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Aldehydes - 487 entries found

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CIS 90-1127 Formaldehyde
Formaldehyd [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (Poland) = 2mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 40, Poland, 1988. 2p.

CIS 90-831 Grattan C.E.H., English J.S.C., Foulds I.S., Rycroft R.J.G.
Cutting fluid dermatitis
174 consecutive patients with suspected cutting fluid dermatitis were investigated in 2 occupational dermatology clinics. 43% showed allergic reactions which were thought to be relevant to their dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis occurred in 63%, but only in 21% was it thought to be the sole diagnosis. Biocides, especially formaldehyde releasers, were the commonest cause of allergic reactions in a cutting fluid patch test series.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1989, Vol.20, No.5, p.372-376. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 90-743 Furfural
Furfurol [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 10mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1988. 2p.

CIS 90-837 Stayner L.T., Elliott L., Blade L., Keenlyside R., Halperin W.
A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the garment industry
In order to assess the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, a retrospective cohort mortality study of 11,030 workers exposed for at least 3 months to formaldehyde in 3 garment facilities was carried out. The average (TWA) formaldehyde exposure at the 3 plants monitored in 1981 and 1984 by NIOSH was 0.15ppm. A statistically significant excess in mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity and connective tissue was observed. Statistically nonsignificant excesses in mortality were observed for cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung, pharynx, bladder, leukaemia and aleukaemia. Mortality from cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung was inversely related to duration of exposure and latency. In contrast, mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity, leukaemias, and lymphopoietic neoplasms increased with duration of formaldehyde exposure and/or latency. It should be recognised that these findings are based on relatively small numbers and that confounding by other factors may still exist. The results from this investigation do provide evidence of a possible relationship between formaldehyde exposure and the development of upper respiratory cancers (buccal), leukaemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms in humans.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.6, p.667-681. 33 ref.

CIS 90-479 Hogan D.J., Hill M., Lane P.R.
Results of routine patch testing of 542 patients in Saskatoon, Canada
542 patients (330 women, 212 men) with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested to standard series allergens between January 1983 and June 1987. Positive reactions were most frequently seen with nickel (17.4%), ethylenediamine (8.7%), formaldehyde (7.4%), colophony (7.0%), potassium dichromate (6.1%) and neomycin (5.7%). Patients with dermatitis involving the legs were those significantly more likely to be allergic to ethylenediamine (p=0.01) and benzocaine (p=0.04) than those with dermatitis not involving the legs. Neomycin allergy was not associated with dermatitis involving the legs. Patients allergic to ethylenediamine were significantly more likely to be allergic to neomycin than patients not allergic to ethylenediamine (p=0.002).
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1988, Vol.19, No.2, p.120-124. 17 ref.

CIS 90-477 Nethercott J.R., Holness D.L.
Contact dermatitis in funeral service workers
Eighty-four funeral service workers and 38 control workers were evaluated for the presence of skin disease by history, clinical examination and patch tests with formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. No relationship between either personal or family history of cutaneous or respiratory manifestations of atopy and clinical parameters of cutaneous disease or patch test results was found. Cutaneous disease was reported in apprentices, active embalmers and inactive embalmers in decreasing order of frequency. Positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde were found in 4% and 7% of the exposed workers respectively, but in none of the controls. Although exposure to glutaraldehyde was less frequent, the prevalence of positive patch test reactions did not differ. This may suggest that glutaraldehyde poses a greater practical risk of cutaneous sensitisation in this trade than formaldehyde.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1988, Vol.18, No.5, p.263-267. 27 ref.

CIS 90-546 Bruze M., Almgren G.
Occupational dermatoses in workers exposed to resins based on phenol and formaldehyde
During December 1985 and February 1986, an investigation was carried out on skin diseases among workers in a plant producing decorative equipment built of paper sheets impregnated with resol resins based on phenol and formaldehyde (P-F-R) . A questionnaire was sent to all 238 employees and its was completed by 218 (91.6%). Previous and current dermatoses were reported by 98 workers and 89 of these were examined and patch tested. The patch testing was conducted with a standard test series and products from the working environment and revealed contact alllergy to P-F-R in 9 persons and to formaldehyde in 1. Besides these 10 individuals with occupational allergic contact dermatitis, occupational dermatoses were diagnosed in an additional 20 workers; irritant contact dermatitis in 19 and chemical burn in 1. In total, the figure for occupational dermatoses was 30 (12.6%).
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1988, Vol.19, No.4, p.272-277. 21 ref.

