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Aldehydes - 487 entries found

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  • Aldehydes

1976

CIS 77-1034 Wayne L.G., Bryan R.J., Ziedman K.
Irritant effects of industrial chemicals: Formaldehyde.
Occupational health surveys were conducted in 3 plants; a shirt factory and 2 wood products plants. Formaldehyde levels in the first were 0.2-0.8ppm; average levels in the two wood products plants were 0.6-0.9ppm. 83 workers in a wood products plant wee given ophthalmologic examinations; medical histories were ovtained, and eye irritation symptoms were ascertained. No relations of eye disorders or symptoms to chronic formaldehyde exposure or work history were found. Possible acute effects of formaldehyde on visual function were examined by administering tests of visual acuity, depth perception, peripheral vision, accommodation, fixation, and colour vision to 50 workers in one wood products plant both before and after work. No acute effects of formaldehyde on worker's performances occurred at formaldehyde levels which average 0.4ppm.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-117, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 148p. Illus.

CIS 77-725 Einbrodt H.J., Prajsnar D., Erpenbeck J.
Blood and urine formaldehyde and formic acid levels in man after formaldehyde exposure
Der Formaldehyd- und Ameisensäurespiegel im Blut und Urin beim Menschen nach Formaldehydexposition [in German]
Study of the relations between formaldehyde exposure and blood and urinary formaldehyde and formic acid levels in 12 medical students frequently engaged in preparing anatomical specimens and in a group of 5 workers employed in a chipboard factory. Average exposure was 0.78mg/m3 (first group) and 1.28mg/m3 (second group). Explanation of the metabolism of formaldehyde and the elimination of formic acid, based on the results obtained. Determination of formaldehyde in blood and urine is considered unsuitable for measuring exposure because of rapid oxidation. Determination of formic acid in blood and urine, on the contrary, seems a useful method for evaluating formaldehyde exposure.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Aug. 1976, Vol.26, No.8, p.154-158. 10 ref.

CIS 77-468 Bouley G., Dubreuil A., Godin J., Boisset M., Boudène C.
Phenomena of adaptation in rats continuously exposed to low concentrations of acrolein.
Rats exposed to 0.55ppm acrolein had significantly lower body weight, relative liver weight and serum acid phosphatase levels than controls, irritation of the upper respiratory tract, reduced alveolar macrophages, and a higher susceptibility to airborne Salmonella infection, after 11-21 days' exposure. After 63 days' exposure, however, all differences between exposed animals and controls had disappeared, except for continued significant differences in body weight. Adaptation appeared to set in after 3-4 weeks' exposure.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, July 1976, Vol.19, No.1, p.27-32. 27 ref.

CIS 76-1917 Skare I., Dahlner B.
Evaluation of indicator tubes - III. Formaldehyde
Utvärdering av vissa analysampullers tillförlitlighet - III. Formaldehyde [in Swedish]
Four formaldehyde tubes (Dräger 0.002(No.CH 264), Dräger 0.5/a (No.67-26760), Gastec (No.91), MSA (No.93.963)) were tested for accuracy, effects of temperature and humidity, and interference by methanol, nitrogen dioxide, and other aldehydes. The Dräger 0.5/a and the MSA were rejected.
Undersökningsrapport AMTG 104/76, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1976. 22p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 76-1817
H49, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Protection Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ.
Acrolein.
Details are given of uses of acrolein, hazards, fire precautions, fire fighting, relevant British regulations, source of further information, physical properties (threshold limit value), and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, Sep. 1976, No.115, p.47-48.

CIS 76-1671 Virtamo M., Tossavainen A.
Gases formed from furan binding agents.
Furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde concentrations in the air of coremaking areas of 10 iron and steel foundries were measured. The mean concentration of furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde was 4.3cm3/m3 and 2.7cm3/m3 respectively. Furfuryl alcohol exceeded its threshold limit value (TLV) of 5cm3/m3 in 22% of the determinations; and formaldehyde (TLV = 2cm3/m3) in 38%. In addition phenol concentration was determined in one foundry; and phosphoric acid concentration in two foundries. The concentrations of phenol and phosphoric acid were far lower than their TLVs.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.50-53. Illus. 16 ref.

