Water transportation - 485 entries found
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Safety problems concerning equipment for ventilating tank barges transporting flammable liquids on inland waterways
Einige sicherheitstechnische Probleme bei Be- und Entlüftungseinrichtungen an Ladetanks von Binnentankern für brennbare Flüssigkeiten [in German]
In the closed tanks of tank barges the inevitable heating (e.g. due to the heat of the sun) causes overpressure which may exceed the pressure at which the mandatory overpressure valves can be opened. The possibility of an explosive atmosphere developing near the tanks depends on the type of overpressure valve. This article considers the advantages of overpressure valves to eliminate explosion hazards, as compared to those of open tanks, and studies chiefly the conditions for the formation of an explosive atmosphere inside and outside the tanks, and the possibility of using flame arresters.
Der Landsteg, 1977, No.2, p.11-16. Illus.
Duberštejn A.M., Aleksandrov V.A.
Occupational safety in seaports
Bezopasnost' truda v morskih portah [in Russian]
Contents of this practical manual: principal causes of accidents in loading and unloading ships, and their prevention (slinging, cranes, etc.); safe methods of cargo loading and unloading on board ship: safe loading and unloading of railway trucks; safe handling and stacking methods in warehouses and storage areas; safe handling of materials in crates, sacks, drums, bales, reels (paper); handling of metal cargoes (ingots, sheet metal, scrap); handling of containers; dangerous cargoes (explosive subtances, compressed or liquefied gases, flammable liquids, etc.); handling of timber (logs, planks, etc.); bulk cargoes.
Izdatel'stvo "Transport", Basmannyj tup. 6a, Moskva, USSR, 1977. 137p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: Rbl.0.48.
Occupational accidents in maritime transport, 1976
Merenkulkijain työtapaturmat vuonna 1976 [in Finnish]
Olycksfall i arbete för sjöfolk - år 1976 [in Swedish]
Contents of this statistical report: general occupational accident situation in the Finnish merchant marine (manning in various categories of seafarer, number of accidents, frequency rates); hazards involved in certain work on board (mooring, casting off moorings, handling loads, cleaning and maintenance, etc.); statistical tables of accident causes, with breakdown by site of injury, occupational category, duration of disability and work engaged on at time of accident; tables of jobs performed, with breakdown by site and type of injury, class of accident, duration of disability and time of day or night at which the accident occurred. Appendix: classification and definition of accident causes.
Tilastotiedotus 4/77, Työsuojehallitus, Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1977. 25p.
Konovalenko L.K., Konovalenko A.V.
Safe operation of electrical equipment on sea-going vessels
Tehnika bezopasnosti pri ėkspluatacii ėlektroustanovok na morskom transporte [in Russian]
Contents of this practical manual: working conditions and electrical safety; electrical hazards and first aid in the event of an electrical accident; safety analysis of electric circuits (triphase, neutral conductor, single phase); prevention of electrical accidents (insulation, frame earthing, disconnection, etc.); safety tools and devices for work on electric installations; electromagnetic radiation, static electricity and lightning protection; safe maintenance of ship circuits; safe operation of electric motors driving deck equipment, maintenance and repair of electrical equipment (including accumulators); safe work at heights, use of electric tools, electric welding, etc.; fire safety.
Izdatel'stvo "Transport", Basmannyj tup. 6a, Moskva, USSR, 1977. 112p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: Rbl.0.28.
Zorn E.W., Harrington J.M., Goethe H.
Ischemic heart disease and work stress in West German sea pilots.
This study revealed an excess mortality from cardiac disease in this occupational group compared with the Hamburg male population. The excess was most noticeable in the 31-50-year group (22 deaths, against 4 expected). Occupational stress may be involved in addition to established coronary artery disease risk factors. Catecholamines were significantly high during pilotage operations. A detailed workload analysis as a basis for a code of practice to control excessive working hours is advocated.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1977, Vol.19, No.11, p.762-765. 10 ref.
Handling hatch boards and beams.
This data sheet contains sections devoted to: design of hatch beams for covering holds on cargo vessels (materials, recessed hand grips, interlocking edges, locking devices on flanged beams, roller-type beams and pontoons, clamps and other means of securing hatch covers; tarpaulins); lifting of beams and pontoons; hazards (e.g. falls through hatch covering if beams become dislodged, falling objects, crushing). Safety rules: check-list of 8 procedures to be followed in shipping and unshipping hatch boards or beams.
Data Sheet 661, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 4p. Illus.
