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Aldehydes - 487 entries found

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  • Aldehydes


CIS 88-561 Nemčinov N.N., Murav'eva C.V., Belikov A.B., Markova L.R.
Hygienic assessment of working conditions in the manufacture of wires with plastic insulation
Gigieničeskaja ocenka uslovij truda v proizvodstve provodov s plastmassovoj izoljaciej [in Russian]
Hygienic studies carried out in the manufacture of wires insulated with heat-stable polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride showed that polyethylene application involves release of a vapour-gas-arerosol mixture consisting of 15 components, the principal of which are acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone and formaldehyde. Phosphorus compounds from stabilisers were also detected. During application of polyvinyl chloride insulation another range of compounds is released, the hygienically significant of which are vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichlorethane benzene, chlorobenzene and benzaldehyde. Concentrations of these components in workplace air do not exceed the corresponding MACs except for phosphorus compounds. In the manufacture of wires with polyvinyl chloride insulation the main health hazards are vinyl chloride and benzaldehyde.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1986, No.8, p.33-36. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 87-1425 Zahlsen K., Nilsen O.G.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 69. Acetaldehyde
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 69. Acetaldehyd [in Norwegian]
A survey of literature on acetaldehyde to serve as background information for a discussion on occupational exposure limits. Exposure to relatively low concentrations of acetaldehyde irritates the mucous membranes of the eyes and the respiratory system. Acetaldehyde has been shown to have genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic eeffects in animal experiments in vivo and/or in vitro. The risk of these effects occurring in humans following occupational exposure is difficult to estimate from the current literature. Further experiments are required if an adequate extrapolation of risk is to be made. It is recommended that an exposure limit be based on the irritant effect of acetaldehyde on the mucous membranes, and that possible genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic eeffects be further investigated.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 45p. Illus. 101 ref.

CIS 87-1014 Schlosser O.
Disinfection of operating areas by formaldehyde: occupational hazards and their prevention. Study conducted in a large hospital. Literature review of the toxicity of formaldehyde
Désinfection terminale des blocs opératoires par le formaldéhyde: risques professionnels et prévention. A propos d'une étude dans un grand centre hospitalier. Revue bibliographique de la toxicité du formaldéhyde [in French]
Medical thesis. The study surveyed the conditions under which formaldehyde was used as a disinfectant in the operating theatres of a large hospital in Paris (France), and on the effect this had on the health of hospital staff. Also included are a literature survey of the toxicity of formaldehyde and relevant French legislation.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI), Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1986. 317p. 247 ref.

CIS 87-584 Mann J.H., Gold A.
A solid sorbent for crotonaldehyde in air
The purpose of this study was to determine whether molecular sieves could be used as a solid sorbent for sampling crotonaldehyde vapours. A simple dynamic dilution apparatus generated concentrations of crotonaldehyde vapours which were sampled with molecular sieve sampling tubes and a constant flow sampler. Laboratory sampling demonstrated quantitative trapping and recovery, and stability of stored samples. Although crotonaldehyde breakthrough times are decreased by water vapour, sub-ppm levels of volatile aldehydes can be determined under field conditions of high humidity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1986, Vol.47, No.12, p.832-834. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 87-617 Sass-Kortsak A.M., Holness D.L., Pilger C.W., Nethercott J.R.
Wood dust and formaldehyde exposures in the cabinet-making industry
Time-weighted average (TWA) personal total and respirable dust exposures were determined gravimetrically for 48 subjects in 4 cabinet-making plants. TWA personal formaldehyde exposures also were obtained. Considerable variation was noted in the dust exposures. Cabinet-makers exposed to softwoods had a mean exposure of approximately one half of the current applicable ACGIH TWA-TLV, while hardwood exposure was twice the applicable TWA-TLV. The highest dust exposures were recorded for workers engaged in sanding. Workers in assembly areas had higher dust exposures, likely reflecting the fact that conventional dust collection devices for stationary woodworking equipment are not appropriate for hand-held tools and hand sanding. The poor correlation between paired total and respirable dust concentrations indicates that both measurements should be made. Some potential limitations to respirable wood dust sampling using 10mm nylon cyclones are noted, however. Area dust concentrations were significantly lower than personal exposures, emphasising the importance of personal sampling data. Formaldehyde vapour exposures were very low.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1986, Vol.47, No.12, p.747-753. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 87-554 Stumpf J.M., Blehm K.D., Buchan R.M., Gunter B.J.
Characterization of particleboard aerosol - Size distribution and formaldehyde content
Health hazards unique to particleboard include the generation of urea-formaldehyde resin bound in wood aerosol and release of formaldehyde gas that can be inhaled by the worker. A particleboard aerosol was generated by a sanding process and collected under laboratory conditions that determined the particle size distribution and formaldehyde content. Significant variations (p < .005) were observed for the particleboard mass and gaseous formaldehyde collected between sample runs. No significant differences were observed for the aerosol size distribution determined and formaldehyde content in particleboard aerosol per unit mass for sampling trials. The overall mass median aerodynamic diameter of particleboard was 8.26µm AED with a standard deviation of 2.01. A predictive model was derived for determining the expected formaldehyde content by particleboard aerosol mass collected and particulate size.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1986, Vol.47, No.12, p.725-730. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 87-630 Rosenberg N., Gervais P.
Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to formaldehyde
Rhinite et asthme professionnels au formaldéhyde [in French]
Information note for occupational physicians. Pathophysiology (action of formaldehyde on the skin, mucosae and respiratory tract). Exposed populations. Diagnosis in the workplace. Confirmation of diagnoses in the laboratory (detection of specific immunoglobulins (IgE), demonstration of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity, bronchial provocation tests in a test chamber, skin tests). Course of disorders. Prevention and compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Oct. 1986, No.27, p.219-221. 16 ref.