1975

CIS 76-1931 Schaffernicht H., Hädge H.
Study of formaldehyde and phenol concentrations in the workplace air of foundries
Untersuchung der Formaldehyd- und Phenolkonzentrationen in der Luft von Giessereiarbeitsplätzen [in German]
After a brief presentation of the health hazards of phenol and formaldehyde, the methods and results of concentration measurements of these substances in the moulding shop of a large foundry are given. Measurements were made with personal samplers which permitted continuous monitoring of air concentrations. The excursions above the maximum permissible concentrations observed should be eliminated by the use of less toxic resin/hardener mixtures, formaldehyde-binding substances and appropriate ventilation.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Aug. 1975, Vol.21, No.8, p.610-613. 20 ref.

CIS 76-1375 Morel C., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
Fiche toxicologique n°120, French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14.
Acetaldehyde
Aldéhyde acétique. [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1976, No.83, Note No.1014-83-76, p.319-322. 19 ref.

CIS 76-1364 Šumilina A.V.
Genetic and menstrual functions in women occupationally exposed to formaldehyde
Menstrual'naja i detorodnaja funkcii rabotnic, imejuščih po uslovijam proizvodstva kontakt s formal'degidom [in Russian]
Results of gynaecological examinations of 446 women employed in finishing, inspecting and taking up fabrics treated with formaldehyde-based finishings. Women applying the finishings were sometimes exposed to concentrations of 1.5 to 4.5mg/m3 (the Soviet TLV is 0.5mg/m3), whereas those inspecting the finished fabrics were exposed to concentrations below the TLV. The author observed statistically more significant menstrual disorders (principally dysmenorrhoea) among the women exposed to formaldehyde than among controls. The percentage of children underweight at birth born to formaldehyde-exposed women was higher than among the controls.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.18-21. 6 ref.

CIS 76-1363 Dvoskin Ja., Sandrackaja S.Ė., Rahmanina N.A., Rodnikov A.V., Žarkova V.K., Volodina L.I., Erofeeva L.F., Kalinko T.A., Laškina A.V.
Study of the combined effect of phenol and formaldehyde in a warm atmosphere (+30°)
Izučenie sovmestnogo dejstvija fenola i formal'degida v kombinacii s povyšennoj temperaturoj vozduha [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments for the establishment of standards for use of phenol-formaldehyde resins in the construction of ships sailing in the tropics. Chronic exposure to 0.023mg/m3 phenol and 0.024mg/m3 formaldehyde at 30°C produces a toxic effect characterised by changes in the erythropoiesis, the phagocytic activity of the neutrophiles, neuromuscular functions, etc. As a result of these and other experiments with lower concentrations (at the same temperature) the authors recommend 0.005mg/m3 and 0.006mg/m3 as TLVs for combinations of phenol and formaldehyde, respectively.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.17-21. 5 ref.

CIS 76-1354 Ghawabi S.H., Ibrahim G.A., El Enany F.F., Soliman S.M., Youssef F.L., El Saharti A.A.
Urea formaldehyde exposure. Environmental, clinical, haematological and spirometric study.
After a brief account of urea formaldehyde production, this article reports on studies in all 37 workers of a plant and in a control group. Air concentrations of formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde at various locations of the factory are given: almost all greatly exceeded the TLV of 5ppm. Details are given of symptoms found, results of patch tests with the 2 chemicals, blood picture, and lung function tests. A statistically significant increase in the lymphocyte count and a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume after the work shift were noted in the exposed group.
Egyptian Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1975, Vol.2, No.2, p.75-86. 24 ref.

CIS 76-1068 Michaux P.
Phenols - Carbonyl derivatives
Phénols - Dérivés carbonylés. [in French]
General study on phenols (phenol, cresols, diphenols, triphenols) and aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, metaldehyde, paraldehyde, acrolein), with consideration of the following aspects: use; occupationally-induced acute and chronic poisoning; prevention; treatment. Summary of relevant French regulations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Intoxications, Fascicule 16048 A 10, 1-1975, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France. 4p. 10 ref.