Shibata T., Matsushita H., Takahashi Y.
Relation between lumbago and exposure to vibration during dock loading and unloading work.
About 80% of longshoremen over 30 years of age exposed to vibration during loading and unloading ships and more than 50% of those under 30 years suffered from lumbago. Vibration of forklift trucks, work posture and other environmental conditions are suggested as the main causative factors.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, 15 Feb. 1977, Vol.13, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 5 ref.
Report of the Maritime Safety Committee at its 36th Session.
Rapport du Comité de la sécurité maritime sur les travaux de sa trente-sixième session. [in French]
This Report of the 36th Session of the Committee (London, 18-22 Apr. 1977) gives the texts of reports, resolutions and recommendations adopted by the Committee covering, inter alia: search and rescue; life-saving appliances; fire protection; safety aspects of ship design and equipment; standards of training and watchkeeping; carriage of dangerous goods; bulk chemicals; radiocommunications; investigations into serious casualties; deficiency reports; tonnage measurements; safety of persons carried by supply vessels to and from oil drilling units; safety measures for roll-on/roll-off ships; tanker safety. Numerous appendices: Code of Safety for dynamically supported craft; amendments to the International Maritime Dangerous Good (IMDG) Code (inter alia, inclusion of pollutants); amendments to the Code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk; guidelines for the application of amendments to the Bulk Chemical Code; interpretation of Regulations of the 1966 Load Line Convention; Recommendation on intact stability requirements for off-shore supply vessels; plan for the establishment of a world-wide navigational warning system, etc.
IMCO-MSC XXXVI/22, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, 22 Berners Street, London W1, United Kingdom, 28 Apr. 1977. 168p.
Rycroft R.J.G., Calnan C.D.
Report on a localised epidemic of scabies in river pleasure craft crews, lasting nearly one year. There was a sharp contrast between the paucity of scabietic lesions, especially burrows, and an unusually high infectivity. Possible causes of the outbreak, including overcrowding on board ship and personal hygiene, are discussed.
British Medical Journal, 30 July 1977, Vol.2, No.6082, p.303-304. 9 ref.
Directives concerning occupational safety and health measures for loading and unloading ships and dock work in general
Anvisningar om skyddsåtgärder vid lastning och lossning av fartyg samt vid terminalarbete i hamn [in Swedish]
Contents of these directives (entry into force: 1 July 1977): co-ordination between 2 or more employers or contractors of dock workers; responsibilities and legal liability; work planning and management (duties of supervisors, gang leaders, slingers, crane operators, etc.); standards to be met by dockside area and access to ship, to holds, etc.; lighting; lifting equipment (safety by design, inspection, periodic checks, slings, lifting tackle, pallets, containers, etc.); handling of loads (slinging; lifting; stacking, stowing and securing of cargo; hatchways; fork lift trucks; dangerous substances, etc.); personal protective equipment and life-saving equipment. Texts of a number of standards and directives concerning the inspection of lifting equipment, handling and securing of containers and handling of dangerous substances are appended.
Anvisningar nr 1, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 10026 Stockholm 34, Sweden, Mar. 1977. 102p. Illus. Price: Swe-Cr.15.30.
Bibliography: nautical medicine - Vol.I.
Bibliographie Schiffahrtsmedizin - Bd.I [in German]
List of the documentation (some 6,000 documents at present) in the collection of the Nautical Medicine Department of the Bernard Nocht Institute for Seafarers' and Tropical Diseases (Hamburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany), giving title and source of these documents (but no abstract), under the following headings: history; summarised reports, encyclopaediae; medical care on board and ashore; marine biology; physiology; toxicology; prophylaxis and curative medicine; motion sickness; psychology and mental hygiene; hygiene in seafaring and port hygiene; port labour; epidemiology; occupational medicine and ergonomics; medico-technical equipment and procedures; selection, fitness, qualification, training; shipwreck, survival at sea, rescue equipment; diving, living under water; nautical medical themes in respect of ship types; inland waterway shipping; laws, regulations, standards, instructions, leaflets. Contents in German and English. Alphabetical author index.
Abteilung für Schiffahrtsmedizin, Bernhard-Nocht-Institut für Schiffs- und Tropenkrankheiten, Seewartenstrasse 9a, 2000 Hamburg 11, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Apr. 1977. 376p.
Revision of the Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Convention (Revised), 1932 (No.32).
