Aldehydes - 487 entries found
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Niven K.J.M., Cherrie J.W., Spencer J.
Estimation of exposure from spilled glutaraldehyde solutions in a hospital setting
A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the likely consequences of spills of glutaraldehyde, used for the cold disinfection of instruments in hospitals. To determine likely ranges of airborne concentrations following a spill, objective measurements using three sampling methods were conducted with spills of various surface areas. Results ranged between <0.01 and 1.4ppm. Two personal protective equipment ensembles were also tested. Both the half-facepiece respirator with gas-tight goggles and the full-face cartridge respirator gave adequate protection. Topics: glutaraldehyde; determination in air; disinfectants; evaluation of equipment; exposure evaluation; facepieces; gas removing respirators; hospitals; respirators; spills.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1997, Vol.41, No.6, p.691-698. Illus. 10 ref.
Gil Azcárate E.
Health hazards resulting from the use of glutaraldehyde in hospitals
Riesgos higiénicos del uso hospitalario del glutaraldehído [in Spanish]
Topics: glutaraldehyde; disinfection of equipment; hospitals; irritants; threshold limit values; toxic effects.
Prevención, Apr.-June 1997, No.140, p.19-24. Illus. 6 ref.
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Park C.K.
Field precision of formaldehyde sampling and analysis using NIOSH method 3500
Topics: accuracy; formaldehyde; determination in air; evaluation of technique; field tests; laboratories; permissible levels; sampling and analysis.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1997, Vol.58, No.9, p.657-660. 23 ref.
Socie E.M., Gromen K.D., Migliozzi A.A., Geidenberger C.A.
Work-related skin disease in the plastics industry
Topics: age-linked differences; barrier creams; formaldehyde; polyvinyl chloride; dermatitis; eczema; plastics industry; questionnaire survey; risk factors; sex-linked differences; skin allergies; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1997, Vol.31, No.5, p.545-550. Illus. 13 ref.
Crotonaldehído [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may cause dermatitis; may cause pulmonary oedema.
Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 1997, Vol.59, No.1. 4p. Insert.
Smith A.J., et al.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Glutaraldehyde - Criteria document for an occupational exposure limit
Main conclusions of this criteria document: glutaraldehyde is a skin irritant at concentrations of 2-10%; animal studies indicate that the substance would cause severe eye irritation in humans; there are reports of upper respiratory tract irritation; glutaraldehyde is a skin sensitizer in humans; concentrations as low as 0.13% have induced allergic contact dermatitis; there is evidence that the substance has the potential to cause asthma. Proposed maximum exposure limit: 0.05ppm (8h TWA); 0.05ppm (15min reference period); notation - sensitizer.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. v, 57p. 140 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Gregg C.N., et al.
Health and Safety Executive
2-Furaldehyde - Risk assessment document
Conclusions of this risk assessment document: little information is available on the effects of 2-furaldehyde (furfural) in humans; animal studies indicate that the substance is readily absorbed by inhalation or dermal exposure and that the main health effects of concern for occupational exposure are irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, genotoxicity and the induction of cancer.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. iv, 74p. 79 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XVII
Vetenskapligt underlag för hygieniska gränsvärden 17 [in Swedish]
This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life between July 1995 and June 1996. Topics: 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol; amylase; glyoxal; morpholine; cristobalite; quartz; tridymite; methoxyethoxyethyl acetate; criteria document; determination of exposure limits; enzymes; limitation of exposure; literature survey; propylene; proteolytic enzymes; Sweden; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1996. 62p. Bibl.ref.
Binding N., Witting C., Witting U.
Example of a stepwise reduction of occupational formaldehyde exposure in pathology
Beispiel für eine schrittweise Verminderung der arbeitsplatzbedingten Formaldehydbelastung in der Pathologie [in German]
Occupational formaldehyde exposure in pathological laboratory work depends on the efficiency of the ventilation system. A stepwise improvement of the ventilation system at a pathologist's workplace is described. Personal air sampling at a workplace originally equipped with a hood ventilation system resulted in values of up to 4mL/m3 in the pathologist's breathing zone. Lowering the ventilation inlet to the working level by connecting the hood to a suction unit resulted in an effective reduction of formaldehyde exposure to values of about 0.5mL/m3. Some uncomfortable side effects could only be overcome by installing ventilated worktables.
