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Aldehydes - 487 entries found

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  • Aldehydes

1991

CIS 93-383 Glutaraldehyde (50% solution)
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; asthma; may cause genetic damage in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1984 Wallenstein G., Schulz P., Christann M., Schöneich R., Dietz E.
Longitudinal study of workers exposed to colophony soldering fumes and of controls
Längsschnittstudie von Kolophoniumlötrauchexponierten und Kontrollpersonen [in German]
In this follow-up study 267 workers using colophony as soldering flux and 239 controls were re-examined after five years. The examined workers were employees of the electrical industry in the former German Democratic Republic. Measurements of the concentration of total aldehydes at 37 workplaces yielded an average value of 0.095mg/m3, which was somewhat lower than at the time of the first examinations. The prevalence of respiratory impairment among exposed workers found in the first study could be confirmed. It was related to the intensity of exposure rather than duration.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1991, Vol.37, No.2, p.75-78. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 92-1798 Furfural
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; liquid defats the skin; may affect liver and kidneys.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1797 Formaldehyde
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; asthma-like reaction. Long term exposure effects: skin and respiratory sensitisation; conjunctivitis; probably carcinogenic in humans; may cause genetic damage in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1460 Crotonaldehyde (stabilized)
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; corrosive to the eyes and skin; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; corrosive on ingestion; pulmonary oedema; chemical pneumonitis; hepatic and renal damage; changes in the blood; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: effects on the lungs, liver, kidneys, central nervous system and the blood.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1453 Chloral hydrate
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); effects on cardiovascular system and the liver; cardiac arrhythmia; hypotension; allergic reactions of the skin. Long term exposure effects: skin sensitisation; effects on liver and kidneys.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1536 Merletti F., Boffetta P., Ferro G., Pisani P., Terracini B.
Occupation and cancer of the oral cavity or oropharynx in Turin, Italy
In a population-based case-referent study, the occupational experience of 86 men with oral or oropharyngeal cancer and 373 referents was analysed with respect to employment in 41 occupations and 40 industries, as well as to exposure to 16 chemicals, as estimated via a job-exposure matrix. Among the occupations and industries at higher risk were machinery operator (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.0-4.0), plumber (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.2-21.5), building industry (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.5), textile industry (OR 2.5; 95% CI 0.6-4.6), and electricity production (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.7-12.1). All the OR estimates were adjusted for age, education, area of birth, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption. An association between formaldehyde exposure and oral cancer was suggested (OR for any exposure 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.8; OR for probable or definite exposure 1.8, 95% CI 0.6-5.5). No other chemical included in the matrix showed any risk pattern. The evidence of an association between formaldehyde exposure and oral or oropharyngeal cancer is strengthened by the results of this study.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1991, Vol.17, No.4, p.248-254. 38 ref.

CIS 92-1656 Nielsen G.D., Petersen S.H.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 100. Acrolein
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 100. Acrolein [in Danish]
The literature on acrolein was reviewed and evaluated. Acrolein's primary effect is irritation. It does not seem to be carcinogenic. Its high reactivity at the surface of tissues, especially of the respiratory system, prevents it from penetrating the body far enough to cause reproductive effects. It reduces the glutathione content and immune system activity of the lungs. This effect and the irritancy of the product should be taken into account in setting an exposure limit.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 62p. Illus. 197 ref.

CIS 92-1233 Holmstrom M., Lund V.J.
Malignant melanomas of the nasal cavity after occupational exposure to formaldehyde
Formaldehyde is a well known nasal carcinogen in rodents, but so far there has been no convincing evidence that workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde have an increased risk of nasal cancer. In this study three cases of malignant melanoma of the nasal mucosa in persons occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for a long time are presented. The occurrence of such a rare tumour in patients with significant exposure to a known carcinogen warrants further investigation.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1991, Vol.48, No.1, p.9-11. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 92-1265 Miltenburger H.G., Timm A., Poth A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Genotoxicity of formaldehyde
Lokale Genotoxizität des Formaldehyd [in German]
Discussion of the biological effects, in particular of the genotoxicity, of formaldehyde (FA) on nasal epithelial cells (NEC), as studied in in vivo animal experiments and in vitro cultures of NEC. In in vitro experiments, genotoxic effects were induced at lower concentrations in the absence of a metabolising system. In in vivo studies toxic and genotoxic effects in the NEC were reported at 20ppm FA after a 5 day-exposure (6h/day). Concentrations recommended for human exposures (0.1, 0.5 and 1ppm) produced no genotoxic effects. Following a 4-week exposure (4 x 5 days; 6h/day) at 1ppm FA, an increased rate of sister chromatic exchanges and of micro-nuclei was reported. Summaries in English, French and German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 134p. Illus. 90 ref.