Révision de la convention (n°32) sur la protection des dockers contre les accidents (révisée), 1932. [in French]
Preliminary report for communication to governments, with a view to a first discussion at the 1978 International Labour Conference, of the question of the revision of this ILO Convention (No.32) in view of the rapid technological changes in loading and unloading ships in ports. The report contains a questionnaire addressed to national authorities of ILO Member States; replies will be summarised in a second report. Aspects covered: technical developments and safety measures (developments in cargo handling (container traffic, barge carriers, etc.); ILO action with regard to safety and health in dock work; activities of other international organisations); application of the Convention (law and practice in various countries; problems encountered); conclusions: Convention No.32 is manifestly out of date and urgently requires revision. The text of Convention No.32 and the Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Reciprocity Recommendation, 1932, are appended, together with extracts from the Report of the ILO Meeting of Experts on Safety and Health in Dock Work (Geneva, 13-21 Jan. 1976).
Report VI(1), International Labour Conference, 64th Session 1978. International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1977. 64p. Price: SF.15.00.
Casualties to vessels and accidents to men - Vessels registered in the United Kingdom: Return for 1975.
This report gives, inter alia, statistics concerning deaths due to disease (including tropical diseases) or accident, and details of non-fatal injuries, among crew members of: merchant vessels; deep-sea trawlers (breakdown between near and middle water side trawlers and distant water side and stern trawlers, further subdivided according to length); and coastal trawlers. Breakdown of fatal crew accidents on trawlers (1958-1975) inclusive) by rank or duties: skippers and second-hands; bosuns, deck-hands, spare hands, deck learners; engineers, greasers, firemen; cooks, galley boys, radio officers, etc. (estimated population at risk: 3,100). Breakdown of non-fatal injuries on trawlers (for 1975) by cause or place of accident: engineroom or stokehold; falls from aloft or down hatchways; accidents on deck (including slips, falls, etc.); fell or washed overboard (estimated population at risk: 2,900).
Marine Division, Department of Trade, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1977. 46p. Illus. Price: £1.75.
Ministry of Social Affairs (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken), Den Haag.
Annual report of the Inspectorate of Dock Labour, 1974-75
Jaarsverslag inspectie van de havenarbeid - 1974-1975 [in Dutch]
General survey of the organisation and activities of the Netherlands Inspectorate of Dock Labour, with particular reference to the enforement and administration of occupational safety and health regulations, safety campaigns, vocational training and social welfare. The last chapter is devoted to occupational accidents and their causes (descriptions of accidents involving lifting equipment, fork lift trucks, belt conveyors, slinging and lifting cargo, hatches, stairways and ladders, unsafe work methods, hazardous substances, etc.).
Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-General van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, Voorburg, Netherlands, July 1977. 68p. Illus.
Recommendation concerning the improvement of standards in merchant ships.
Recommandations concernant l'amélioration des normes sur les navires marchands. [in French]
This Recommendation, adopted on 11 Nov. 1976, concerns all sea-going ships, publicly or privately owned, engaged in the transport of cargo or passengers, and sea-going tugs. It is recommended that Member States of the ILO should take steps, by stages if necessary, to ensure that national laws or regulations and collective agreements contain provisions at least equivalent to the instruments referred to in the appendix to the Recommendation: inter alia, the Food and Catering (Ship's Crews) Convention, 1946 (No.68); Accommodation of Crews (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1970 (No.133); Prevention of Accidents (Seafarers) Convention, 1970 (No.134); IMCO/ILO Document for Guidance, 1975, etc.
Official Bulletin - Bulletin officiel, Recommendation 155, International Labour Conference, Geneva. International Labour Office, 1211 Genève, Switzerland, 1977, Vol.60, Series A, No.1, p.25-27.
Recommendation concerning the protection of young seafarers.
Recommandation concernant la protection des jeunes marins. [in French]
This Recommendation, adopted on 11 Nov. 1976, concerns all crew members under 18 years employed on vessels other than fishing vessels, whalers and ships of war, and contains provisions concerning: hours of permitted duty and rest periods; occupational safety, health education (lifting, moving or carrying heavy loads or objects; entry into boilers, tanks and cofferdams; exposure to harmful noise and vibration levels; operating hoisting and other power machinery and tools, or acting as signallers; handling mooring or tow lines or ground tackle; rigging; work aloft or on deck in heavy weather; night-watchman duties; servicing of electrical equipment; exposure to potentially harmful materials or harmful physical agents, dangerous or toxic substances, and ionising radiations; cleaning of catering machinery; handling or taking charge of ships' boats); training, etc.
