Space travel - 55 entries found
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Auffret R., Vieillefond H.
Physiological aspects of special selection tests for astronauts
Aspects physiologiques des tests spéciaux de sélection des cosmonautes [in French]
Present knowledge of physiological reactions observed during space flight has enabled certain criteria for astronaut selection to be codified and accepted by the international scientific community. Study of 5 so-called "special" tests completing medical selection of astronauts, designed to investigate cardiovascular, respiratory and vestibular functions during simulation of stress conditions experienced by astronauts in space flight (acceleration, vestibular, orthostatic, hypoxia and muscular exercise tests).
Nouvelle presse médicale, 1981, Vol.10, No.21, p.1683-1686. Illus. 7 ref.
Physiopathology of high altitudes and atmospheric and space flights
Physiopathologie liée à l'altitude et aux vols dans l'atmosphère et l'espace. [in French]
Revised text of an article. The 1st part deals with: high-altitude hypoxia (effects and tolerance) and high altitude pathology (barotraumatic effects, aviation decompression syndrome, ebullism, prevention of high-altitude risks). The 2nd part covers: the physiopathology of acceleration (haemodynamic effects of prolonged acceleration, mechanical effects of short-term acceleration and the effects of acceleration on spatial orientation, posture and movement mechanisms). The 3rd part examines the three main mechanisms behind physiopathological reactions to weightlessness, and their prevention.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, maladies et agents physiques, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France, 1981. 16p. 30 ref.
Psychological problems of space flight
Psihologičeskie problemy kosmičeskih poletov [in Russian]
Several authors have contributed articles covering the main themes: general problems (human factors, psychophysiological particularities of man in space, activity of the spaceship crew); psychological analysis of the astronaut's activity (studies with mathematical models, increased efficiency, work study under stress conditions, effects of stress on oral communication, work capacity and continuous activity); psychology of astronaut training; ergonomics and psychology (design of locomotor systems in space, optimisation of visual capacity, design of hand controls used during preparation for landing).
Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", Profsojuznaja ul. 94a, 117864 GSP-7 Moskva, USSR, 1979. 239p. Illus. 289 ref.
Chevrier J.P., Chatelier G., Pfister A.
Study of the toxicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in the animal: 1. Acute toxicity; 2. Chronic toxicity
Etude sur la toxicité de la 1,1 diméthylhydrazine chez l'animal: 1. Intoxication aiguë; 2. Intoxication chronique. [in French]
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is a combustible component of a liquid propellant used in space technology. Physicochemical data and a report on acute and chronic poisoning in rats, mice and cats are given. Acute administration resulted in fatal nervous symptoms. Intraperitoneal administration yielded an LD50 of 150mg/kg in mice, 108mg/kg in rats and 30-40mg/kg in cats, and renal and testicular changes were seen on histological examination. On inhalation (LC50 after 13min exposure: 45mg/l air) pulmonary lesions and skin and mucosal changes similar to chemical burning were seen in addition to the nervous symptoms. On chronic administration, lesions were mild, even with doses very close to the maximum tolerated level: mild haematological and metabolic disturbances; mild lesions of nerve tissue, more marked in the bronchopulmonary system; no complete arrest of growth, nor incidence of convulsive attacks by any mode of administration.
European Journal of Toxicology - Journal européen de toxicologie, July-Aug. 1974, Vol.7, No.4, p.238-241 and 242-246. 14 ref.
Cardiovascular disorders caused by weightlessness
Problèmes cardio-vasculaires posés par l'absence de pesanteur. [in French]
After referring to the difficulty of obtaining information in this field, the author reviews the disorders occurring in the course of space experiments, both in space and immediately after return to earth (effects on cardiovascular system, bone decalcification, water and electrolyte disturbances, weight loss). He then goes on to outline the most probable explanation for these phenomena (above all the cardiovascular disorders, the most characteristic effect of space flight) and describes 3 stages of adaptation to weightlessness and the preventive measures to be applied.
Revue de médecine aéronautique et spatiale, 3rd quarter 1974, Vol.13, No.51, p.183-188. Illus. 16 ref.
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