Der Pathologe, 1996, Vol.17, p.380-384. Illus. 10 ref.
Milton D.K., Walters M.D., Hammond K., Evans J.S.
Worker exposure to endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde in a fiberglass insulation manufacturing plant
Worker exposures in a fibreglass wool insulation manufacturing plant were investigated using area and personal sampling. Both production and maintenance workers were exposed to endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. The greatest potential for exposure was restricted to specific areas of the plant. There was considerable within-area variation, and variability in personal exposures was high. Personal endotoxin exposures were frequently in excess of suggested thresholds for acute respiratory effects. The finding of highly variable exposure within individuals engaged in a continuous and routine manufacturing process has important implications for industrial hygiene practices and for occupational epidemiology.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.889-896. 35 ref.
Bennet J.S., Feigley C.E., Underhill D.W., Drane W., Payne T.A., Stewart P.A., Herrick R.F., Utterback D.F., Hayes R.B.
Estimating the contribution of individual work tasks to room concentration: Method applied to embalming
An approach for estimating emission rates from continuous concentration data was applied to formaldehyde measurements during 25 embalmings. Exposure evaluation of individual work tasks contributing to the formaldehyde concentration in the workroom was analyzed by means of a mathematical model. The largest contributions were found for specific embalming tasks. The ranking and characterization of these emissions may be used to identify those work tasks that require the application of control measures and the determination of exposure limits most likely to be exceeded.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.599-609. Illus. 8 ref.
Callas P.W., Pastides H., Hosmer D.W., Sterling T.D., Weinkam J.J.
Lung cancer mortality among workers in formaldehyde industries
Data from a National Cancer Institute (USA) study of workers exposed to formaldehyde are reanalyzed and discrepancies between this and earlier analyses are discussed. Despite different types of analysis and data management choices, most studies conducted using this dataset have found a similar pattern of results: a small, usually nonsignificant, elevated risk of lung cancer for some subsets of workers exposed to formaldehyde, but no clear dose-response relationship across cumulative exposure categories. A response by earlier researchers agrees with this conclusion and emphasizes the dubious role of confidence intervals and significance testing in scientific decision making.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.38, No.8, p.747-750. 28 ref.
Lemière C., Cloutier Y., Perrault G., Drolet D., Cartier A., Malo J.L.
Closed-circuit apparatus for specific inhalation challenges with an occupational agent, formaldehyde, in vapor form
Since occupational agents responsible for asthma are frequently present in the workplace as vapours, an apparatus was developed for bronchial provocation tests on subjects exposed to formaldehyde and other chemicals in vapour form. This apparatus was assessed in four subjects suspected of having formaldehyde-induced asthma or alveolitis. The instrument consists of four parts: a gas generator, an exposure chamber, a monitor and an automated regulatory system. The concentrations of formaldehyde were increased from 0.5-1mg/m3 to 3mg/m3, without overshooting the concentration of 3mg/m3 (STEL in Canada). It was observed that target concentrations took a few minutes to be reached, but, once they were obtained, delivered concentrations were stable. The described method should be further validated and extended to other occupational agents.
Chest, June 1996, Vol.109, No.6, p.1631-1635. Illus. 17 ref.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document, translation of a report finalized in December 1994: the primary effects of human exposure to acrolein are irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Animal studies indicate that it is highly toxic; there are several case reports of human intoxication.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1996. xix, 236p. 529 ref. Price: DEM 102.00.
Hornung R.W., Herrick R.F., Stewart P.A., Utterback D.F., Feigley C.E., Wall D.K., Douthit D.E., Hayes R.B.