CIS 90-25 Acetaldehyde
Aldehyd octowy [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 0.1mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1988. 2p.

CIS 90-188 Kitaeva L.V., Švarcman P.Ja.
Toxicological and hygienic evaluation of inhalation toxicity of formaldehyde
Toksiko-gigieničeskaja ocenka formal'degida pri ingaljacionnom vozdejstvii [in Russian]
The cytogenetic activity of formaldehyde in rat bone marrow was studied after 4 months inhalation exposure to the substance. Formaldehyde concentrations in the exposure chambers were maintained at 0.5mg/m3 (current USSR MAC) and 1.5mg/m3. Formaldehyde increased the frequency of chromosome damage (aberration rate). The findings suggest that the existing USSR MAC for formaldehyde in workplace air of 0.5mg/m3 cannot be viewed as genetically safe and needs revising.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.75-76. 8 ref.

CIS 90-187 Drujan E.A., Sidjakina N.A.
Modified method for determining methanol in workplace air
Modifikacija metoda opredelenija metanola v vozduhe [in Russian]
Sampled air is absorbed in a 0.01N H2SO4 solution, thus providing good analyte stability on prolonged storage (which is not the case with the distilled water traditionally used for these purposes). The method is based upon permanganate oxidation of methanol in sulfate medium to formaldehyde and determination of the latter by reaction with chromotropic acid. In addition to methanol, the method is capable of simultaneously determining formaldehyde and ammonia, which is particularly practical for saving time and effort when having to assess workplace air quality in carbamide resin and carbamide resin-based chipboard plants, where all 3 substances are present in the environment.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.53-54. 4 ref.

CIS 90-269 Brandt-Rauf P.W., Fallon L.F., Tarantini T., Idema C., Andrews L.
Health hazards of fire fighters: Exposure assessment
To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters, members of the Buffalo Fire Department (USA) were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. In many cases of the worst exposure to these materials, respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity. Many of these materials have been implicated in cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases. This may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk of developing such diseases among firefighters.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1988, Vol.45, No.9, p.606-612. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 89-1949 Edling C., Hellquist H., Ödkvist L.
Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa
To study the cytotoxic effect of formaldehyde on the human nasal mucosa 75 men with occupational exposure to formaldehyde or to formaldehyde and wood dust were examined and compared with 25 unexposed referents. All the men underwent a medical examination, a nasal biopsy specimen was examined and graded from 0-8 according to the morphological changes. A high frequency of nasal symptoms was related to exposure to formaldehyde. Only 3 men had normal mucosa; the remainder had loss of cilia and goblet cell hyperplasia (11%) and squamous metaplasia (78%); in 6 cases (8%) there was a mild dysplasia. The histological grading showed a significantly higher score when compared with unexposed referents (2.9 v 1.8). Neither dose response relation nor malignancy was observed. There was no histological score between those exposed to formaldehyde alone and formaldehyde and wood dust.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1988, Vol.45, No.11, p.761-765. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 89-1926 Mariotti F., Mastri E., Gori R., De Capua B., Franzinelli A.
Formaldehyde and phenol risk conditions in a laminated wood factory
Condizioni di rischio da formaldeide e fenoli in una fabbrica di compensati [in Italian]
Environmental exposure to formaldehyde and phenols was measured in a laminated wood factory using urea-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde-melamine-phenol glues. Two groups of workers identified having different levels of risk: Group A exposed to a low level of environmental pollution employed on bark removal and sheeting of trunks, sorting, cutting and drying of wood sheets; Group B exposed to higher pollution levels, employed on gluing, pressing, filling, squaring, storage and transport of laminates. The results showed that the workers in Group A were exposed to a mean formaldehyde concentration of 0.027mg/m3 and a mean phenol concentration of 0.042mg/m3. The workers in Group B were exposed to mean concentrations of 0.189mg/m3 of formaldehyde and 0.081mg/m3 of phenol. In the Group B workers there was a significantly higher prevalence of irritative disorders of the conjunctiva, throat and skin. The greater prevalence of objective findings concerning chronic conjunctivitis and alterations in vocal chord motility are consistent with this result. A synergic mechanism of formaldehyde and phenol in producing the irritative effect cannot be excluded.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1988, Vol.79, No.6, p.468-473. 11 ref.