CIS 76-786 Schoenberg J.B., Mitchell C.A.
Airway disease caused by phenolic (phenol-formaldehyde) resin exposure.
Pulmonary function tests and a questionnaire survey were carried out in 48 previous and present production-line and 15 other workers. Acute symptoms of fume exposure and lung function after the Monday and Friday work shifts are described. Lower FEV1/FVC and maximum expiratory flow 50%/FVC ratios were found in those exposed for more than 5 years (15 workers) although they smoked less. In spite of a high proportion of subjects reporting acute respiratory symptoms (included a slight excess of chronic cough and sputum production), only small decreases in lung function over the work day and work week were found. Certain limitations in the design and conclusions of the study are recognised (small number of subjects, Saturday work, lack of accurate information on exposure).
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1975, Vol.30, No.12, p.574-577. 12 ref.

CIS 76-781 Porter J.A.H.
Acute respiratory distress following formalin inhalation.
Little has been reported concerning the effects of inhaling formaldehyde, and this letter to the Editor reports self-observations during the course of an acute pneumonitis following heavy exposure to formalin vapours. Clinical and laboratory findings are given. Pulmonary function tests on the 2nd day after exposure yielded a forced vital capacity of 4.26l, a 1-sec forced expiratory volume of 2.97l, and maximal mid-expiratory flow of 1.88l/min. All improved markedly by the 24th day. The patient was known to be atopic to a wide range of allergens.
Lancet, 27 Sep. 1975, Vol.2, No.7935, p.603-604. 8 ref.

CIS 76-770 Kerfoot E.J., Mooney T.F.
Formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde study in funeral homes.
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of formaldehyde on embalmers. Ventilation (noise, location, amount of air change) in funeral homes was inadequate in some respects. When the ventilation worked effectively, formaldehyde concentrations were below the threshold limit value of 2ppm; however, workers suffered from the irritating action of the compound. The paraformaldehyde powders contained a respirable fraction that might cause damage to the alveolar walls. It also appears that becoming accustomed to the vapour may be later detrimental to health.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1975, Vol.36, No..7, p.533-537. 13 ref.

CIS 76-764 Flick K.
Studies to determine the workplace formaldehyde concentration in hardboard production
Untersuchungen zur Ermittlung der Formaldehyd-Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration bei der Herstellung von Spanplatten [in German]
Description of the production technique for hardboard panels. Formaldehyde vapours escape when the press is opened and during transportation of the hot panels. Measurements were made to determine whether the concentrations formed represent a hazard for exposed workers. Description of the methods of analysis, calibration and sampling, and results. Compared with the TLV, the values found at the workplaces tested were disquieting. The author recommends that these workplaces be connected to the exhaust ventilation system.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Sep. 1975, Vol.25, No.9, p.257-263. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 75-1664 Andreucci G., Sergiacomi R.
Occupational pathology of furfural
La patologia professionale da furfurolo [in Italian]
After a brief review of recent Italian legislation concerning compensation for health damage due to occupational exposure to this substance, this article takes stock of the physical and chemical properties of furfural, its production, uses in industry and agriculture, and toxicity (which mainly affects the autonomic nervous system, but may also cause irritation of the mucosae and skin allergy). The article also deals with treatment of poisoning and preventive measures.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, Mar.-Apr. 1975, Vol.62, No.2, p.207-212. 5 ref.

1974

CIS 76-144 Miščenko V.G.
Experimental data to establish the maximum allowable concentration of tetrahydrobenzaldehyde in workplace air
Ėksperimental'nye dannye k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii tetragidrobenzal'degida v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments showing that tetrahydrobenzaldehyde (THBA) is poorly absorbed by the skin, that its fumes are non-irritant for the conjunctiva and mucosae of the upper airways (respiratory tract), and that THBA and THBA-based synthetic resins do not cause allergy. A TLV of 0.5mg/m3 is proposed by the author on the basis of these results; at higher concentrations the odour becomes intolerable.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.41-42. 3 ref.

CIS 76-143 Peresedov V.P.
Fixing of the maximum allowable concentration of benzaldehyde in workplace air
K obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii benzal'degida v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments showing that benzaldehyde is moderately harmful. Massive concentrations (around 500mg/m3) cause irritation of the upper airways and conjunctiva. Haematological changes were observed after repeated inhalations of 26mg/m3. A TLV of 5mg/m3 is proposed on the basis of these results; the health status of workers exposed for one year to concentrations not exceeding this level confirm its validity.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.40-41. 6 ref.