Official Bulletin - Bulletin officiel, Recommendation 153, International Labour Conference, Geneva. International Labour Office, 1211 Genève, Switzerland, 1977, Vol.60, Series A, No.1, p.18-22.
Flynn J.P., Morrissette M.D.
Development of a compatibility guide for the water transport of bulk chemical cargoes.
A guide was developed for storing chemicals in adjacent tanks with minimum risk of dangerous reactions in case of wall rupture or accident. Experiments were used to determine whether exothermic reactions occurred, the maximum temperature rise and if a gas was a reaction product. 335 chemicals were classified into groups and matrixes were constructed to show compatibility of the groups.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Mar. 1977, Vol.1, No.4, p.331-342. 7 ref.
Document for guidance - 1975 - An international maritime training guide
Document destiné à servir de guide - 1975 - Guide international de formation maritime [in French]
Documento que ha de servir de guía - 1975 - Guía internacional para la formación de la gente de mar [in Spanish]
This guidance document on international maritime training requirements was prepared jointly by the ILO and the IMCO. It identifies the areas where training is required: radar navigation; international regulations for preventing collisions at sea; practice of navigation at sea; electronic systems of position fixing and echo sounders; electronic direction finders; aids to navigation; meteorology; compasses; signalling by international code signals; fire prevention and fire-fighting appliances; life saving; emergency procedures; ship manoeuvring and handling; ship construction and stability; cargo handling and stowage; training and qualifications of officers and crew of ships carrying hazardous or noxious chemicals in bulk; medical aid; search and rescue; prevention of sea pollution; main and auxiliary prime movers; boilers and pressure vessels; pumping and piping systems; automatic and remote control systems; electrical and electronic equipment and installation; use of tools. Appendices give more detailed guidance on matters to be covered in training courses and examinations.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1976. ii, 55p. Price: CHF 10.00.
Occupational safety aspects of ship design
Arbetarskyddssynpunkter vid fartygsprojektering [in Swedish]
Contents of this profusely illustrated report: the ship as a workplace; occupational accidents on board ship; occupational accident and disease hazards and their elimination at the design stage (passageways, stairways and ladders, layout of doors, etc.; handling and stacking of cargo, hatchways, ramps, goods lifts, main and auxiliary propulsion engines, galley design and equipment; chemical hazards; electrical safety; noise and vibration control, protection against radiation and heat); ergonomics (design of controls, etc.); bad weather protection. Appendices: references to Finnish legislation; statistics of accidents on board Finnish vessels; extracts from standards (hearing damage risk criteria, data on sloping angle of ladders and dimensions of steps).
Forskningsrapport 16, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Tammerfors, Finland, 1976. 110p. Illus. 54 ref.
Notification No.16/1976, concerning the unloading of new motor cars
Meddelelse nr.16/1976 om losning af nye biler [in Danish]
These directives (entry into force: 24 Aug. 1976) are intended to limit exposure to exhaust gases when new cars imported by sea are unloaded by being driven directly ashore from the car deck or hold. Starting up the engines when they are cold produces high CO concentrations, which must be monitored. If the concentration rises above 50ppm, unloading must be discontinued until it falls below 20ppm. When the CO concentration reaches 35ppm alternating work periods and work breaks of 10-15min each are tolerated.
M 16/1976, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København, Denmark, 24 Aug. 1976. 2p. Gratis.
Granati A., Melino C.
Medico-social aspects of maritime work
Aspetti medico-sociali del lavoro marittimo [in Italian]
After a general introduction and statistics on ships and seafarers in Italy, this book deals, in Part 1, with: the seaman's workpost; the natural environment; environment on board ship; work on board; the ship as the seaman's home; psychological aspects; hazards of the sea (physical and chemical agents, various dusts, environmental hazards, biological agents, accident risks); repercussions on health. Part 2 is concerned with prevention: technical aspects, organisation, personal protective equipment; specific protection measures against diseases of individual organ systems; compression sickness; occupational diseases due to toxic agents, noise, vibration, heat and radiation; accident prevention; international standards; prevention of specific types of accident (fire and explosions, collisions, shipwreck, drowning; first aid, rescue, survival).
Istituto italiano di medicina sociale, Roma, Italy, 1976. 136p. Illus. 128 ref. Price: L.3,000.
