanker bij de mens [in Dutch]
This report to the Netherlands Minister of Health is largely based on the literature and covers: metabolism of formaldehyde; genotoxicity (mutagenicity, interaction with other mutagens, mechanism of induced genetic effects); animal experiments (semichronic inhalation toxicity, chronic inhalation toxicity carcinogenicity, additional literature on formaldehyde carcinogenicity, cytotoxicity); epidemiology (fates of people exposed to formaldehyde, exposure histories and occupational anamnesis of workers with nasal cancer, sequelae of human exposure, epidemiology of nasal cancer); evolution of the carcinogenic process and cancer-inducing effect (formaldehyde is a moderate carcinogen but strong promoter; risk evaluation). Main conclusions: formaldehyde has genotoxic and carcinogen properties; despite negative epidemiologic findings it cannot be excluded that formaldehyde is carcinogenic for man.
Ministerie van Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiëne, Dokter Reijersstraat 12, Leidschendam, Netherlands, 1982. 50p. 61 ref.

CIS 82-1319 Grillot P.
Formaldehyde: confirmation of carcinogenic action
Formaldéhyde: confirmation d'un pouvoir carcinogène [in French]
Part 1 of this medical thesis deals with: history, physical and chemical data, production, uses, poisoning hazards, metabolism and toxic effects of formaldehyde. Part 2 covers the study of carcinogenic action: chemical and biochemical reactions of the substances, mutagenesis testing, animal experiments, epidemiological studies and possible role of formaldehyde adhesives in ethmoid cancers of wookworkers. Although formal proof of formaldehyde carcinogenicity has not yet been provided by epidemiological studies, NIOSH and IARC recognise it as carcinogenic; it seems essential that safety measures be taken immediately to reduce exposure levels.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris, France, 1982. 66p. 47 ref.

1981

CIS 87-775 Acrolein
Akroleiini [in Finnish]
Acrolein is a flammable toxic liquid (LD50 = 46mg/kg; TLV = 0.25mg/m3). The vapour irritates strongly the eyes, respiratory organs and lungs. Asthmatic symptoms, watering of the eyes. The liquid causes chemical burns. Absorption through the skin. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R11, R23, R36, R37, R38, S29, S33, S44, S23, S38, S46.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Sep. 1981. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 86-1056 Basic safety rules for the handling of acrolein
Reglas básicas de seguridad para el manejo de acroleína [in Spanish]
This illustrated guide provides information on the hazards and safe handling of acrolein used for the production of acrylonitrile. A summary in comic strip form is included.
Petróleos Mexicanos, Av. Marina National No.329, Edif. A. Colonia Huasteca, México D.F., C.P.11311, Mexico, 1981. 29p. Illus. suppl.

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