An experimental design approach to retrospective exposure assessment
An experimental design approach was used to estimate historical exposures to formaldehyde in a mortality study of embalmers. Exposures were estimated as a function of formaldehyde solution concentration, air exchange rate, and autopsied versus intact body. Results of the model predictions were validated against published measurements and against field samples taken in several funeral homes. The overall accuracy of the predictions was comparable to the variation found in replicate measurements of identical embalming procedures. The model has potential for use in epidemiologic studies or to predict reduction in occupational exposures following the introduction of control measures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.251-256. 18 ref.
Formaldehyde and human cancer risk
Literature survey on the carcinogenicity in humans of exposure to formaldehyde. In animal studies, formaldehyde has been identified as a carcinogen in rats exposed to formaldehyde levels high enough to cause cell damage. In mice, carcinogenicity is much weaker, and no such effects have been noted in other animal species or in humans. A large number of epidemiological studies on humans have shown no evidence for such a relationship, not even in professions with high levels of exposure to formaldehyde, such as pathologists, anatomists and morticians. The overall conclusion of the survey is that there is no good justification for the IARC classification 2A of formaldehyde.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1995. 37p. 83 ref.
The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals. 116. Glyoxal
Glyoxal is a very reactive compound and it can react inside the cell with proteins, RNA and DNA. It is a potent allergen, and cross-sensitization has been shown between glyoxal, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Although there are no human data, glyoxal should be regarded as an irritant to skin and mucous membranes. From animal studies, there are indications that glyoxal has a tumour-promoting effect in the glandular stomach of rats. The risk for human stomach cancer after inhalation of glyoxal must be considered to be very low. The critical effect is irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. The mutagenic properties might be a critical effect.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 16p. 57 ref.
Scobbie E., Groves J.A.
An investigation of the composition of the vapour evolved from aqueous glutaraldehyde solutions
The composition of the vapour evolved from aqueous glutaraldehyde solutions has been studied using gas chromatography, Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. This included a study of commercial sterilizing products at concentrations of about 2% glutaraldehyde, both with and without added activator. The main component evolved is monomeric glutaraldehyde with smaller amounts of methanol and butyraldehyde. An investigation of the atmosphere above an activated sterilizing solution suggests that concentrations of up to 2ppm glutaraldehyde can be formed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1995, Vol.39, No.1, p.63-78. Illus. 12 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Conclusions of this criteria document: acetaldehyde is mildly irritating to the eyes and upper respiratory tract. Cutaneous erythema has been observed in patch testing. Data from animal studies and human subjects suggest that acetaldehyde may be implicated in alcohol-associated liver damage, facial flushing and developmental effects. Summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. 129p. approx. 300 ref. Price: CHF 22.00 (CHF 15.40 in developing countries).
Maurer S., Seubert A., Seubert S., Fuchs T.
Contact dermatitis from textiles
Kontaktallergie auf Textilien [in German]
Between April 1992 and April 1994, 26 patients with contact dermatitis were subjected to patch tests with selected textile chemicals. Of the 26 patients, 21 were women aged 23-81 and five were men aged 22-58. In nine cases, positive reactions to one or more textile dyes were observed. Dark dyes, primarily various kinds of disperse blue, were involved. Three of the patients tested positively to textile finishes. Of 18 patients additionally tested with acetone-soaked samples of their clothing or shoes, five reacted positively. Allergic reactions to textiles in general are rare but should not be overlooked when diagnosing the causes of contact dermatitis.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol. 43, No.2, p.63-68. Illus. 26 ref.
Wu L.J., Que Hee S.S.
A solid sorbent personal air sampling method for aldehydes
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.362-367. 26 ref. ###
Glyoxal and aqueous solutions
Glyoxal et solutions aqueuses [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: skin sensitization; skin allergy.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1995. 4p. 34 ref.
Formaldehyde levels based on bulk and elevated temperature evolution rate measurements of silicone materials
A method was devised to measure the evolution of formaldehyde from certain silicone materials at high temperatures. The method involves the use of a modified thermogravimetric analyzer in conjunction with a hydrazine-polarographic electrochemical test. The method is specific to formaldehyde and there is no interference from other aldehydes. Elevated temperature formaldehyde evolution rate data and their possible impact on the workplace exposure level are presented for several silicone materials. The data suggest that substances such as lubricating oils, gaskets, etc., generally considered to be innocuous, may also be sources of formaldehyde at high temperatures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.12, p.1201-1207. Illus. 14 ref.