Technical rules on the construction and equipment of crew accommodation in sea-going ships
Technische Regeln für Bau und Ausrüstung von Unterkunftsräumen auf Seeschiffen [in German]
Supplement to the Appendix to the Order of 8 Feb. 1973 respecting accommodation of crew members aboard merchant ships (CIS 74-1145): insulation, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, floors, walls, ceilings, furniture and fittings, sleeping quarters (location and nature, berths, fittings, floor area, occupancy), messes, recreation rooms, kitchens, pantries, sanitary facilities, waste, drinking water tanks, plumbing, water quality, recreational facilities. Further, rules for lighting and chlorination of drinking water are set out.
Arbeitsschutz, Jan. 1976, No.1, p.33-40.
Goethe H., Herrmann R., Geister R., Vuksanovic P.
Toxicological effects in the crew of tankers
Die Frage der toxikologischen Beeinflussung der Besatzung von Tankschiffen [in German]
After mention of the relevant literature the results of a comparative pilot study in subjects chosen at random among 200 tanker crew members and 200 members of other ships' crews are reported. The differences in subjective symptoms and the results of haematological and biochemical studies are tabulated and discussed. A significantly higher incidence of headache, general weakness, sweet taste in the mouth, loss of appetite and nausea was found in the tanker crews, who also had higher segmented and stab neutrophil counts, lower eosinophil counts and lower alkaline and acid phosphatase levels.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Feb. 1976, Vol.11, No.2, p.46-51.
Guide to safety and health in dock work.
Guide pour la sécurité et l'hygiène dans les manutentions portuaires. [in French]
This guide is a collection of explanatory material supplementing the code of practice on safety and health in dock work prepared by a meeting of experts in 1956 on the initiative of the International Labour Office. The chapters of the guide are arranged to match those of the code: general (housekeeping, lighting, ventilation, machinery, etc.); wharfs and quays; means of access to ships; transport of dockers by water; protection of hatchways; access to holds; decks; loading and unloading machinery and gear; loading and unloading operations; lifting, carrying and piling; warehouses and storeplaces; dangerous substances and environments; personal protective equipment; medical aid and rescue; personnel facilities; selection and training of dock workers. On account of developments in the packaging of goods a chapter on packaging has been added over and above those in the code, as has a chapter on nuclear merchant vessels.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1st edition 1976. 287p. Price: SF.32.50.
Ministry of Social Affairs (Ministerie van sociale zaken), Den Haag.
Annual reports of the Inspectorate of Dock Labour, 1971-1973 inclusive
Jaarverslag inspectie van de havenarbeid - 1971 tot en met 1973 [in Dutch]
A general survey of the work done by the Netherlands Dock Labour Inspectorate with particular reference to the application of dock labour legislation and other relevant regulations. The main body of the reports is devoted to occupational safety and health inspection in the docks: cranes, hoists and tackle; penalties for infringement of safety regulations; hazardous substances; belt conveyors; forklift trucks; bale-grappling spreaders; accidents due to loading booms; hatches, ladders; slinging; incorrect storage; hazards in unloading timber; dock transport; fire and explosion hazards; personal protective equipment; unsafe work practices; injury due to wearing rings, etc. A chapter is devoted to accident prevention campaigns, vocational training and welfare.
Labour Inspectorate, General Directorate of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, Voorburg, Netherlands, Sep. 1975. 36p. Illus.
Dvoskin Ja., Sandrackaja S.Ė., Rahmanina N.A., Rodnikov A.V., Žarkova V.K., Volodina L.I., Erofeeva L.F., Kalinko T.A., Laškina A.V.
Study of the combined effect of phenol and formaldehyde in a warm atmosphere (+30°)
Izučenie sovmestnogo dejstvija fenola i formal'degida v kombinacii s povyšennoj temperaturoj vozduha [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments for the establishment of standards for use of phenol-formaldehyde resins in the construction of ships sailing in the tropics. Chronic exposure to 0.023mg/m3 phenol and 0.024mg/m3 formaldehyde at 30°C produces a toxic effect characterised by changes in the erythropoiesis, the phagocytic activity of the neutrophiles, neuromuscular functions, etc. As a result of these and other experiments with lower concentrations (at the same temperature) the authors recommend 0.005mg/m3 and 0.006mg/m3 as TLVs for combinations of phenol and formaldehyde, respectively.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.17-21. 5 ref.
García Rico A.M., Garcés J., Más J., Nolla R.