CIS 89-1787 Formaldehyde, potential human carcinogen
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA) = 1.5mg/m3; NIOSH REL (8h-TWA) = 0.02mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA (A2 carcinogen)) = 1.5mg/m3. Odour threshold = 0.8ppm. Toxicity: irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; chemical burns; bronchitis; pulmonary oedema; pneumonitis; pneumonia; skin and respiratory tract sensitisation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1988. 6p. Bibl.

CIS 89-1965 Lindahl R., Levin J.O., Andersson K.
Measurement of low levels of formaldehyde with diffusive sampling
Mätning av låga halter formaldehyd med diffusionsprovtagare [in Swedish]
Evaluation of a diffusive sampler for static measurement of low levels of formaldehyde. The sampler consisted of a glass fibre filter impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and phosphoric acid mounted in a polystyrene filter cassette. The diffusive sampler was compared with pumped samplers in factories, offices and homes. The formaldehyde levels were 8-60µg/m3 and there was good agreement between pumped and diffusive sampling even at low wind velocities. Sensitivity was 2µg/m3 in a 24h sample, making the sampler useful for indoor air monitoring of low formaldehyde levels. The sampler was used in a small survey to evaluate normal indoor formaldehyde levels in homes in northern Sweden. The range was 17 to 250µg/m3, with a geometric mean of 69µg/m3.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 21p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 89-1588 Szeberényi S.
Basis for the establishment of the MAC value for formaldehyde
A formaldehid MAK-értékének megalapozása [in Hungarian]
Detailed literature review on the toxicity of formaldehyde, covering: synonyms; polymers from which formaldehyde can be made; physical and chemical properties; manufacturing method, world protection, uses; biological effects in experimental animals (acute toxic, subchronic and chronic effects; sensitisation; mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects; effects in man (summary of accidental exposure cases); list of occupation with potential exposure to formaldehyde; treatment of poisoning; possible carcinogenicity in man; exposure limits in various countries; proposed exposure limit for Hungary (0.6mg/m3).
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1988, Vol.34, No.4-6, p.163-173. 132 ref.

CIS 89-1256 Fink R., Liberman D.F., Murphy K., Lupo D., Israeli E.
Biological safety cabinets, decontamination or sterilization with paraformaldehyde
Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were used to determine the exposure time for formaldehyde decontamination of biological safety cabinets. Formaldehyde contact times less than 3h were insufficient for sterilisation. A contact time of 4h or more resulted in a reproducible killing of the spore strips placed inside the cabinets. At 6h sufficient formaldehyde had diffused through the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to sterilise the strips with lower spore counts. A minimum of 5 to 6 logs of killing were observed after 4 to 6h of treatment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1988, Vol. 49, No.6, p.277-279. 16 ref.

CIS 89-1192 Nethercott J.R., Holness D.L., Page E.
Occupational contact dermatitis due to glutaraldehyde in health care workers
Allergic contact dermatitis to glutaraldehyde was found in 13 health-care workers with hand dermatitis. Concomitant sensitivity to other chemicals was noted in 10. The positive patch test response was only evident for every 2nd obsevation in 4. The eruption persisted for more than 6 months in 10 subjects. In 5, the skin disease forced the worker to leave his occupation.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1988, Vol.18, No.4, p.193-196. 15 ref.