Cloroacetaldehído [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: strong irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; corrosive effect and chemical burns; eye injuries; skin and respiratory sensitization.
Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 1995, Vol.57, No.3. 4p. Insert.
Glutaraldehyde - Occupations connected with an allergen
Glutardialdehyd - Berufsspektrum eines Allergens [in German]
Glutaraldehyde is used as a substitute for formaldehyde. It is added for example to cleaning agents and skin creams as a disinfectant. In patch tests with 1% glutaraldehyde in petroleum jelly applied to 2939 patients between November 1989 and July 1993, allergic reactions were observed in 170 cases. Nurses and assistants in doctor's offices were most frequently affected. The next most affected group was charwomen. Measures are needed to protect the groups most severely affected; otherwise an increase in allergic skin diseases cannot be avoided. The measures should include compliance with the exposure limit of 0.2ppm.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1995, Vol.43, No.1, p.30-31. 14 ref.
Hasselmann A., Kölmel F.
Occupational dermatoses among cleaning personnel
Berufsdermatosen des Reinigungspersonals [in German]
In the years between 1977 and 1992 the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital in Göttingen, Germany, recorded 64 cases of skin disease among cleaning personnel in institutions such as schools, old age homes, recreational centres, hospitals, etc. In 40 cases an allergic contact dermatitis and in 21 cases eczema was diagnosed. In patch tests nickel and formaldehyde were identified as the major allergens. Formaldehyde and other aldehydes were found in the cleaning agents and disinfectants used.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Mar. 1995, Vol.30, No.3, p.106, 108-112, 117-118, 120. 30 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Wood dust and formaldehyde
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 11-18 October 1994. Epidemiological studies have shown increased risks of cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses associated with exposure to wood dust; these findings are supported by numerous case reports. Adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses is clearly associated with exposure to hardwood dust. Epidemiological studies suggest a causal relationship between exposure to formaldehyde and nasopharyngeal cancer and cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. IARC final classifications: wood dust is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); formaldehyde is probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. viii, 405p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 80.00.
Levin J.O., Lindahl R., Heeremans C.
Second European intercomparison on aldehyde hydrazone standard reference materials
The main goal of this project is to improve the quality of aldehyde measurements in workplace air. This includes certification of reference materials for the quality control of aldehyde analyses. A total of 24 laboratories tested three types of reference materials related to the monitoring of aldehydes in air by derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and subsequent determination of the hydrazone by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The results of these tests are discussed.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 40p. Illus. 8 ref.
Levin J.O., Lindahl R.
First European intercomparison with a formaldehyde diffusive sampler
This document presents the results of analyses performed by 22 European laboratories using a diffusive sampler at four different formaldehyde concentrations. Although the majority of the participating laboratories used this diffusive sampler for the first time, the results can be considered quite good as 42-75% performed within ±10% of the target. A second round of testing is planned within this project which aims at improving the quality of aldehyde measurements in workplace air.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 14p. Illus. 7 ref.
Data sheet. Can enter the body by inhalation and through the skin. The liquid and its vapour severely irritate the eyes. May burn and irritate the skin. May irritate the respiratory tract. May cause skin allergy.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1994. 6p.
Data sheet. May enter the body by inhalation and through the skin. May cause mutations and should be handled with extreme caution. Exposure to high concentrations may cause dizziness, lightheadedness and loss of consciousness. Irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause lung oedema and skin allergy. May cause loss of sense of taste, numbness of the tongue and liver damage.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1994. 6p.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Acetaldehyde - Health and safety guide
This document provides practical guidance on the application of exposure limitation guidelines contained in Environmental Health Criteria 167 (see CIS 96-1807). Contents: identity and uses of acetaldehyde; health hazards (irritation, corrosion); guidance on hazard prevention and protection, first aid, explosion and fire hazards, storage and transport, spillage and disposal; current regulations and standards. Includes a summary of chemical safety information for workplace display.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. 32p. 8 ref. Price: CHF 5.00 (CHF 3.50 in developing countries).