CIS 75-1092 Tužilina L.V.
Experimental data on the toxicity of the monomer FA
Ėksperimental'nye dannye po toksikologii monomera FA [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments to determine the toxicity of FA, a monomer obtained by condensation of furfural with acetone, containing 55% of monofurfurylidene acetone, 44% of difurfurylidene acetone and 1% of furfural. On the basis of the toxic effects observed after single and long-term experimental exposures, the author recommends that a threshold limit value of 0.5mg/m3 should be adopted.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1974, No.4, p.53-55. 6 ref.

CIS 75-1077 Ogata M., Saeki T.
Measurement of chloral hydrate, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid and monochloroacetic acid in the serum and the urine by gas chromatography.
A gas-chromatographic method for the determination of trichloroethylene metabolites in serum and urine is described. Elution patterns, calibration curves and recovery rates are given. The analytical sensitivity of gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector for trichloro-compounds was found to be superior to that of colorimetric methods. Urinary trichloroacetic and monochloroacetic acid can be determined simultaneously. Methanolic hydrogen chloride was used for methyl esterification, since diazomethane may be carcinogenic.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 12 Mar. 1974, Vol.33, No.1, p.49-58. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 75-1045 Guillerm R., Hee J., Bourdin M., Burnet H., Siou G.
Contribution to determination of the threshold limit concentration of acrolein
Contribution à la détermination de la valeur limite de concentration de l'acroléine. [in French]
The authors studied the chronic effects of exposure to acrolein in concentrations of 1 and 2ppm in rats. Material and methods used for the experiments, results of examinations (weight curves, pulmonary resistance, haematological findings, vanylmandelic acid levels, pulmonary surfactant, histopathology). The most notable result is the fact that most of the parameters studied showed no correlation between the effect (retardation of growth, histological changes of the lower respiratory tract) and the duration of exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.926-77-74, p.527-535. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 75-1017 Tou J.C., Kallos G.J.
Study of aqueous HCl and formaldehyde mixtures for formation of bis(chloromethyl)ether.
The spontaneous reactions of aqueous HCl and formaldehyde at concentrations up to 2,000ppm were carried out at ambient temperature for 18h to investigate the possible formation of the powerful carcinogen bis(chloromethyl)ether (bis-CME). Description of methods. Bis-CME was not observed either in the aqueous phase or the gas phase above the reaction mixture, with detection limits of 9 parts per thousand million (9ppb) and 1ppb, respectively. There is strong inferential evidence that bis-CME cannot be present in the aqueous solution at even a much lower level than 9ppb.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1974, Vol.35, No.7, p.419-422. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 75-170 Jakovleva N.A., Son'kin M.E.
Simulataneous determination of methacrylic acid and formaldehyde in air
Opredelenie metakrilovoj kisloty i formal'degida v vozduhe pri ih sovmestnom prisutstvii [in Russian]
Description of a method based on the separate determination of total formaldehyde (staining reaction with chromotropic acid) and methacrylic acid (after oxidation of the formaldehyde). The 2 concentrations can be calculated once calibration curves have been plotted.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.60-62. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 75-154 Dueva L.A.
Experimental reproduction of immunological tolerance to urea-formaldehyde resin
Ėksperimental'noe vosproizvedenie immunologičeskoj tolerantnosti k močevinoformal'degidnoj smole [in Russian]
Report of research in guinea-pigs which indicated the possibility of reproducing immunological tolerance to a complex polymer. The positive results of reproduction of cross tolerance to urea resin and formaldehyde, and the mode of production and destruction of the specific humoral antibodies, confirm the role of the residual monomer, free formaldehyde, in the mechanism of tolerance development to this polymer.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.20-24. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 75-130 Torsuev N.A., Buharovič M.N., Speranskij N.N., Zaharov I.Ja., Malickij A.F., Buharovič A.M.
Occupational skin diseases in workers manufacturing containers from glass-fibre reinforced plastic
Professional'nye zabolevanija koži u rabočih proizvodstva steklovatnyh cilindrov [in Russian]
Results of dermatological examinations carried out in 33 women exposed to a synthetic binder consisting of urea-formaldehyde resin modified by vinyl derivatives; this binder contains 0.5% free formaldehyde. 21 of the workers examined had pruriginous skin diseases at the points of contact with the binder and oxalic acid (dry skin and slight erythema in 13 female workers; 9 had eczema). The urea-formaldehyde resin could have sensitising effects. It is proposed to use a protective cream consisting of gelatin, distilled water, starch, glycerine and aqueous baric acid.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.43-44. 5 ref.