CIS 87-193 Gerosa A., Turrini O., Bottasso F.
Laryngeal cancer in a factory converting thermoplastic resins
Tumori laringei in un'azienda di lavorazione di resine sintetiche termoplastiche [in Italian]
Three cases of laryngeal cancer have been observed among 43 workers employed between 1972 and 1979 in the mixing and extrusion departments of a factory converting thermoplastics; the incidence rate of this type of cancer is about 30 times higher than the values deduced from the local cancer records. Workplace monitoring results furnish evidence that vinyl chloride and formaldehyde are the causative substances. The latter may be released by biocides in the silicone oils of the hot-water tanks through which the extrudings are passed.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1986, Vol.77, No.2, p.172-176. 18 réf.

CIS 87-190 Olsen J.H., Asnaes S.
Formaldehyde and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavities
A study of 759 histologically verified cancers of the nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses and the nasopharynx and of 2465 cancer controls revealed a positive association between past exposure to formaldehyde and cancer of the sinonasal cavities. After adjustment for exposure to wood dust, the relative risks were 2.3 (95% CI: 0.9-5.8) for squamous cell carcinoma and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7-7.2) for adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavities. Introduction of a 10-year latency period did not affect these results significantly.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1986, Vol.43, No.11, p.769-774. 23 ref.

CIS 87-264 Rosén G., Andersson I.M.
Exposure to formaldehyde and solvents during industrial surface treatment with acid-curing paints
Formaldehyd och lösningsmedelsexponering vid industrieli målning med syrahärdade lacker [in Swedish]
Measurements of exposure to formaldehyde and solvents were made in the surface treatment departments of 19 companies using acid-curing lacquers. A total of 464 15-minute samples were taken in the respiratory zone of subjects during ongoing exposure. Formaldehyde was sprayed by a chemosorption method, and solvents were sprayed by the charcoal tube method or by sampling in a glass syringe followed immediately by analysis by gas chromatography. Exposure to formaldehyde at many workplaces exceeded the occupational exposure limit value, although solvent concentrations were often under the respective limit values. Workers performing spray painting were more heavily exposed. Sprayed, pigmented paints produced slightly heavier exposure to formaldehyde than sprayed, clear lacquers. The shape of painted components was decisive in the level of exposure in spray painting.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 24p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 87-90 Formaldehyde
Chemical identity; potential exposure; exposure limits; properties; health effects; industrial hygiene practices and control; personal protective equipment; fire, explosions, dangerous combinations; storage, spillage, disposal; transportation.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, Aug. 1986. 2p.