Saurel-Cubizolles M.J., Hays M., Estryn-Behar M.
Work in operating rooms and pregnancy outcome among nurses
A survey of the outcome of 776 pregnancies among 418 nurses in 17 hospitals in Paris, France, during the period June 1987 and June 1989 revealed that the frequency of spontaneous abortions was significantly higher for nurses who worked in the operating room during pregnancy. It was also significantly higher for nurses exposed to a combination of anaesthetic gases, aqueous formaldehyde solution (Formol) and ionizing radiation during the first three months of pregnancy.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.4, p.235-241. Illus. 28 ref.
Rudell B., Sandström T., Hammarström U., Ledin M.L., Hörstedt P., Stjernberg N.
Evaluation of an exposure setup for studying effects of diesel exhaust in humans
Diesel exhaust fumes from an idling truck were fed into an exposure chamber through a flexible metallic tube where they were diluted with air. Evaluation of the exposure set-up revealed that predetermined constant pollutant concentrations can be created in the chamber. The exposure of eight healthy non-smokers to diluted exhaust fumes for one hour produced the same acute symptoms as those reported by workers occupationally exposed to exhaust fumes from idling diesel vehicles. All subjects experienced irritation of the mucous tissue of the eyes, nose and throat, dizziness, nausea, cough, unpleasant odour, fatigue and headache. The median concentrations of the major components of diesel exhaust were: nitrogen dioxide 1.6ppm, nitrogen oxide 3.7ppm, carbon monoxide 27ppm, formaldehyde 0.5mg/m3 and particles 4.3 x 106/cm3.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.2, p.77-83. Illus. 17 ref.
Formaldehyde exposure in the funeral industry
An assessment of formaldehyde exposure was conducted at 36 embalmings in 18 funeral chapels in Manitoba, Canada. The occupational exposure limit is defined by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value-ceiling of 0.37mg/m3 (0.3ppm). Personal exposures of embalmers during an intact body preparation (<1 hour) ranged from 0.12 to 5.64mg/m3. During an autopsy preparation (<2 hours>), exposures ranged from 0.11 to 4.13mg/m3. Concentration for area samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.37mg/m3. Health effects identified by some embalmers included irritation of the mucous membranes and chest tightness. Most embalmers are immunized with the hepatitis B vaccine. Universal precautions against infectious agents were not strictly adhered to in most embalmings. An upgrading of engineering controls, improved work practices, and use of personal protective equipment was required in the majority of chapels.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.575-579. 29 ref.
Dillon H.K., Gao P.
Laboratory evaluation of a novel reactive passive sampler for the quantitative determination of formaldehyde in air
A colour-indicating passive dosimeter for formaldehyde, the AirChem Technologies (ACT) Monitoring Card System, was developed and evaluated. Test atmospheres of formaldehyde were generated by the injection of formalin into a heated stream of nitrogen, with subsequent dilution with charcoal-filtered air to produce concentrations in the range 0.1 to 2ppm. The mixed gas stream was introduced into an insulated cylindrical test chamber equipped with a rotating disc sampler holder. The ACT card readings were highly correlated with results obtained with NIOSH Method 3500. Results of accuracy and precision tests are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1994, Vol.55, No.11, p.1061-1068. Illus. 14 ref.
Houeto P., Chabaux C., Levillain P., Fournier P.E.