CIS 89-591 Alexandersson R., Hedenstierna G.
Respiratory hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde and solvents in acid-curing paints
Thirty-eight employees exposed to formaldehyde when working with acid-hardening lacquers and 18 nonexposed controls were examined. The mean exposure to formaldehyde during an 8-hr workday was 0.40mg/m3 air, and the mean exposure to peak values was 0.70mg/m3. Mean exposure to solvent was about 1/10 of the hygienic effect. Eye, nose, and throat irritation was more common in exposed persons than in controls. Monday morning, after two exposure-free days, forced vital capacity (FVC) values were found to have declined by 0.24L and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) by 0.21L, compared with normal values. There was a weak correlation between the individual concentration of IgG and decrease in FVC and FEV1.0. No significant changes were noted in any other lung function variable before a workshift, and no lung function changes were noted over a full workshift. Deviations in FVC and FEV1.0 values did not correlate with peak or mean exposures, or with employment time.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1988, Vol.43, No.3, p.222-227. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 89-582 Haub H.G., Mühlhauser S., Müller F.J., Gardziella A.
Emissions from heat treatment of shell moulding compounds - Interferences at the measurement of formaldehyde
Emissionen beim Aushärten von Maskenformstoffen - Querempfindlichkeiten bei der Bestimmung von Formaldehyd [in German]
Formaldehyde emitted during heat treatment of phenolic resin containing hexamethylenetetramine was measured by colorimetric methods using the following reaction agents: sulfite-pararosaniline, MBHT (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone-hydrazone-hydrochloride), AHMT (4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole) and acetylacetone. The stain tube for formaldehyde was tested as well. Interferences by hexamethylenetetramine occurred with all reagents excepting AHMT.
Giesserei, Mar. 1988, Vol.75, No.6, p.154-159. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 89-183 Sidhu A., Moch P., Podewils G., Schliephake D.
Determination and reduction of air pollution at soft-soldering workplaces in the electrical industry
Erfassung und Verminderung der Arbeitsplatzbelastung beim Weichlöten in der Elektroindustrie [in German]
Analyses of the components of soldering flux, of emissions and of breathing-zone air samples at 100 soft-soldering workplaces in the electrical industry in Germany (Fed.Rep.) showed the presence of harmful substances, e.g. of aldehydes, lead and tin. The 100 exposed women showed higher incidences of reversible eye irritations, irritations of the mucuous membranes of the respiratory tract and breathing difficulties than did matched non-exposed controls. It is recommended not to use soldering flux that contains succinic acid, maleic anhydride and hydrazine.
Schweissen und Schneiden, 1988, Vol.40, No.2, p.75-78. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 88-2025 Armandet D., Loriot J.
Furfural and furfuryl alcohol
Furfural et alcool furfurylique [in French]
Contents of this information note: physical and chemical properties; manufacture and industrial uses; experimental and clinical toxicology; analytical toxicology (biological and atmospheric doses, maximum allowable concentrations in the workplace air); first aid after contamination; regulations in France applicable to the workplace; technical and medical prevention methods; compensation.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1988, 6p. 47 ref.

CIS 88-1457 Formaldehyde and aqueous solutions
Aldéhyde formique et solutions agueuses [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Suspected carcinogen; experimental mutagen. Exposure limit (France, 1982): ceiling value = 3mg/m3. Acute toxicity: irritates skin, eyes and respiratory tract; skin sensitiser. Chronic toxicity: respiratory diseases; irritation of mucous membranes; nasal septum damage. EEC identification number and labelling codes: No.605-001-00-5 (conc.>25%), R23/24/25, R34, R40, R43, S26, S36/37, S44, S51.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1988. 6p. Bibl.


CIS 90-1615 Dueva L.A., Alekseeva O.G., Grišina T.I.
Immunological aspects of the body response of workers to industrial allergens
Immunologičeskie aspekty reagirovanija organizma rabočih na promyšlennye allergeny [in Russian]
The results of an immunological study of 222 workers exposed to chemical allergens under various industrial conditions and 213 patients with occupational respiratory and skin allergies are presented along with the results of model studies of 275 guinea-pigs exposed to a wide range of trivalent and hexavalent chromium and formaldehyde doses. The allergic pathology phenotype is fundamentally different from all healthy body responses to industrial allergens. Disruption of cellular regulatory mechanisms and inhibition of lymph cell response to mitogenic stimuli identified at the initial stages of the allergic process should be considered as one of the basic risk criteria for the development of occupational allergic disease.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1987, No.3, p.40-43. 9 ref.

CIS 89-1527 Krüger W.
Occupational dermatoses as predominant occupational diseases in the social and health services
Arbeitsdermatosen als vorherrschende Berufskrankheit im Gesundheits- und Sozialwesen [in German]
Skin diseases make up more than half of all occupational diseases in the social and health services of the GDR. 74% of them are caused by disinfectants containing formaldehyde. A slight decrease has been noticed in 1985 and 1986 due to preventive measures including the substitution of formaldehyde, use of protective gloves, information aiming at safe behaviour and voluntary fitness examinations for applicants in the field.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1987, Vol.33, No.12, p.617-619. Illus.