CIS 92-745 Glutaraldehyde
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; asthma; may cause genetic damage in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-378 Acetaldehyde
Aldéhyde acétique [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits (France, 1987): TWA exposure value = 180mg/m3. Short-term effects: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term effects: allergic dermatitis. EC dangerous substances classification: extremely flammable; harmful.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1991. 6p. 42 ref.

CIS 92-241 NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin No.55 - Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde, and mutagenicity of related low-molecular-weight aldehydes
This bulletin presents recent information about the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde and discusses the chemical reactivity and mutagenicity of 9 related aldehydes (acrolein, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, paraformaldehyde, propiolaldehyde, propionaldehyde and valeraldehyde). Results of animal expirements provide sufficent evidence to conclude that acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde are carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Evidence for the carcinogenicity of the other 9 aldehydes is inconclusive. Adequate epidemiologic data are not available from workers exposed to acetaldehyde or malonaldehyde, although both chemicals meet the OSHA criteria for potential carcinogens and it is recommended that worker exposure be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1991. 39p. Illus. 192 ref.

CIS 92-33 Benzaldehyde
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; respiratory paralysis. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 91-1782 Acrolein
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; corrosive to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 91-938
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Coffee, tea, mate, methylxanthines and methylglyoxal
Monographs evaluate the carcinogenic risks to humans of coffee, tea, mate, caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and methylglyoxal. IARC final classification: coffee is possibly carcinogenic to the human urinary bladder (Group 2B); hot mate drinking is probably carcinogenic to humans (2A); the other compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3). The monographs are the result of the meeting of an IARC Working Group, held in Lyon (France), 27 Feb.-6 Mar. 1990.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 513p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 80.00.

1990

CIS 92-1304 Foussereau J.
Allergens potentially responsible for occupational eczema
Allergènes divers pouvant être responsables d'eczémas en milieu de travail [in French]
This data sheet provides condensed information on the following occupational allergens: aziridine (ethylenimine), 4-tert-butylpyrocatechol, chloroacetamide, 2-chloroacetophenone, o-chlorobenzylidene-malonitrile, methyl dichlorobenzenesulfonate, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, dodicin, formaldehyde, triglydicyl isocyanurate, Kathon CG, 2-chloro-N-(hydroxymethyl)-acetamide, phenylindole, propanidid, propolis, phenol-formaldehyde polymers, Skane M-8, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile, tetryl, methyl p-toluenesulfonate, trinitrotoluene.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.43, p.233-238. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 92-921 Nunn A.J., Craigen A.A., Darbyshire J.H., Venables W.M., Newman Taylor A.J.
Six-year follow-up of lung function in men occupationally exposed to formaldehyde
The long-term effects of formaldehyde on the respiratory tract were investigated in 164 workers engaged in the production of urea formaldehyde resin, and in 129 controls. Exposure was classified as high (corresponding to an 8h time-weighted exposure of >2.0ppm), medium (0.6-2.0ppm), or low (0.1-0.5ppm). Twenty-five per cent of the workers had had high exposure at some time and 17% moderate exposure. The proportion with self-reported respiratory symptoms was similar in the 2 groups. In the exposed group, no significant association was found between decline in respiratory function and indices of exposure to formaldehyde. Neither was there any significant decline associated with smoking by exposed workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1990, Vol.47, No.11, p.747-752. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 92-975 Garnier R., Chataigner D., Efthymiou M.L.
Aldehydes
Aldéhydes [in French]
Contents of this information note on aldehydes: generalities (physico-chemical properties, production and use, identification and measurement, toxicity and matabolism); monosaturated aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, paraldehyde and metaldehyde, higher homologues and halogenated derivatives); unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes (acrolein, crotonaldehyde, citral and citronella); aliphatic dialdehydes (glyoxal and glutaraldehyde); aromatic aldehydes; heterocyclic aldehydes of which the principal respresentative is furaldehyde. For each of these products, experimental and human toxicity including acute and long-term toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive effects are examined.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, Pathologie du travail, 1990, 13p. Illus. 208 ref.