Collective acute methyl bromide poisoning
Intoxication aiguë collective par le bromure de méthyle. [in French]
Translation of: Intoxicación aguda colectiva por bromuro de metilo. Medicina clínica, Barcelona, Spain, Oct. 1974, Vol.63, No.6, p.291-296. 14 ref. (CIS 75-1032). Description of a case of collective poisoning involving a group of 13 seamen (of whom 2 died) who entered the hold of a ship carrying a natural fertiliser cargo (ground cattle bones which had been treated with methyl bromide as an insecticide prior to sailing). Symptoms, case history, clinical picture, differential diagnosis, aetiology, pathogenesis, anatomical and pathological findings. Description of symptoms of chronic poisoning. Treatment. The authors recommend that the use of methyl bromide as a disinfectant in enclosed spaces should be prohibited.
Traduction INRS 104 B-75, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1975. 20p. 14 ref.
Volčonok I.I., Konibolockij F.P., Šergin V.V.
Occupational safety and health in inland waterway transport - Compendium of regulations
Ohrana truda na rečnom transporte - Sbornik rukovodjaščih dokumentov [in Russian]
Contents: general provisions (extracts from laws of the USSR and RSFSR); organisation of prevention; collective agreements respecting occupational safety and health; safety and health requirements to be met by vessels and installations; work clothes and personal protective equipment; amenities for heavy or dangerous work (additional leave, prophylactic extra rations and beverages); medical supervision; labour inspectorate; investigation and notification of occupational accidents; legal liability in case of non-observance of safety and health legislation.
Izdatel'stvo "Transport", Basmannyj tup. 6a, Moskva, USSR, 2nd edition 1975. 464p. Price: Rbl.2.35.
First Ibero-American Symposium on employment hazards in maritime employment
Primeros coloquios iberoamericanos sobre prevención de riesgos profesionales en labores marítimas [in Spanish]
Record of proceedings of a symposium held at Viña del Mar (Chile), 18-23 May 1975. Five volumes are devoted to: 1. Workers' protection: dock work; statistics of materials handling accidents, 1972-1973; medical prevention; fire protection on board vessels; psycho-social considerations; determination of aerobic power of dock workers; hazards of underwater work; selection and training of ships' crews, particularly from the occupational safety and health point of view. 2. Protection of materials: handling equipment; personal protective equipment; inspection of lifting equipment; extracts from Chilean regulations and ILO Convention No.32 (Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Convention (Revised), 1932); handling of copper ingots; use of lifting ropes and chains. 3. Noise exposure: noise problem in ships' engine rooms; noise measurement; hearing protection programme; noise reduction methods. 4. Miscellaneous questions: ship maintenance and repair; occupational safety and health in inland waterway shipping; safety aspects of shipbuilding (fishing craft). 5. Summaries and discussions.
Instituto de seguridad del trabajo, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 247, Casilla 3585, Santiago, Chile, 1975. 5 parts, unnumbered. Illus.
Vinogradova O.V., Sorokin G.A., Havkina N.N.
Physiological and health characteristics of night work of longshoremen
K fiziologo-gigieničeskoj harakteristike nočnogo truda pri pogruzočno-razgruzočnyh rabotah [in Russian]
This study covered 600 longshoremen working 8h shifts on the Leningrad docks. Physiological data (heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tone, etc.) obtained during the night shift were compared to those in the same people under identical conditions during the day shift. All the physiological parameters were at their lowest levels during the last hours of night. The consequences were that productivity decreased 17-18% and that morbidity and accident frequency increased.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1975, No.2, p.5-8. Illus. 4 ref.
Loading and unloading of logs in inland waterway harbours
Stammholz-Umschlag in Binnenhäfen [in German]
General advice on personal protective equipment (e.g. spike plates for shoes), securing of open hatch covers and the duties of the signaller providing communication between workers in the hold and the cranedriver. Examples, with comments, of slinging of logs with self-tightening clamps, plain wire-ropes and roller-shackle slings (self-tightening slings) and claw-type grasping devices, with reference to the hazards entailed by incorrect slinging.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, June 1975, Vol.27, No.6, p.219-224. Illus.
Reum P.J., Weber T., Wendt A.