CIS 86-1855 Niemelä R.
A tracer pulse method for the assessment of airflow patterns in a particleboard mill
A tracer pulse method was used to investigate the spread of airborne formaldehyde from its source into the surrounding air and the distribution of the air supply in a particleboard mill. The contaminant flow was labelled with sulfur hexafluoride, and the supply of outdoor air with nitrous oxide. The pulse responses of the injected tracer gases were interpreted in terms of the age concept. The result of improvements in the ventilation system was studied through measurements of the formaldehyde concentration and with tracer gas tests. It was found that the approach used in this paper is applicable to charting airflow patterns in a complex industrial environment.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1986, Vol.12, No.5, p.504-511. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 86-1961 Bertazzi P.A., Pesatori A.C., Radice L., Zocchetti C., Val T.
Exposure to formaldehyde and cancer mortality in a cohort of workers producing resins
Mortality study of 1,332 male workers employed at least 30 days in 1959-1980 in a resin-manufacturing plant. Ambient measurements taken in the plant between 1974 and 1979 documented a potential for exposure to levels of formaldehyde as high as ≥3.0mg/m3. A statistically significant increase in lung cancer was observed (18 deaths). This elevated risk, however, could not be attributed specifically to exposure to formaldehyde. Mortality from digestive cancer (14 deaths) and haematologic neoplasms (5 deaths) was not substantially higher than expected. Because of several limiting factors present within the study, these results do not provide sufficient grounds either to link formaldehyde exposure in the plant to the increased cancer risk noted or to exclude that formaldehyde might pose such a risk to humans uncer certain exposure circumstances.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1986, Vol.12, No.5, p.461-468. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 86-1611 Green D.J., Kulle T.J.
Generation and measurement of formaldehyde in exposure chambers
A formaldehyde (HCHO) generation system suitable for animal and human inhalation studies has been constructed and employed in a large scale human exposure chamber at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. The generation system employs modified industrial hygiene calibration manifolds to vaporise paraformaldehyde to form monomeric HCHO. Generated concentrations of HCHO were maintainable within ±5% of the target concentrations. Measurement of HCHO levels in the exposure chamber has demonstrated a close correlation (r2=.981) between the NIOSH chromotropic acid technique and TGM-555 monitors over the range of 0.5 to 3.0ppm, with the impinger-chromotropic acid technique yielding an average of 95% of the TGM-555 measurements.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1986, Vol.47, No.8, p.505-508. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 88-262 Turoski V.
Formaldehyde - Analytical chemistry and toxicology
This book contains 24 separately authored articles, 13 on aspects of the analytical chemistry of formaldehyde, 7 on its toxicology and 4 on risk assessment. The toxicology papers do not support the assertion that formaldehyde at the levels to which embalmers, anatomists and manufacturing workers are exposed is a human carcinogen.
American Chemical Society, Books and Journals Division, 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036, USA, Sep. 1985. 394p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 89.95 (US and Canada), USD 107.95 (elsewhere).

CIS 87-1354 Hanzl J., Rössner P., Klemetová H.
Cytogenetic analysis of workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde
Cytogenetická analýza u pracovníků profesionálně exponovaných [in Czech]
In a wood processing plant 25 workers, exposed to formaldehyde when handling urea-formaldehyde binders, were subjected to repeated cytogenic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes. Formaldehyde concentrations in the workplace air ranged from 0.1 to 0.9mg/m3 and never exceeded the MAC. In the summer season of 1982 and 1983, the frequencies of aberrant cells were 1.48 and 1.95%, respectively (in controls 1.57%); in winter (1983 and 1984), they were 3.17 and 2.13%. These results indicate a greater genetic risk for workers in the winter months.
Československá hygiena, Sep. 1985, Vol.30, No.7/8, p.403-410. 25 ref.

CIS 87-396 Benzaldehyde
This Workplace Environmental Exposure Level Guide (WEEL) presents the available toxicological data and recommends appropriate exposure limits for industrial chemicals for which no standards have been developed. Synonym: benzoic aldehyde. Direct food additive. Benzaldehyde vapour is an irritant to the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. May be a weak sensitiser via skin contact. Recommended exposure limits: 8h TWA limit = 8.7mg/m3; 15min TWA limit = 17.4mg/m3.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 475 Wolf Ledges Parkway, Akron, OH 44311, USA, 1985. 3p. 18 ref.