CIS 89-1123 Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde >30%; metanal [in Swedish]
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the Kemiska Ämnen Register (CIS 89-214). Exposure limits: TLV = 0.6mg/m3; ceiling value = 1.2mg/m3. Toxicity: carcinogen; irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; lung damage; causes allergy.
Arbetarskyddsnänmden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1987. 2p.

CIS 89-1255 Douglas R.B., Coe J.E.
The relative sensitivity of the human eye and lung to irritant gases
Various concentrations of irritant gases were applied to the eyes of subjects through close-fitting goggles and, in separate experiments, to the lungs via a mouthpiece. Eye response was detected subjectively, lung response was measured objectively by plethysmograph and the threshold concentrations for no-response were determined. For a number of gases tested (sulphur dioxide, ammonia, butan-2-one, pentan-2-one, pentan-3-one, 3 methyl butan-2-one, formaldehyde and acrolein), the threshold concentrations for the eyes was about 1.5 times that for the lungs. Other irritants, however, can be specific for certain organs.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1987, Vol.31, No.2, p.265-267. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 89-736 Acrolein
Akrolein; 2-propenal [in Swedish]
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the Kemiska Ämnen Register (CIS 89-214). Exposure limit: TLV = 0.2mg/m3. Toxicity: very strong irritant.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 10364 Stockholm, Sweden, 1987. 3p.

CIS 89-867 Drujan E.A., Sidjakina N.A.
Sampling and formaldehyde determination in workplace air
Otbor prob pri opredelenii formal'degida v vozduhe [in Russian]
Several absorber solutions were tested for their suitability for air sampling. A 0.01N solution of sulfuric acid performed best. As the solution also traps methanol and ammonia, it is especially useful for monitoring air quality in carbamide resin plants or in fibreboard plants, where formaldehyde, methanol and ammonia are all liberated simultaneously.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1987, No.6, p.65. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 89-866 Kajsina O.V., Krylova N.A., Čumičeva O.A.
Formaldehyde determination with acetylacetone reagent
Opredelenie formal'degida s acetilacetonovym reaktivom [in Russian]
This paper describes a method based on the reaction of formaldehyde and acetylacetone in the presence of ammonium acetate to form a yellow product. The intensity of the colour is measured photometrically at 412mm. This method can determine formaldehyde concentration as low as 0.05µg/mL.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1987, No.6, p. 43-44. 3 ref.

CIS 89-932 Elias I.
Evaluation of methods for disinfection of operating theatres in hospitals according to the concentration of formaldehyde in the air
Bewertung von Arbeitsverfahren zur Desinfektion von Operationsräumen von Krankenhäusern nach der Konzentration von Formaldehyd in der Atemluft [in German]
Formaldehyde was measured in the air of operating theatres after the use of formaldehyde-containing disinfectants. The disinfection method influences the formaldehyde concentration. Special measures can be taken to minimise the concentration.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1987, Vol.37, No.12, p.389-397. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 89-603 Lindahl R., Levin J.O., Andersson K.
Diffusive sampling of formaldehyde in air using chemosorption with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated glass fibre filters
Diffusionsprovtagning av formaldehyd genom kemosorption på glasfiberfilter impregnerade med 2,4-dinitrofenylhydrazin [in Swedish]
A diffusive sampler for formaldehyde in air has been evaluated in laboratory and field trials. A glass fibre filter impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and phosphoric acid was used as collector. The reference method was active (pumped) sampling with 13mm glass fibre filters impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, phosphoric acid and glycerine. The sampling rate was 61mL/min and independent of sampling time, formaldehyde concentration and relative humidity. The capacity was sufficient for 8hr sampling at 5mg/m3 and the sensitivity was 0.2mg/m3 in a 15-min sample. The sampling rate was found to be constant in the air velocity range of 0.1-0.5m/s. The sampling rate was not affected by storing before exposure. The field evaluation at 3 different workplaces disclosed no difference between diffusive and pumped sampling.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 31p. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 89-540 Halepo A.I., Mel'nikova N.N., Veselovskaja K.A., Korneeva R.V., Popova S.M., Jaglov V.V.
Experimental basis of the tentative safe exposue level for p-chlorobenzaldehyde in workplace air
Ėksperimental'noe obosnovanie orientirovočnogo bezopasnogo urovnja vozdejstvija p-hlorbenzal'degida v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Animal experiments to study p-chlorobenzaldehyde toxicity under acute and subacute conditions. A calculated TSEL of 5mg/m3 (vapours + aerosol) has been adopted as a standard.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1987, No.2, p.50-51. 2 ref.