Contribution to the health status of inland waterway crews on the basis of occupational medical screening examinations
Beitrag zum Gesundheitszustand von Binnenschiffsbesatzungen auf der Grundlage arbeitsmedizinischer Screeninguntersuchungen [in German]
Analysis of the health status of 110 inland waterway sailors. The incidence of cardiovascular disorders (27%) was considerably higher than in other branches of industry, while that of musculoskeletal (13%), respiratory (7%) and digestive (7%) complaints was lower. Sequelae of injury are important on account of the high accident rate in this occupation. Differences in the morbidity structure between the two main categories - master and crew members - are accounted for only by the fact that the former are 10 years older on average.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1975, Vol.22, No.4-5, p.156-161. Illus. 13 ref.
Reum P.J., Riedel R., Paul S., Beerens E.
Work studies as basis for work profiles in inland waterway shipping
Arbeitsstudien als Grundlage der Professiografie in der Binnenschiffahrt [in German]
The mental strain imposed on the master and the physical strain on the crew is considerably higher during short-haul trips than on long journeys with powered push-tugs. Work studies combined with recording and evaluation of environmental factors relevant to occupational hygiene and assessment of the arduousness of the work constitute the basis on which work profiles are elaborated.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1975, Vol.22, No.4-5, p.148-155. Illus. 24 ref.
Rimkus R., Reum P.J., Kluba J.
Damage analysis and work activity analysis to determine psychic demands in skippers of inland waterway vessels
Havarie- und Arbeitstätigkeitsanalyse zur Ermittlung psychischer Leistungsanforderungen bei Schiffsführern der Binnenschiffahrt [in German]
Evaluation of 745 damage reports between 1970 and 1972 and a work activity study provided an insight into the stresses imposed on skippers of push-tugs and motor barges on inland waterways. Commonly occurring difficult traffic situations involving a high degree of hazard must be included in the training and on-going training syllabus for masters of this type of vessel. To reduce stresses it appears necessary to mark critical points along waterways.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1975, Vol.22, No.4-5, p.139-147. Illus. 9 ref.
Choice of measurement sites for estimating the vibration level at crew's workposts and off-duty quarters on sea-going ships
Orientierende Messpunkte zur Einschätzung des Schwingungsniveaus der Aufenthaltsorte von Besatzungen auf Hochseeschiffen [in German]
Description of the various measurement sites on each deck, distributed so as to provide an overall picture of the vibrations on board ship. The model can be employed as a basis for acceptance tests, control measurements and comparisons of different types of ship. It is not suitable for study of specific vibration problems.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1975, Vol.22, No.1, p.11-17. Illus. 4 ref.
Gibbons S.L., Lewis A.B., Lord P.
Noise and vibration on board ship.
Noise and vibration measurements were carried out on 4 tankers, and the results expressed in the form of a total acoustic environment by using the combined NVR - noise and vibration rating as defined by Janssen (noise levels generally decrease and vibration levels increase the more remote the engine room; in tankers with no separate control room available to the engineers, the latter in most cases are exposed to noise levels exceeding 85dB). Simultaneously, 24h urinary 17-ketosteroid levels and urinary volumes were determined among ships officers, and their subjective response to noise, vibration and life on board obtained by interview. The NVR ranking of the 4 tankers tied in very well with the objective physiological response (17-ketosteroid changes) and the subjective assessment of overall comfort, but not with urinary volumes. It appears that the stressful effect of the ship's environment is somewhat alleviated by the long leave periods.
Journal of Sound and Vibration, 22 Nov. 1975, Vol.43, No.2, p.253-261. Illus. 9 ref.
Fire hazards of calcium hypochlorite.
About a dozen fires and explosions of calcium hypochlorite occurred aboard British ships during the 5-year period 1969-73. This led to investigation of the accidents and of the composition and properties of the commercial material. Impurities in the product, contaminants introduced later, and heat due to storage or reaction may contribute to the instability. The material appears to be more hazardous than indicated by its classification in the IMCO Code as oxidising agent in Class 5.1. Storage on deck is recommended. Further study of the cause of the instability is required.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.83-94.
Aerobic capacity of dock workers in Bombay.
Investigations with a bicycle ergometer to assess the aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen uptake capacity) of 61 dock workers employed in lifting and carrying 100-kg grain bags in the Bombay docks are described. A mean value of 2,572 ± 54ml/min was found, a high value compared with results of studies of other occupations, and indicating better physical fitness than that of other Indian workers. The relationship with age and body weight is examined.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1975, Vol.36, No.4, p.311-317. Illus. 25 ref.
Dangerous-goods classifying catalogue.