CIS 92-539 Thrasher J.D., Broughton A., Madison R.
Immune activation and autoantibodies in humans with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde
Four groups of patients with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde (HCHO) were examined and compared with controls who had short-term periodic exposure to HCHO. The total white cell, lymphocyte and T cell counts, T helper/suppressor ratios, total Ta1+, IL2+, and B cell counts, antibodies to formaldehyde-human serum albumin (HCHO-HSA) conjugate and autoantibodies were determined for all groups and compared with controls. The patients had significantly higher antibody titres to HCHO-HSA than did the controls. In addition, significant increases in Ta1+, IL2+ and B cells and autoantibodies were observed. The results demonstrate that immune activation, autoantibodies and anti-HCHO-HSA antibodies are associated with long-term inhalation of formaldehyde.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1990, Vol.45, No.4, p.217-223. 32 ref.

CIS 92-237 Partanen T., Kauppinen T., Hernberg S., Nickels J., Luukkonen R., Hakulinen T., Pukkala E.
Formaldehyde exposure and respiratory cancer among woodworkers - An update
Respiratory cancer was examined in relation to occupational formaldehyde exposure in a case-referent study (136 cases, 408 referents) nested in a woodworker cohort. Plant- and time-specific job-exposure matrices were constructed for formaldehyde exposure. Over 3ppm-months of formaldehyde exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.4 [90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.5-4.1]. The odds ratios for lung cancer were near unity, the excess risk concentrating on the upper respiratory tract. The odds ratios for combined formaldehyde-phenol exposure (all respiratory cancers) was 1.6 (90% CI 0.6-4.4) but 1.0 for formaldehyde only. No consistent exposure-response patterns emerged for the level, duration, or cumulative exposure. The results are hardly more than debatable support for the hypothesis concerning formaldehyde as a carcinogen in humans, the possible risk seemingly concentrating on the upper respiratory tract rather than the lung.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1990, Vol.16, No.6, p.394-400. 21 ref.

CIS 92-214 Blair A., Saracci R., Stewart P.A., Hayes R.B., Shy C.
Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and cancer
More than 30 epidemiologic studies have evaluated cancer risks associated with formaldehyde exposure. Excesses were reported for several sites, leukaemia and cancers of the nasal cavities, nasopharynx, lung, and brain generating the greatest interest. A causal role for formaldehyde is the most probable for cancers of the nasopharynx and, to a less extent, the nasal cavities. Evidence of exposure-response relationships, the fact that direct contact with formaldehyde may occur at these upper respiratory sites, and the consistency of these findings with experimental studies make this assumption highly probable.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1990, Vol.16, No.6, p.381-393. 72 ref.

CIS 91-1615 Malaka T., Kodama A.M.
Respiratory health of plywood workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde
This study was undertaken to enlarge the understanding of the adverse health effects of formaldehyde exposure in the workplace and community environment. The respiratory health status of 186 Indonesian male plywood workers was evaluated by spirometric tests, respiratory questionnaires, and chest x-rays. Area concentrations of formaldehyde were measured in the work environment and found to range from 0.28 to 3.48ppm. The average personal exposure was to 1.13ppm of formaldehyde. Exposure to formaldehyde was associated with decrements in the baseline spirometric values, i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV/FVC), and FEF0.25-0.75 and with several respiratory symptoms and diseases, including cough, phlegm, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chest colds. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to formaldehyde induces symptoms and signs of chronic obstructive lung disease.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.45, No.5, p.288-294. 32 ref.

CIS 91-1219 Ellwood P.A, Groves J.A., Pengelly M.I.
Evaluation of a diffusive sampler for formaldehyde
A diffusive sampling system, using a commercially available liquid sorbent badge, has been evaluated for the determination of airborne formaldehyde concentrations according to the U.K. Health and Safety Executive protocol. The results of laboratory and field experiments are presented. The results obtained using the diffusive sampler during field measurements were about 10% higher overall than those obtained using a conventional pumped sampler.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 1990, Vol.34, No.3, p.305-313. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 91-1256
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for acrolein
Low level exposure to acrolein may cause strong irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, while at higher levels a decrease in respiratory rate has been reported. There is little information available regarding other health effects in humans. Glossary.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1990. xii, 145p. Illus. ca. 500 ref.