1973

CIS 74-1681 Gabovič R.D., Miščenko V.G.
Results of a complex evaluation, from the health point of view, of basic products used in the synthesis of aliphatic cyclic epoxy resins
Opyt kompleksnogo gigieničeskogo izučenija ishodnyh produktov sinteza cikloalifatičeskih ėpoksidnyh smol [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments to determine the toxic effects (LD50, chronic effects on the nervous system, liver, cerebral and renal tissue, blood sugar rate, phagocytosis of neutrophiles and pathological morphology of the internal organs and the upper airways) of tetrahydrobenzaldehyde (THBA), cyclohexenecarboxylic acid tetrahydrobenzylic ester (CATE) and 3-cyclohexene-1,1-dimethanol (CHDM), used in the synthesis of aliphatic cyclic epoxy resins. On the basic of these results, the following maximum allowable concentrations have been established: 0.3mg/m3 for THBA, 1mg/m3 for CATE and 2mg/m3 for CHDM.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1973, No.6, p.16-22. 3 ref.

CIS 74-1621 Ipatova S.A., Dejanova E.V.
Method for the chromatographic determination of acrolein in the presence of aliphatic aldehydes
Metod hromatografičeskogo opredelenija akroleina v prisutstvii alifatičeskih al'degidov [in Russian]
Description of a method using fluorescence for the determination of acrolein, based on a reaction with m-phenylenediamine in a hydrochloric environment (sensitivity: 0.05µg of acrolein in 5mg), and of a method for the separation and quantitative determination of acrolein by chromatography, using thin layers of silicagel paste. For this latter method, 2 solvent systems are recommended: ethanol-chloroform (4:1) and isopropanol-acetic acid-water (12:0.5:5), according to the case. The quantitative determination is made by fluorimetry after extracting the acrolein derivative of silicagel. The sensitivity is 0.1µg acrolein.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1973, No.10, p.65-67.

CIS 74-1396 Skare I.
Formaldehyde - Sampling: cumulative - Analysis: colorimetric (chromotropic acid reagent).
Description of a field method for the cumulative determination of formaldehyde in the air in workplaces, which is a modification of the chromotropic acid method. The sensitivity is 0.5ppm with an air sample of 10l. The relative standard deviation in the analysis phase can be kept below 2%. An evaporation procedure is proposed to eliminate potential interferences from phenols, nitrites, cyanides and unsaturated aldehydes. A positive interference still remains when a moderate excess of nitrate ions or hydrogen sulfide is present.
Method Report T 108/73, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1973. 14p. Illus.

CIS 74-1395 Skare I.
Total aldehydes - Sampling: cumulative - Analysis: titrimetric (bisulfite method).
Description of a field method for the cumulative determination of lower aliphatic aldehydes in the air of workplaces. The method is a modification of the bisulfite method. A minimum air sample of 100 l is recommended for an atmospheric concentration of 0.5ppm of aldehydes; the relative standard deviation can be kept below 3%. Great excesses of ketones, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide or phenol in air give positive interferences. The influences of the 2 last substances have, however, been largely decreased by the elimination process proposed in this modified method.
Method Report T 105/73, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1973. 12p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 74-1360 Skare I., Dahlner B.
Determination of aldehydes in air
Bestämning av aldehyder i luft [in Swedish]
A description of the physical and chemical properties of aldehydes is followed by chapters on: generation of a calibration gas with a known aldehyde content; determination in air of total lower aliphatic aldehydes, formaldehyde and acrolein (sampling, analysis methods, interferences). 4 appendices give details on proposed methods: total lower aliphatic aldehydes determined by the bisulfite or MBTH (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinonehydrazone hydrochloride) methods; determination of formaldehyde by a colorimetric method using chromotropic acid as a reagent; determination of acrolein by colorimetry using 4-hexyl-resorcinol as a reagent.
Arbete och hälsa - vetenskaplig skriftserie, 1973:6. Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1973. 121p. Illus. 107 ref.