CIS 87-237 Dmitriev M.T., Kuleš T.A., Rastjannikov E.G.
Study of the toxic substances formed in the oxo process
Izučenie toksičnyh veščestv, obrazujuščihsja v processe oksosinteza [in Russian]
In the oxo process, olefins are reacted with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to yield alcohols; aldehydes are intermediate reaction products. Various volatile by-products may also be formed, so that workplace air can be contaminated by a wide range of substances. To identify and quantitate these contaminants, air was sampled by being drawn through a glass tube packed with Tenax sorbent. The material collected was desorbed onto a glass capillary gas-chromatography column coated with SE30. The gas chromatograph was coupled to a mass spectrometer. 165 organic compounds were identified. They included saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, halogenated hydrocarbons, nitriles, thiocyanates, sulfides, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1985, No.8, p.51-54. 12 ref.

CIS 87-79 Crotonaldehyde
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1928 Zenina G.A., Voronin A.P.
Gas-chromatographic determination of benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and benzyl acetate in air
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie benzilovogo spirta, benzal'degida i benzilacetata v vozduhe [in Russian]
Air for analysis is sampled by being drawn through a 0.7-0.8 by 10cm tube of diatomaceous earth (Risorb BLK) at a rate of 0.5L/min for 20min. Benzyl compounds are eluted from the sorbent with chloroform and separated on a 4mm by 2m steel column packed with (a) 5% XE-60 silicone on Chromaton N-AW-DMCS, (b) 10% Apiezon L on Inerton AW-DMCS, or (c) 10% PMS-100 on Dinochrom-II. The chromatograph is fitted with a flame-ionisation detector, and nitrogen is used as carrier gas. The limit of detection is 0.01µg, or 0.8mg/m3. The method has been approved for use under industrial conditions (fabric dyeing).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1985, No.5, p.55-57. Illus.

CIS 86-1866 Formaldehyde in the workplace - General review
Le formaldéhyde en milieu de travail - Revue générale [in French]
It is well known that formaldehyde causes irritation to the eyes and the upper respiratory tract, and is a sensitising allergen on cutaneous contact. However, the systemic effects of a chronic respiratory exposure at low concentrations are not well established. Epidemiologic studies have not shown an important cancer-causing potential but there are indications of a possible weak association with nasal or buccal cancer. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde is widespread in all sectors of the economy. The main sources of exposure, in order of decreasing importance, are: the presence of formaline, the handling or decomposition of aminoplastic or phenoplastic resins as well as the combustion of various organic substances. Formaldehyde orginating from sources such as particleboard, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, or cigarette smoke can sometimes reach occupational exposure levels.
Travail et santé, Fall 1985, Vol.1, No.2, p.34-42. 74 ref.

CIS 86-1640 Crotonaldehyde
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1594 Acrolein
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1587 Chloroacetaldehyde
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1314 De Craecker W.
Formaldehyde, H-CHO, Formalin (aqueous solution as marketed)
Formaldéhyde (Formol), H-CHO, formaline (solution aqueuse commercialisée) [in French]
Contents of this technical data sheet: identification, production, emission sources, uses, physical and chemical properties, detection and sampling of fumes in air, physical hazards (explosion, fires), health risks, regulations in force in Belgium and in the countries of the EEC; TLVs (8h TWA: 1ppm, 15min exposure limit: 2ppm); recommended protective measures, emergency measures, medical supervision.
Promosafe, Nov.-Dec. 1985, Vol.12, No.5, p.430-442. 56 ref.

CIS 86-1299 Formaldehyde
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 5p.

CIS 86-1018 Wölfel G., Müller J., Schaller K.H.
Sensitive and selective gas-chromatographic determination of formaldehyde in workplace air
Empfindliche und selektive gaschromatographische Bestimmung von Formaldehyd in der Arbeitsluft [in German]
Formaldehyde in aqueous solution from air samples is treated with pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine hydrochloride. The resulting oxime is extracted into hexane and separated on a capillary column. With an electron capture detector, the detection limit for formaldehyde is 1.0ng/mL. The method is more specific and more sensitive than photometric methods.
Staub, 1985, Vol.45, No.12, p.550-552. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 86-723 Gonzalez Ferradas E.
Toxicology of formaldehyde: current criteria
Toxicologia del formaldehido: Criterios actuales [in Spanish]
Review of the literature and status of research on the toxicity of formaldehyde.
Salud y trabajo, Sep.-Oct. 1985, No.51, p.11-18. Illus. Bibl. 37 ref.