CIS 91-387 Formaldehyde
Formaldehido [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA, and adaptation into Spanish of the corresponding data sheet from the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards" (DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.89-104).
Noticias de seguridad, May 1990, Vol.52, No.5, 5p. Insert.

CIS 91-463 de Groot A.C., Conemans J.M.H.
Contact allergy to furazolidone
A case of occupational contact allergy to furazolidone, used as an animal feed additive and as an antimicrobial drug in veterinary medicine, is described. The patient did not react to furazolidone 2% pet. Using PEG-400 and alcohol as patch test vehicles resulted in positive patch test reactions. No cross-reactions were observed to other nitrofuran derivatives (nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin) or to furfural. The literature on contact allergy to nitrofurans is reviewed.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1990, Vol.22, No.4, p.202-205. 20 ref.

CIS 91-184 Silberstein S.
Comparison of the chromotropic acid and pararosaniline methods for measuring formaldehyde concentrations of pressed-wood product emissions
Formaldehyde concentrations of particleboard emissions in special measuring chambers were determined by both the chromotropic acid and pararosaniline methods. Synthetic formaldehyde atmospheres were also measured by the same methods. Formaldehyde concentrations determined by both methods agreed on both synthetic formaldehyde atmospheres and on emissions from 5 lots of particleboard from 4 different manufacturers. It is concluded that both methods are suitable for measurement of pressed-wood products under controlled conditions. If potentially interfering substances were emitted by the 5 different lots of particleboard tested, the concentrations were too low to have a noticeable effect on either analytical method.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1990, Vol.51, No.2, p.102-106. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 90-1102 Acetaldehyde
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: extremely flammable, harmful. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; corrosion of mucous membranes; neurotoxic effects (CNS depression); pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; lung diseases; liver damage; central nervous system damage; suspected human carcinogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 605-003-00-6; F, Xn; R12-36/37; S16-33-36/37. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1089 (3; I).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 90-925 Boysen M., Zadig E., Digernes V., Abeler V., Reith A.
Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: A pilot study
This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic in man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.47, No.2, p.116-121. Illus. 28 ref.

1989

CIS 91-1118
National Board of Labour Protection (Finland)
Formaldehyde solution (Formalin) concentration >30%
Translation into English of the chemical safety information sheet described in CIS 87-820. Formaldehyde is a toxic, corrosive liquid (LD50 = 800mg/kg; TLV = 3mg/m3). The liquid is an irritant causing hardening and cracking of the skin, long-term exposure causes allergic eczema and other allergies. The vapour is narcotic and irritates the mucous membranes and the eyes. A strong reducing agent. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R23, R24, R25, R38, R101, S2, S28, S23, S38, S46, S101.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 2p.

CIS 91-754
National Board of Labour Protection (Finland)
Benzaldehyde
Translation into English of the chemical safety information sheet described in CIS 87-1198. Benzaldehyde is a toxic liquid (LD50 = 1300mg/kg). the liquid irritates the skin and can cause eczema. The vapour irritates the eyes and mucous membranes and can cause headache, vertigo and nausea. In high concentrations it has a narcotic effect. Mandatory European labelling: F, Xn, R22, R24.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 2p.

CIS 91-735
National Board of Labour Protection (Finland)
Acrolein
Translation into English of the chemical safety information sheet described in CIS 87-775. Acrolein is a flammable toxic liquid (LD50 = 46mg/kg; TLV = 0.25mg/m3). The vapour irritates strongly the eyes, respiratory organs and lungs. Asthmatic symptoms, watering of the eyes. The liquid caused chemical burns. Absorption is through the skin. Mandatory European labelling: F, T, R11, R23, R36, R37, R38, S29, S33, S44, S23, S38, S46.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 2p.