CIS 89-537 Vermej M.I.
Combined allergenic effect of volatile complexes of epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde compositions
Kombinirovannoe allergennoe dejstvie letučih kompleksov ėpoksidnyh i fenolformal'degidnyh kompozicij [in Russian]
Animal expirements were performed to study the individual and combined allergenic effects of volatile complexes of chemicals released from epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde compositions. The combined action of formaldehyde and epichlorohydrin in volatile materials from EIF lacquer is such as to enhance the allergenic activity of formaldehyde and suppress that of epichlorohydrin. This should be taken into consideration when setting standards for volatile epoxy-phenol-formaldehyde complexes. The volatile complex of EIF epoxy-phenol-formaldehyde lacquer possesses more allergenic activity than volatile complexes of ED-16 solution and IF lacquer. 0.5mg/m3 of the volatile complex of IF (as formaldehyde) is the threshold of allergenic action.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1987, No.2, p.37-40. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 88-1959 Stewart P.A., Cubit D., Blair A.
Formaldehyde levels in seven industries
Personal air monitoring was conducted in each of the plants using badges. Three full-shift samples were taken in the summer and three in the winter. Some of the levels reported were unexpectedly high, possibly resulting from off-gassing of formaldehyde from the formaldehyde-containing dust, and may not have reflected actual ambient air concentrations. A significant source of formaldehyde exposure may have been resin and moulding compound dust.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Nov. 1987, Vol.2, No.6, p.231-236. 18 ref.

CIS 88-1253 Berke J.H.
Cytologic examination of the nasal mucosa in formaldehyde-exposed workers
A cross-sectional study of 80 individuals at three locations was undertaken to evaluate the health effects of long-term exposure to formaldehyde on a phenol-formaldehyde impregnating process and to develop a useful protocol for health surveillance of formaldehyde-exposed workers. Physical examination showed a statistically significant prevalence of mucosal irritation in formaldehyde-exposed workers, particularly those with recent exposure. Cytological examination of exfoliated nasal cells showed atypical squamous metaplasia, which was a function of age. There was no statistical relationship to formaldehyde exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1987, Vol.29, No.8, p.681-684. 18 ref.

CIS 88-1288 Kilburn K.H., Warshaw R., Thornton J.C.
Formaldehyde impairs memory, equilibrium, and dexterity in histology technicians: effects which persist for days after exposure
Results of neurobehavioral testing in 305 histology technicians were studied by regression analysis with age, years of cigarette smoking, and hours per day of exposure to formaldehyde and to solvents as major independent variables. Increasing age was associated with poorer performance in visual memory, block design, dexterity by peg-board, the sharpened-Romberg and finger writing tests, as well as with longer choice reaction time. Increased daily hours of exposure to formaldehyde were correlated with reduced performance in story memory, visual memory, digit span, peg-board and the sharpened-Romberg tests. Exposure to solvents was associated only with diminished story recall.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1987, Vol.42, No.2, p.117-119. 25 ref.

CIS 88-1291 Alexandersson R., Hedenstierna G., Rosén G., Randma E.
Effects on the lungs due to exposure to surface finishers in the woodworking industry
Exponering och lungpåverkan hos ytbehandlare inom träindustrin [in Swedish]
Thirty-eight workers exposed to formaldehyde when working with acid-hardening paints, and 18 non-exposed controls, were examined with regard to pulmonary function, total immunoglobulins and work-related symptoms. Mean exposure to formaldehyde during a work-day amounted to 0.40mg/m3 air, and mean exposure to peak values was 0.70mg/m3. Mean exposure to solvents was slight, approx. 1/10 of the hygienic limit value. Eye, nose and throat irritation was more common in exposed persons than in controls. After two exposure-free days, FVC values declined by 0,241 and FEV1 by 0,201 compared to normal values. There was a correlation between the total IgG concentration and the decrease in FVC in individuals. No significant changes were noted in any other pulmonary function variables before the beginning of work on Monday. No pulmonary function changes were noted over a full work shift. Deviations in FVC and FEV1 values were not correlated with peak exposures, mean exposures or duration of employment.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 23p. 15 ref.