Cutaneous reactions due to pyridinecarboxaldehyde, thiophenecarboxaldehyde - Isomerism
Réactions cutanées aux pyridinecarbaldéhydes et thiophènecarbaldéhydes - Notion d'isomérie [in French]
A 27-year-old woman who underwent skin exposure to pyridinecarboxaldehyde and thiophenecarboxaldehyde at the workplace. In patch tests, 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde produced urticaria whereas 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde isomer induced eczema and no reaction was observed with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde. Patch tests made with thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed that the patient was sensitive to 3-thiophenecarboxaldehyde, which induced irritant erythema whereas there was no reaction with its isomer 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde. Thus, depending on the position of the carbonyl carbon on the pyridine (ortho, meta or para) or thiophene ring, different reactions can occur.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.467-469. Illus. 16 ref.
Zissu D., Gervais P.
Glutaraldehyde - Importance in hospitals and precautions for use
Le glutaraldéhyde - Intérêt en milieu hospitalier et précautions d'emploi [in French]
The properties of glutaraldehyde, widely used in the cold sterilization of medical and surgical equipment, are reviewed. Over the last 10 years, an increasing number of pathological symptoms have been cited among hospital workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. Experiments in rodents have shown an irritant effect of this aldehyde on the upper respiratory tract, at a concentration ten times lower than the value of the RD50 (2.6ppm in the mouse). Glutaraldehyde also induces dermatoses among exposed medical personnel; the Draize protocol indicated an irritant effect on the skin and the eyes in albino rabbits, while when using maximization tests of the Kligman and Magnusson type, a crossed cutaneous sensitization between glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde and glyoxal was observed in the guinea-pig. In-vitro toxicological studies showed the genotoxic potential of glutaraldehyde. Glutaraldehyde must be handled with care and medical advice should be sought for any serious incident or accident.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.463-466. 12 ref.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Crotonaldehyde causes irritation of the mucous membranes in humans. In a study of workers occupationally exposed to various alcohols and aldehydes, including crotonaldehyde, an increased incidence of carcinomas, particularly of the mouth and bronchia, was observed. Animal experiments indicate that the substance has a high acute toxicity and is strongly irritating; cytotoxic and mutagenic effects have been observed.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1994. xvii, 132p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 72.00.
Tortured hands - Occupational skin diseases in the hospital
Geplagte Hände - Berufsdermatosen im Krankenhaus [in German]
The symptoms of skin diseases diagnosed among hospital personnel are described. Of all the skin diseases affecting the hands of the hospital personnel, allergies account for 90%. Skin contact with disinfectants such as formaldehyde is the primary cause for the allergies. It is recommended to use alcohol-containing disinfectants as substitutes and allergen-free, disposable gloves for protection of the hands.
Krankenhaustechnik, Aug. 1994, Vol.20, No.8, p.32-35. Illus.
Taskinen H., Kyyrönen P., Hemminki K., Hoikkala M., Lajunen K., Lindbohm M.L.
Laboratory work and pregnancy outcome
Spontaneous abortions among women working in laboratories, and congenital malformations and birth weights of the children were examined in a retrospective case-referent study in Finland. In the spontaneous abortion study there were 535 women (206 cases and 329 referents), and in the malformation study 141 women (36 cases and 105 referents). The analysis of the birth weights concerned 500 women. Significant associations with spontaneous abortions were found for exposure to toluene, xylene and formalin 3 days or more a week, adjusted for the covariates. Most of the women exposed to formalin and xylene were working in pathology or histology laboratories. No association with congenital malformation was found.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1994, Vol.36, No.3, p.311-319. 51 ref.
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Vaquerano M.U., Akbar-Khanzadeh M., Bisesi M.S.
Formaldehyde exposure, acute pulmonary response, and exposure control options in a gross anatomy laboratory
Formaldehyde exposure, acute pulmonary response, and exposure control options were evaluated in a group of 34 workers in a gross anatomy laboratory. More than 94% were exposed to formaldehyde in excess of the ceiling value of 0.3ppm recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The eight-hour TWA exposure of 31.7% of the subjects exceeded the action level of 0.5ppm, set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Reported symptoms included irritation of the eye, nose, throat and airways. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 3 seconds (FEV3) decreased, and FEV1/FVC increased during the exposure. The changes in FEV3 were statistically different from those of the controls.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1994, Vol.26, No.1, p.61-75. 45 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratory
Formaldehyde in air
This data sheet describes a laboratory method for the determination of formaldehyde in air. A diffusive sampler is exposed to air for a measured time period. The formaldehyde vapour migrates into the sampler by diffusion and is collected on a strip of silica gel tape coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and phosphoric acid. A stable hydrazone species is formed which can be desorbed by either methanol or acetonitrile and the solution is analyzed with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a UV detector. The method may be used for sampling over periods in the range 15min to 8h and is suitable for the measurement of airborne formaldehyde vapour in the concentration range 0.1 to 4.0mg/m3.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, May 1994. 4p. 17 ref.