CIS 91-934 Lindahl R., Levin J.O., Andersson K.
Validation of a diffusive sampler for reactive compounds
Utvärdering av en diffusionsprovtagare för reaktiva ämnen [in Swedish]
A commercially available diffusive device for reactive compounds has been validated for sampling of formaldehyde in laboratory and field trials. The sampler consists of a filter impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, phosphoric acid and glycerine mounted in a polypropylene housing. The uptake rate was 25.2mL/min, with a relative standard deviation of 7%. The uptake rate was independent of sampling time, relative humidity and concentration. The uptake rate was only slightly affected when air velocities ranged from 0.05 to 1m/s, and field trials showed that the sampler could be used at very low wind velocities (<0.02m/s). Sensitivity was 2µg/m3 in a 24-hour sample, making the sampler useful for indoor air monitoring of low formaldehyde levels. The sampler can be stored at least 3 months at -18°C prior to sampling.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 21p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 90-1976
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Formaldehyde
Workplace exposure to formaldehyde may occur during the production or handling of formaldehyde or products containing it. The vapour has a purgent odour, with eye and respiratory tract irritation occuring at levels of about 1mg/m3. Direct contact with formaldehyde solution may cause skin irritation, and long-term exposure can lead to allergic contact dermatitis. There is no convincing evidence that formaldehyde is a teratogen and no adverse effects on reproduction have been reported. Some excess of nasal or nasopharyngeal cancer has been reported in some studies. It is recommended that formaldehyde concentrations in workplace air should be below 1.2mg/m3 (1ppm). Recommendations are given for formaldehyde use in cosmetics and in hospital procedures.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 219p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 22.00.

CIS 90-1993 Rosén G., Andersson I.M., Juringe L.
Elimination of exposure to solvents and formaldehyde in surface coating operations in the woodworking industry
Elimination av exponering för lösningsmedel och formaldehyd vid ytbehandling i träindustrin [in Swedish]
Report on a 1-year experiment performed at a furniture factory to reduce exposure to organic solvents and formaldehyde. Remedial measures concentrated on changes which would reduce exposure to solvents. Since the source of formaldehyde was the same as the source of solvents, i.e. coating, it was assumed that reduced exposure to solvents would also reduce exposure to formaldehyde. These measures could be divided into 2 categories: training of employees, and location and elimination of the important sources of emission. Exposure to solvents was greatly reduced by these measures. This was the case even when exposure was initially on a level which was clearly below exposure limits. This reduction should even reduce exposure to formaldehyde, but as the emission of formaldehyde from acid-curing finishes can vary considerably, the effect of remedial measures for formaldehyde could not be evaluated.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 21p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 90-851 Jachuck S.J., Bound C.L.
Occupational hazard in hospital staff exposed to 2 per cent glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit
The occupational hazards associated with exposure to 2% glutaraldehyde have been assessed in medical and nursing staff working in an endoscopy unit. Eight of the 9 staff were affected and the clinical manifestations included watering of eyes, rhinitis, dermatitis, respiratory difficulties, nausea and headache. The atmospheric concentrations of glutaraldehyde were assessed and the effect on clinical manifestations is discussed. Glutaraldehyde is an irritant and sensitiser. Guidelines for those exposed to the compound are discussed to prevent, monitor and manage any health hazard.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Summer 1989, Vol.39, No.2, p.69-71. 11 ref.

CIS 90-914
Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association
Council report: Formaldehyde
Literature survey of the toxicology of formaldehyde, with a discussion of its status as a "possible human carcinogen". Particular attention is paid to anatomists and persons in related professions, as they are regularly exposed to formaldehyde in the course of their work. Statistical data are presented on the magnitude of this exposure and the resulting excess cancer risk. Regulatory status in the US and monitoring and control strategies are also discussed.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 24 Feb. 1989, Vol.261, No.8, p.1183-1187. 44 ref.

CIS 90-804 Thrasher J.D., Madison R., Broughton A., Gard Z.
Building-related illness and antibodies to albumin conjugates of formaldehyde, toluene diisocyanate, and trimellitic anhydride
A case of building-related health complaints was investigated with respect to the relationship among frequency of symptoms, antibodies to albumin conjugates of formaldehyde (HCHO), toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and trimellitic anhydride (TMA), and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). The indoor air concentrations of VOCs, HCHO, TDI and TMA did not exceed Fed-OSHA and ACGIH permissible standards. However, HCHO concentrations ranged between 0.05 and 0.08ppm. The reported symptoms were multiple, involving the eyes, nose, sinuses, throat, lungs, skeletomuscular system and central nervous system. Anti-HCHO, TDI, and TMA isotypes were found in 12 of 14 full-time employees and were nondetectable in one part-time employee. The data suggest that a synergistic immunological response to airborne chemicals may be occurring in these subjects. In conclusion, immunological monitoring of affected individuals where chemicals are suspected may prove to be useful in future investigations of building-related illness.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.2, p.187-195. Bibl.