CIS 86-752 Foussereau J.
Allergic dermatitis due to glutaraldehyde
L'eczéma allergique au glutaraldéhyde [in French]
Most cases of dermatitis due to glutaraldehyde (GTA) occur in hospital staff, dentists and dental assistants, and workers in radiology. Tests exist for the differentiation of allergy and irritation. There seems to be no cross-allergy between GTA and formaldehyde, but contact with a product containing both substances can result in a false positive reaction to GTA if the subject is allergic to formaldehyde. People allergic to GTA can be intolerant of tanned leather and drugs containing GTA.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, May 1985, No.23, p.13-14. 13 ref.

CIS 86-687 Evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Allyl compounds, aldehydes, epoxides and peroxides
Conclusions of a meeting of experts (Lyon, France, June 1984). There is limited or inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of allyl chloride, allyl isothiocyanate, allyl isovalerate and eugenol in animals; in the absence of epidemiological data, no evaluation of human carcinogenicity could be made. There is sufficient evidence that acetaldehyde is an animal carcinogen, but inadequate evidence of its carcinogenicity in humans. Evidence of the carcinogenicity of acrolein and malonaldehyde in animals or humans is inadequate or absent. There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of diglycidyl resorcinol ether, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and styrene oxide in animals, but only ethylene oxide can be identified as "probably carcinogenic" in humans. Evidence of the carcinogenicity of benzoyl, hydrogen and lauroyl peroxides is limited or inadequate for animals and inadequate or absent for humans.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, Feb. 1985. 369p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$25.00; SF.70.00.

CIS 86-447 Kilburn K.H., Warshaw R., Boylen C.T., Johnson S-J.S., Seidman B., Sinclair R., Takaro T.
Pulmonary and neurobehavioral effects of formaldehyde exposure
Study involving a group of 45 male workers employed in the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde foam/fiberglass batt and a group of 18 male histology technicians. The symptom count for the 1st group (17.3 for the hot process areas and 14.7 for the cold areas) was significantly greater than that of the histologist group (7.3); the count for an unexposed group averaged 4.8. During their 1st workshift after holidays, 58% of the batt makers had a decrease in one or more tests of pulmonary function. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1.0) decreased in 16% of the group; diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide decreased in 30%; FEV25-75 decreased in 16% and FEV75-85 decreased in 36%. Overall, 35% of all workers in the group showed drops in FEV1.0, FVC or in diffusing capacity.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1985, Vol.40, No.5, p.254-260. 20 ref.

CIS 86-445 Partanen T., Kauppinen T., Nurminen M., Nickels J., Hernberg S., Hakulinen T., Pukkala E., Savonen E.
Formaldehyde exposure and respiratory and related cancers. A case-referent study among Finnish woodworkers
57 cancer cases from a retrospective cohort of male woodworkers formed the study group. They were matched by year of birth with 171 referents. Exposure to formaldehyde was assessed with job-exposure matrices. The median of the time-weighted average concentration was about 1ppm and the mean duration of exposure was 10 years among the exposed. No exposure-response relation was observed for the level, duration or dose (ppm-years) of formaldehyde exposure. The negative result may be explained by absence of effect, by too short a follow-up or by insufficient power for detecting a mild excess risk.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1985, Vol.11, No.6, p.409-415. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 86-424 Acrolein
Aspects covered in this data sheet: properties, uses, labeling, shipping, handling and storage; hazards (acrolein is very toxic and highly irritating); exposure limits (the ACGIH 8h TWA is 0.1 ppm); fire and explosion hazards and their prevention; ventilation; respiratory and skin protection; first aid; waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 4p. 7 ref.

CIS 86-413 Parizek M.
Formaldehyde - Present-day knowledge
Formaldehyd - heutiger Stand der Kenntnisse [in German]
This review includes information on: sources and use, toxic effects, sensitisation, carcinogenicity (not confirmed by epidemiologic studies), types of exposure.
Mitteilungen der Medizinischen Abteilung, Nov. 1985, No.58, p.9-13. 8 ref.

CIS 86-104 Balmat J.L., Meadows G.W.
Monitoring of formaldehyde in air
The advantages and disadvantages of using various devices and methods for measuring formaldehyde in air are reviewed. Modifications of the NIOSH chromotropic acid method extend its applicability to long-term monitoring (8h) of formaldehyde concentrations as low as 0.05ppm with impingers containing aqueous sodium bisulfite, and as low as 0.15ppm with silica gel tubes. The DuPont Pro-Tek passive dosimeter, when used for long-term monitoring, provides accurate time-weighted averages even under conditions of widely varying formaldehyde concentrations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1985, Vol.46, No.10, p.578-584. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 85-1888 Farber E., Golberg L., Munro I.C.
Health effects of occupational exposure to formaldehyde
This report reviews the salient features of the physical, chemical and biological properties of formaldehyde that determine human and animal response to this compound. The available information tends to support the validity of a 1ppm exposure limit.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Summer 1985, Vol.6, No.3, p.148-157. Bibl.