Contact allergens in chemical products
Kontaktallergener i kemiske produkter [in Danish]
The Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was searched for information on 43 contact allergens in 18 product categories. Formaldehyde was present in products in all 18 categories; six other allergens were present in more than half. Some commonly registered amines are not included in standard patch tests, while one amine that figures in routine tests is rare in products on the market. Combination of interview data from eczema patients with product composition data from PROBAS helped identify formaldehyde-containing products as the source of their problem and led to solutions. Conversely, a widely used antioxidant, BHT, showed no sensitizing properties in 1336 eczema patients. Thus, product registers can be used to estimate exposure of patients to allergens.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, At-salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1994. 88p. Price: DKK 235.00.
Official Mexican Standard - Industrial hygiene - The work environment - Determination of acrolein in air - Use of spectrophotometry [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana: Higiene industrial - medio ambiente laboral - determinación de acroleina en el aire - método espectrofotométrico [México] [in Spanish]
This Standard (entry into force 16 Dec. 1993) repeals Standard NOM-SS-2-1986. Topics: acrolein; acrolein; description of equipment; description of technique; determination in air; Mexico; sampling and analysis; spectrophotometry; standard; toxic substances.
Secretaria del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1994. 12p. 5 ref.
Official Mexican Standard: Industrial hygiene - The work environment - Determination of formaldehyde in air - Use of spectrophotometry [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana: Higiene industrial - medio ambiente laboral - determinación de formaldehído en aire - método espectrofotométrico [México] [in Spanish]
This Standard (entry into force 16.Dec. 1993) repeals Standard NOM-SS-6-1986. Topics: formaldehyde; description of equipment; description of technique; determination in air; formaldehyde; Mexico; sampling and analysis; spectrophotometry; standard; toxic substances.
Secretaria del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1994. 11p. 5 ref.
Data sheet. May enter the body by inhalation and through the skin. It is a carcinogen and should be handled with extreme care. Irritates and burns the eyes and skin, leading to permanent damage. May cause skin and lung allergy. Irritates the respiratory tract and may cause lung oedema. Formaldehyde is a highly flammable gas.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993. 6p.
Chloroacetaldehyde (40% solution)
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; corrosive effects on the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; chemical burns; loss of visual function; pulmonary oedema. Occupational exposure limit: TLV: 1ppm, 3.2mg/m3 (ceiling) (ACGIH 1991-1992).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.
Jost M., Rüegger M., Reber E., Liechti B., Wolf R.
Occupational disease prevention in pathology and histology laboratories
Verhütung von Berufskrankheiten in pathologisch-anatomischen Instituten und histologischen Laboratorien [in German]
Prévention des maladies professionnelles dans les instituts d'anatomie pathologique et dans les laboratoires d'histologie [in French]
This brochure reviews the exposure hazards to chemicals used in medical laboratories as well as the risk of infectious diseases transmitted by blood or air. The results of a systematic measurements campaign carried out through Switzerland to evaluate formaldehyde and organic solvent concentrations in the air of such laboratories are given. Technical, organizational and behavioural preventive measures are described.
Schweizerische Unfallverhütungsanstalt, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Dec. 1993. 50p. Illus. 31 ref.
International chemical safety card. Acute hazards: headache, nausea, diarrhoea, pulmonary oedema on inhalation; skin burns. Short-term exposure effects: corrosive effects on the eyes and skin; may affect the liver and kidneys. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.
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