CIS 90-946 Holness D.L., Nethercott J.R.
Health status of funeral service workers exposed to formaldehyde
A study of 84 funeral service workers and 38 control subjects in Toronto, Canada, revealed that the embalmers reported chronic bronchitis, dyspnoea, and nasal, eye, and skin irritation more frequently than controls. Apprentices reported symptoms and exhibited signs of irritation more frequently than experienced embalmers, but both of these groups were more affected than the inactive embalmers or the controls. Airborne formaldehyde levels were 0.36ppm during 22 embalming procedures. General ventilation was shown to lower the levels significantly. No significant change in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, FEF50 or FEF75 was demonstrated with formaldehyde exposure nor were the baseline lung function results significantly different from the controls. Based on patch testing, 4% and 10% were sensitive to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, respectively, whereas none of the controls exhibited positive reactions.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1989, Vol.44, No.4, p.222-228. 46 ref.

CIS 90-551 Koen E.
Polarographic method for determination of microconcentrations of furfural in the air of the work environment
Polarografski metod za opredeljane na mikrokoncentracii furfurol v văzduha na rabotnata sreda [in Bulgarian]
A modified polarographic method for determination of furfural in workplace air is based on reduction of furfural to furfural alcohol at a dropping mercury electrode in a supporting electrolyte of 0.1M lithium hydroxide. The sensitivity of the method, 0.5mg/cm3, is considerably higher than that of earlier methods. The determination of furfural is not interfered by phenols, other aldehydes, ketones etc. The accuracy of the analytical determination is ±1-5%, and the total variation due to both sampling and analysis does not exceed ±10%.
Problemi na higienata, 1989, Vol.14, p.127-135. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 90-544 Wiggins P., McCurdy S.A., Zeidenberg W.
Epistaxis due to glutaraldehyde exposure
Unusual case of recurrent epistaxis associated with other symptoms of upper respiratory tract irritation and skin rash in a hospital employee using glutaraldehyde for sterilisation of endoscopy equipment. A visit to the workplace revealed inadequate personal protective measures and inadequate local ventilation. High-risk work practices contributing to the hazard included soaking of endoscopy equipment in uncovered basins, manual pouring of concentrated glutaraldehyde solutions without the use of paper protective measures, and the use of paper masks, which provide inadequate protection from solvent vapours. The patient's symptoms resolved with the implementation of personal protective measures and engineering controls.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.31, No.10, p.854-856. 21 ref.

CIS 90-543 Fowler J.F
Allergic contact dermatitis from glutaraldehyde exposure
A hospital maintenance employee developed an airborne contact dermatitis when cleaning respiratory therapy equipment. Patch-testing determined that she was allergic to glutaraldehyde, an ingredient in a popular commercial germicidal product. The increasing concern over acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other infectious diseases has resulted in more intensive cleaning, sterilising, and disposal procedures in health care facilities. This, in turn, may lead to an increased risk of contact dermatitis among health care workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.31, No.10, p.852-853. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 90-395 Acetaldehyde
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir. P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.11, No.2. 2p. Insert.

CIS 90-196 Garnier R., Rousselin X., Rosenberg N.
Formaldehyde - A review of the literature
Toxicité de l'aldéhyde formique - Une revue bibliographique [in French]
After a brief reminder of the sources of occupational exposure to formaldehyde, this paper reviews existing literature on the toxicity of formaldehyde: toxicokinetics and metabolism, experimental toxicity and toxicity in man (acute toxicity, delayed toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive effects). The study shows that formaldehyde is a powerful mutagen and that it has a carcinogenic effect in the rat. There is only limited evidence of formaldehyde mutagenicity or carcinogenicity in humans.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1989, No.134, Note No.1720-134-89, p.63-85. 203 ref.

CIS 90-263 Workplace atmospheres - Determination of formaldehyde concentration
Atmosphères des lieux de travail - Détermination de la concentration en formaldéhyde [in French]
Airborne formaldehyde is determined by derivatisation with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) adsorbed on C18 adsorbent, desorption of the derivative with acetonitrile and quantation by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The method is applicable to both personal and stationary monitoring. It enables comparison of measured values with time-weighted averages and with short-term exposure limits.
Institut belge de normalisation, ave. de la Brabançonne 29, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1989. 6p.