CIS 74-750 Kallos G.J., Solomon R.A.
Investigations of the formation of bis-chloromethyl ether in simulated hydrogen chloride - formaldehyde atmospheric environments.
Since it has been reported that bis-chloromethyl ether can form spontaneously when hydrogen chloride and formaldehyde are present simultaneously in humid atmospheres, investigations were carried out to determine the levels of bis-chloromethyl ether resulting from this reaction. The experimental procedure is described, and the results presented and discussed. It was found that the reaction of hydrogen chloride and formaldehyde at high concentrations (up to 3,000 ppm) does not result in the spontaneous formation of bis-chloromethyl ether in significant amounts.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1973, Vol.34, No.11, p.469-473. Illus. 5 ref.

1972

CIS 74-780 Bojcov A.N., Rotenberg Ju.S., Mulenkova V.G.
Toxicological evaluation of chloral liberated during spraying and moulding of polyurethane foam
Evaluation toxicologique du chloral libéré lors du pistoletage et du coulage de mousses de polyuréthane. [in French]
French translation of: K voprosu o toksikologiceskoj ocenke hloralja v processe ego vydelenija pri napylenii i zalivke penopoliuretanov. Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Moskva, USSR, June 1970, Vol.14, No.6, p.26-29. 2 ref. Occupational hygiene studies carried out during the application of certain polyurethane foams used for insulation, etc. disclosed that, in addition to isocyanates, tertiary amines, etc., chloral (CCl3CHO) also was given off during spraying or moulding. Chloral readily combines with water and water vapour to form chloral hydrate which is known to be acutely toxic (LD50=710 mg/kg, LC50=32 mg/l). Study of the toxic properties of chloral hydrate in cases of chronic exposure has shown that a concentration of 0.06 mg/l is already toxic and that a concentration of 0.02 mg/l is very close to the threshold limit value. The authors recommend that the ceiling value for chloral in air be fixed at 10 mg/m3.
Translation INRS 123 B-72, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1972. 9p. 2 ref.

CIS 72-2208 Goldmann P.J.
Allergens and skin diseases in a chemical-works medical service
Allergene und Hautkrankheiten in der werksärztlichen Praxis eines chemischen Industriebetriebes [in German]
A review of medical examinations of 2219 chemical plant workers in the German Federal Republic between 1955 and 1971. 2381 cases of skin disease were reported (34.5% being non-occupational). The cases comprises: 19% allergic dermatitis, 8.5% occupational dermatitis due to corrosive and sensitising substances, and 38% degenerative toxic skin lesions. Institution of safety measures has virtually eliminated skin disease due to vinylcarbazole, benzanthrone, formaldehyde condensation products, and mucochloric acid derivatives.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, Apr. 1972, Vol.7, No.4, p.98-100. 6 ref.

CIS 73-264 Mašek V.
Aldehydes in workplace air in coal and pitch coking works
Aldehyde in der Luft der Arbeitsplätze von Kohlen- und Pechkokereien [in German]
A tabular presentation of the results of measurements of formaldehyde, acrolein and aliphatic aldehyde concentrations. The results are compared with the maximum allowable concentrations.
Staub, Aug. 1972, Vol.32, No.8, p.335-336. 6 ref.

CIS 73-1105 Acrolein
Description of the ultraviolet absorption method, based on the absorption of acrolein in ethanol and the determination of the relevant absorbance at 328nm. Method of collection, interferences, sensitivity, special reagents and equipment. The method has not yet been tested in practical use.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.198. 3 ref.

1971

CIS 72-2313 Mašek V.
Determining soot and aldehyde concentration in the workplace air of a smelting and refining works
Stanovení obsahu sazí a aldehydů v ovzduší pracovišt' hutního podníku [in Czech]
Having reviewed the harmful substances in airborne soot (3,4-benzopyrene, iron, sulfides, arsenic, silica), and indicated the soot concentrations measured in a Czechoslovak smelting and refining works (particularly high over coke-oven batteries and near coke extinction towers), the author describes various aldehyde determination techniques (total aliphatic aldehydes, acrolein, formaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and ethyl-aldehyde). Aldehyde concentrations in random air samples were below the Czechoslovak TLV. Similar determinations in other plants are recommended.
Hutník, 1971, Vol.21, No.10, p.380-382. 40 ref.

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