CIS 85-1886 Acetaldehyde
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; properties; occupational exposure limits (8-h TWA: 100ppm, 10-min TWA: 150ppm, both as recommended in the United Kingdom); industrial uses; fire hazards; hazardous reactions; acute and chronic health effects; handling and storage; medical surveillance; safety precautions; first aid.
Safety Practitioner, Mar. 1985, Vol.3, No.3, p.12-13. 6 ref.

CIS 85-1034 Formaldehyde
This data sheet covers description, properties (of formaldehyde gas and formalin), TLVs, fire hazards and appropriate extinguishants, uses, hazardous reactions, toxicity and biological hazards (acute exposure, chronic exposure, metabolism), possible carcinogenesis (under debate), safety precautions, handling and storage, medical surveillance, leakage and spillage, first aid.
Safety Practitioner, Jan. 1985, Vol.3, No.1, p.12-13. 4 ref.

CIS 85-1009 Konopinski V.J.
Seasonal formaldehyde concentrations in an office building
The objective of this investigation was to determine if there was a seasonal effect on formaldehyde emissions from wooden panelling and shelving in a one-story office building. The formaldehyde concentrations for warm weather were about twice as great as those in cold weather. The simultaneous use of impinger and passive dosimeter sampling showed the latter to be more effective for this type of work.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1985, Vol.46, No.2, p.65-68. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 89-390
USSR Commission for UNEP
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.2mg/m3. Toxicity: very strong irritant; lacrymating agent; a 10min exposure to 350mg/m3 concentration in air is lethal to humans.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 15p. 36 ref.

CIS 88-397 Formalin
Formalin [in Norwegian]
Chemical safety information sheet. Formalin is a solution of formaldehyde in water. Irritates and corrodes the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. It causes allergy, eczema and in some cases asthma and pulmonary oedema. Exposure limits: Administrative standard = 1.2mg/m3; ceiling value = 1.2mg/m3 (Norway, 1981).
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, Rev. ed., Jan. 1984. 4p.

CIS 86-1359 Krantz S., Lindstedt G., Lundgren L., Palmqvist U., Tillman C.
Inter-laboratory control of air analyses in occupational hygiene. Sampling, methodological problems and reproducibility
Interlaboratoriekontroll av yrkeshygieniska luftanalyser - Provframställning, metodbrister, reproducerbarhet i analysen [in Swedish]
The control programme has included several important occupational hygiene air contaminants: quartz, asbestos, synthetic inorganic fibres, organic solvents, ammonia, formaldehyde and fluorides. Approximately 50 Swedish laboratories have voluntarily participated. The aims of the control programme have been to provide guidance for industrial health personnel in their choice of analytical laboratories, to give laboratories the opportunity to check their own performance, to improve the quality of analytical results, to supply information concerning analytical reproducibility and finally to provide information concerning deficiencies in the method manuals and in the methods themselves. A general improvement in the performances of the participating laboratories has occurred, primarily because laboratories with unsatisfactory results have ceased to participate. The poor reproducibility for fibres (45-65%) and for quartz (57%) must be accepted for the time being since better methods do not exist. The average reproducibility for fluorides (20%), formaldehyde (42%) and organic solvents (34%) is surprisingly poor, despite the widespread use of these methods.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 70p. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 86-418 Recommended health-based occupational exposure limits for respiratory irritants
The short-term (15 min) and the 8h time-weighted average exposure limits recommended in this technical report for 4 irritants are respectively: 1.5 and 0.75mg/m3 for chlorine; 1.0 and 0.5mg/m3 for formaldehyde; 1.8 and 0.9mg/m3 for nitrogen dioxide; 3.9 and 1.3mg/m3 for sulfur dioxide. The basis for the recommendations are given for each substance.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 154p. Bibl. Price: SF.14.00.