CIS 89-1883 Bertazzi P.A., Pesatori A., Guercilena S., Consonni D., Zocchetti C.
Cancer risk among workers producing formaldehyde-based resins: Extension of follow-up
Rischio cancerogeno per i produttori di resine esposti a formaldeide: Estensione del follow-up [in Italian]
Follow-up to a previous article (see CIS 86-1961), extending the mortality study to a further 6 years (1980-1986). Despite the longer observation period, no evidence is found for associating work in formaldehyde resin production with increased carcinogenic risk, though such an association cannot be excluded completely. The numerous airborne irritative agents in the plant environment did, however, seem to be associated with a higher risk of respiratory disease.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1989, Vol.80, No.2, p.111-122. 29 ref.

1988

CIS 93-1207 Sterling T.D., Weinkam J.J.
Reanalysis of lung cancer mortality in a National Cancer Institute study on mortality among industrial workers exposed to formaldehyde; Formaldehyde revisited - Comments on the reanalysis of the N.C.I. study of workers exposed to formaldehyde
This is a reanalysis of the data from a 1986 study of 26,561 formaldehyde-exposed workers conducted by Blair A. et al (CIS 93-1206). It is suggested that the design and analysis of the original study had possibly masked an existing occupational hazard, possibly as a result of the healthy worker effect. This reanalysis finds a significantly increased risk for all cancers and for lung cancer as a function of cumulative exposure when workers with higher levels of exposure are compared with those with little or no exposure, while simultaneously considering length of exposure. The risk ratio for lung cancer at cumulative exposures of 0.1-0.5ppm is 1.41 (0.95 CI 1.20-1.66), at 0.5-2.0ppm it is 1.73 (1.42-2.11) and at >2.0ppm it is 1.70 (1.32-2.18). The column Formaldehyde revisited in the Nov. 1989 issue of JOM includes further comments by Blair A. and Stewart P.A., on the one hand, and by Weinkam J.J., on the other, concerning the details of the statistical analysis used, and the interpretation of the results. Although both sets of authors accept the existence of excess mortality from lung cancer among formaldehyde-exposed workers, the former (Blair and Stewart) do not think that this excess is due to exposure to formaldehyde.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1988, Vol.30, No.11, p.895-901. 23 ref. Comments in same periodical, Nov. 1989, Vol.31, No.11, p.881-884. 5+6 ref.

CIS 90-1987 Graham J.D., Green L.C., Robers M.J.
In search of safety: chemicals and cancer risk
This book analyses the controversies that arise in the US concerning the regulation of chemicals that are known or suspected to cause occupational cancer and gives some recommendations designed to clarify and strengthen the important role that science can play in the resolution of these problems. Contents: objectives and methods; setting regulatory priorities; interpreting the scientific evidence on formaldehyde and cancer, and on benzene and cancer; the problem of setting standards; quantifying cancer risks; science and policy conflict.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, USA, and 126 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 9SD, United Kingdom, 1988. 260p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 27.95 (in the UK).

CIS 90-1612 Kuzina V.F., Tartygin N.A., Kossovskij N.N., Korobejnik T.A., Zaharova G.A., Pavlova L.T.
Occupational hygiene and health status of machine operators using sulfonated-chlorinated cutting fluids
Gigiena truda i sostojanie zdorov'ja stanočnikov, rabotajuščih s sul'firovanno-hlorirovannymi smazočno-ohlaždajuščimi židkostjami [in Russian]
This study was aimed at appraising the health effects of a new range of cutting fluids (CF) and finding optimum conditions for their use in steel cutting operations. Airborne toxic emission levels correlated well with steel cutting parameters, such as CF feed rate, steel cutting speed, depth, etc. The qualitative composition of the CF thermal-oxidative destruction products seemed to persist over the various steel cutting conditions, which makes it possible to use a three-factor workplace air monitoring mode by determining the concentration of the following substances: oil aerosols (leading factor), hydrogen chloride (characteristic factor) and formaldehyde (most hazardous factor). Literature data combined with this study's findings show the skin and bronchopulmonary system to be the most affected by exposure to cutting fluids. Long-term contact (≥10yrs) may result in peripheral haemodynamic disorders. Using the discussed CFs helped bring down oil-induced folliculitis rates by a factor of 2.4 and occupational dermatoses by 4.3 times, which makes them a most welcome substitute for the CF currently in use. Prescribed optimum steel cutting conditions (also presented in tabulated form) kept harmful emission levels within current exposure limits.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1988, No.7, p.8-10. 12 ref.

CIS 90-1127 Formaldehyde
Formaldehyd [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (Poland) = 2mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 40, Poland, 1988. 2p.

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