CIS 88-865 Olumide Y.
Contact dermatitis in Nigeria (I). Hand dermatitis in women
Of 545 consecutive contact dermatitis clinic patients, 271 (49.7%) were women, 29 (10.7%) of whom had hand dermatitis alone. Seventeen (58.6%) of these hand cases were allergic, the main sensitisers being nickel and essential oils in oranges. Dressmakers were mostly affected by nickel, while orange sellers and peelers were positive to orange peel, fragrance mix, balsam of Peru and formaldehyde in varying combinations. Eight (27.6%) of the hand cases were due to irritants and wet jobs, and possibly to allergens not tested. Twenty-four (83%) of the hand cases were occupational. Only 1 Nigerian woman had true housewife's hand dermatitis. It was not possible to define the role of atopy because of unreliable histories. Two cases of pompholyx and a negative patch test occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1987, Vol.17, No.2, p.85-88. 17 ref.

CIS 88-578 Alexandersson R., Andersson I.M., Hedenstierna G., Rosén G., Randma E.
Pulmonary effects in gluing workers in the woodworking industry - A 5-year follow-up of workers exposed to formaldehyde
Lungpåverkan hos limmare i träindustrin - En femårsuppföljning av formaldehydexponerade arbetare [in Swedish]
In 1980, 47 Swedish gluing workers exposed to formaldehyde and a non-exposed control group of 20 persons were examined by means of spirometry and nitrogen wash-out. 5 years later (before and after a work shift and after a 4-week absence from work) they were re-examined. In 1980 acute effects on lung functions had been found during a workshift. Five years later, 13 persons had been transferred to other duties. A slowly progressive impairment of pulmonary function was detected when the formaldehyde exposure averaged 0.4-0.6mg/m3 of air. Pulmonary function returned to normal in the non-smokers during a 4-week vacation but remained impaired in the smokers and a significant dose-effect correlation between exposure and impairment was found in the smoker group. There were relatively more persons with elevated IgE values among those who had been transferred than among those who had not been. There were no differences in IgG between the 3 groups.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 23p. 13 ref.

CIS 87-822 Glutaraldehyde
Glutaraldéhyde [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Contact of concentrated solutions can cause skin and eye burns. Repeated exposure can cause eczema and sensitisation. Exposure limit (France, 1982): Ceiling limit = 0.8mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. 19 ref.

CIS 87-414 Furfural
2-Furaldéhyde [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxic effects: irritation of the mucous membranes; dermatitis; allergic asthma; sensitisation. Exposure limit: France (1982), Ceiling limit = 8mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 4p. 28 ref.


CIS 93-1206 Blair A., Stewart P., O'Berg M., Gaffey W., Walrath J., Ward J., Bales R., Kaplan S., Cubit D.
Mortality among industrial workers exposed to formaldehyde
Historical cohort mortality study of 26,561 formaldehyde (FA) exposed workers. Approximately 600,000 person-years of follow-up to 1 Jan. 1980, with estimates of historical exposure to FA, were analysed. Mortality from all causes was as expected. Mortality was significantly lower for infectious and parasitic diseases, and accidents. Cancer overall was not related to FA exposure. Exposed workers had a slight excess for Hodgkin's disease, and for cancers of the lung, the prostate, the nasopharynx and the oropharynx, but these excesses were not related to duration or levels of FA exposure. Mortality from brain cancer and leukaemia was not in excess among the exposed workers. These data provide little evidence that cancer mortality is associated with FA exposure at levels experienced by workers in this study. Commentary and reanalysis of the data for this study can be found in articles CIS 93-1207 and CIS 93-1208.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, June 1986, Vol.76, No.6, p.1071-1084. 33 ref.