CIS 85-1641 Formaldehyde - Uses, risks, protective measures
Formaldehyd - Verwendung, Gefahren, Schutzmassnahmen [in German]
This note reproduces the information obtained from the common report of the Federal Institutes of Public Health, of Occupational Safety and Health and of the Environment of the Federal Republic of Germany. Contents: characteristics, production and uses of formaldehyde (plastics industry, medical and pharmaceutical uses), exposure in the workplace (tables presenting exposure locations and results of concentration determination, occupations at risk), health effects (irritation, allergy, cancer, mutagenicity), preventive measures (identification and labelling, limitation of exposure in the workplace, regulations).
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. 16p.

CIS 85-721 Glutaraldehyde
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; uses; health and safety hazards, current standards (8h-TWA exposure limit of 0.2ppm in the UK; ACGIH recommends a 0.2ppm ceiling limit); sampling and analysis; first aid; recommendations.
Association of Scientific, Technical and Managerial Staffs, 79 Camden Road, Camden Town, London NW1 9ES, United Kingdom, Jan. 1984. 3p. 5 ref.

CIS 85-697 Beall J.R., Ulsamer A.G.
Formaldehyde and hepatotoxicity: a review
Exposure to formaldehyde appears to be associated with hepatotoxicity in many species, including humans, following injection, ingestion or inhalation. The observed physiological, pathological and biochemical changes are described, as are the possible toxicity mechanisms in animals and man.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.14, No.1, p.1-21. Bibl.

CIS 85-393 Bernstein R.S., Stayner L.T., Elliot L.J., Kimbrough R., Falk H., Blade L.
Inhalation exposure to formaldehyde: an overview of its toxicology, epidemiology, monitoring and control
Epidemiologic studies on the evaluation of health effects from exposure to formaldehyde are reviewed and methods for monitoring formaldehyde are discussed in detail. Current guidelines for the evaluation and control of formaldehyde gas are suggested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1984, Vol.45, No.11, p.778-785. 71 ref.

CIS 85-236 Levine R.J., DalCorso R.D., Blunden P.B., Battigelli M.C.
The effects of occupational exposure on the respiratory health of West Virginia morticians
Standardised respiratory disease questionnaires and pulmonary function tests were administered to 90 white male morticians. Detailed occupational histories including estimates of the number of bodies personally embalmed were also obtained. The pulmonary function of the morticians compared favourably with that of residential groups in other parts of the US. Relatively high exposure to formaldehyde in morticians was not associated with chronic bronchitis or pulmonary function deficits, indicating that long-term intermittent exposure exerts no meaningful chronic effect on respiratory health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1984, Vol.26, No.2, p.91-98. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 84-1940 Knox S.E., Que Hee S.S.
Phenol interference in the mercury-free pararosaniline method and the chromotropic acid method for formaldehyde
The modified pararosaniline method for formaldehyde is not affected by phenol/formaldehyde ratios ranging from 1 to 100. Such ratios cause total inhibition of the chromotropic acid method. No influence of phenol occurred after storing the samples for 11 days at room temperature.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1984, Vol.45, No.5, p.325-328. 24 ref.

CIS 84-1939 Kring E.V., Ansul G.R., Basilio A.N., McGibney P.D., Stephens J.S., O'Dell H.L.
Sampling for formaldehyde in workplace and ambient air environments - Additional laboratory validation and field verification of a passive air monitoring device compared with conventional sampling methods
The DuPont Pro-Tek formaldehyde badge (CIS 83-1342) has an excellent correlation with other monitoring methods. An overall accuracy of ±9.6 to 11.6% has been confirmed over an exposure range 0.12-6.8ppm. This is well below the NIOSH/OSHA accuracy requirements of ≤±25% down to 1.6ppm-h (200ppb) for an 8h TWA exposure. The badge is also capable of accurate sampling for 15-min exposures and is not affected by pressure or relative humidity variations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1984, Vol.45, No.5, p.318-324. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 84-1908 Hakes D.C., Johnson G.D., Marhevka J.S.
Procedure for elimination of phenol interference in the chromotropic acid method for formaldehyde
This interference can be considerably reduced or eliminated from formaldehyde samples collected in impingers containing 1% sodium bisulfite solution. The phenol is removed by passing the sampling solution through a column containing XAD-7 polymeric sorbent before colorimetric analysis. Phenol removal efficiency is 95 to 99.5% at concentrations up to 100µg/cm3 and does not affect the formaldehyde level in the sample.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.274-277. 12 ref.

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