CIS 90-526 Cherrie J., Dodgson J.
Past exposures to airborne fibers and other potential risk factors in the European man-made mineral fiber production industry
A historical environmental investigation was undertaken in European man-made mineral fibre factories (MMMF) to assess past exposures to MMMF and other environmental risk factors (asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, formaldehyde, and arsenic). A self-administered questionnaire completed by each plant management and an interview of the respondents were used. Addition of oil to the MMMF, change in the nominal fibre size of the bulk MMMF, and elimination of early discontinuous production techniques were identified as principal changes. The absence of oil, small nominal size, and labour-intensive production have been judged to be associated with higher airborne fibre levels.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12. suppl.1, p.26-33. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 89-559 Dement'eva M.I., Kagramanjan N.P., Bogdacheva V.N.
Express methods of mine air monitoring to determine aldehyde microconcentrations
Ėkspressnye metody dlja kontrolja rudničnogo vozduha na soderžanie mikrokoncentracij al'degidov [in Russian]
Express detector-tube methods to determine acrolein and formaldehyde in mine air are based on their reaction with diazotised sulfanilic acid, as a result of which a yellow colour is formed. Silica gel KSK coated with sulfanilic acid and treated with nitric oxide is used as a solid carrier. The sensitivity of the indicating powder to acrolein is 0.1mg/m3 (range of measurement 0.2-2mg/m3) and to formaldehyde 0.05mg/m3 (range of measurement 0.1-1.5mg/m3). Determination time does not exceed 5min. Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and other aldehydes do not interfere with acrolein determination, but ammonia and hydrogen chloride do. The limit of admissible relative error is not more than 25%.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.47-49. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 89-548 Gorizontova M.N., Ožiganova V.N.
Cytological characteristics of the bronchial mucosa in occupational bronchial asthma
Citologičeskaja kartina slizistoj oboločki bronhial'nogo dereva pri professional'noj bronhial'noj astme [in Russian]
Medical examinations were performed on 29 workers with respiratory diseases, who had been occupationally exposed to different toxic substances for 6-22 years, on 15 workers with non-occupational asthma and on 6 workers of a control group. The bronchial mucosa in patients with occupational and non-occupational asthma during remission showed the same general trends in cytological changes (increased quantity of degenerated bronchial epithelium and moderate eosinophilia), which prevented differentiation of the 2 forms. Cytological data on the bronchial mucosa in patients with occupational asthma show only the extent of allergic reactions in the bronchial tree.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1986, No.12, p.53-55. 3 ref.

CIS 89-419 Formaldehyde (commercial solutions)
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: ACGIH TLV (ceiling) = 3mg/m3. Toxicity: irritates skin, eyes and mucous membranes.
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association, India Exchange, India Exchange Place, Calcutta 700 001, India, 1986. 1p.

CIS 88-1452 Crotonaldehyde
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: ACGIH TLV = 6mg/m3. Toxicity: very strong irritant; chemical burns.
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association, India Exchange, India Exchange Place, Calcutta 700 001, India, 1986. 1p.

CIS 88-783 Benzaldehyde
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: skin and eye irritation; dermatitis; narcosis.
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association, India Exchange, India Exchange Place, Calcutta 700 001, India, 1986. 1p.

CIS 88-722 Acetaldehyde
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: ACGIH TLV = 180mg/m3. Extremely flammable. Toxicity: eye burns; severe irritant.
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association, India Exchange, India Exchange Place, Calcutta 700 001, India, 1986. 1p.

CIS 88-561 Nemčinov N.N., Murav'eva C.V., Belikov A.B., Markova L.R.
Hygienic assessment of working conditions in the manufacture of wires with plastic insulation
Gigieničeskaja ocenka uslovij truda v proizvodstve provodov s plastmassovoj izoljaciej [in Russian]
Hygienic studies carried out in the manufacture of wires insulated with heat-stable polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride showed that polyethylene application involves release of a vapour-gas-arerosol mixture consisting of 15 components, the principal of which are acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone and formaldehyde. Phosphorus compounds from stabilisers were also detected. During application of polyvinyl chloride insulation another range of compounds is released, the hygienically significant of which are vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichlorethane benzene, chlorobenzene and benzaldehyde. Concentrations of these components in workplace air do not exceed the corresponding MACs except for phosphorus compounds. In the manufacture of wires with polyvinyl chloride insulation the main health hazards are vinyl chloride and benzaldehyde.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1986, No.8, p.33-36. Illus. 3 ref.

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