This computerised alphabetical catalogue of 7,869 dangerous materials is intended for those engaged in their importation and exportation via Israeli ports. The chief information provided on each substance is: classification by the Israel Ports Authority (Class A: substances which must be delivered directly; Class B: those which must be stored separately, with special provisions for the port of Eilat); Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) classification; subclass (auxiliary classification of materials with several hazardous properties); page number of entry in the IMCO International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; U.N. No. (number allocated by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods). Explanatory notes are provided in English and Hebrew.
Israel Ports Authority, P.O.B. 20121, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 1975. 225p.
Paffenbarger R.S., Hale W.E.
Work activity and coronary heart mortality.
6,351 longshoremen were followed up for 22 years or until death or the age of 75. Their longshoring experience was computed in terms of work-years according to categories of high, medium and low caloric output. An age-adjusted coronary death rate of 26.9 per 10,000 work-years was found for the high activity category, compared with 46.3 and 49.0 for the medium and low categories. The rate of the sudden death syndrome was 5.6 in the heavy workers, 19.9 in moderate and 15.7 in light workers. Repeated bursts of high energy output establish a plateau of protection against coronary mortality. Mechanisms that may explain this finding are discussed.
New England Journal of Medicine, Mar. 1975, Vol.292, No.11, p.545-550. Illus. 34 ref.
Wilkinson S.P., McHugh P., Horsley S., Tubbs H., Lewis M., Thould A., Winterton M., Parsons V., Williams R.
Arsine toxicity aboard the Asiafreighter.
Medical report on 8 cases of poisoning on a ship due to arsine that had escaped from the cargo hold. The article describes the incident, the initial symptoms, and the effects on the haematological, renal, neurological, pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, skin, nails and hair, liver, and joints. 4 patients were severely poisoned and intravascular haemolysis was complete in one case, requiring an exchange transfusion. All 4 developed renal failure, and 2 of them peripheral neuropathy. The article is illustrated by photographs and tables.
British Medical Journal, 6 Sep. 1975, Vol.3, No.5893, p.559-563. Illus. 20 ref.
Iwanoff I., Jungmann H., Probst P.
Air-conditioning systems and disease due to cold
Klimaanlagen und Erkältungskrankheiten [in German]
Inspection of the log books of 39 merchant vessels, some equipped with air conditioning but the others not, which had made 820 voyages to tropical zones. The incidence of respiratory disease was twice as high in the air-conditioned ships. The deduction may be drawn from these data that air-conditioning should be adapted not only to general comfort conditions but also to outside temperatures.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Apr. 1975, Vol.10, No.4, p.78-81. 6 ref.
International conference on safety of life at sea
Final act of an international conference held in London, United Kingdom, on 1 November 1974, during which IMO Member States formally signed the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. The full text of the Convention is included.
IMO Publishing Service, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom, 1975. viii, , 266p. Illus.
One factor too many
Hoffentlich fehlt der dritte [in German]
The extent of the transport of flammable liquids by inland waterways in the Fed.Rep. of Germany is demonstrated with the aid of figures (80 million tons per year, 1,000 tankers). Simple instructive experiments are used to explain the basic elements underlying the associated explosion hazard. An explosion hazard exists when a third factor, an ignition source, is added to the presence of air and gas. Safety arrangements on tankers and their effectiveness are dealt with, as are the safe practices designed to eliminate ignition sources in the transfer of flammable liquids.
16-mm colour film with magnetic or optical sound, 30 min, 1974. Binnenschiffahrts-Berufsgenossenschaft, König-Friedrich-Wilhelm-Strasse 4, 4100 Duisburg 13, Germany (Fed.Rep.). Price: DM.2,300.
Occupational safety and health standards for maritime employment.
This consolidated text of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Maritime Employment updates and republishes the standards, but does not make any substantive changes. It is divided into 5 main parts (ship repairing, shipbuilding, shipbreaking, longshoring, cargo gear certification) covering the following aspects: explosive and other hazardous atmospheres; surface preparation and preservation (toxic cleaning solvents, chemical paint and preservative removers, mechanical paint removers, painting, flammable liquids); welding, cutting and heating; scaffolds, ladders and other working surfaces; general working conditions; gear and equipment for rigging and materials handling; tools and related equipment; personal protective equipment; ship's machinery and piping systems; portable, unfired pressure vessels, drums and containers, other equipment; electrical machinery, opening and closing hatches, means of access, ship's cargo handling gear, etc. Subject index with each part.
Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Chapter 17, Parts 1915-1919. Washington, D.C., USA, 19 June 1974, Vol.39, No.119, p.22001-22106.
Liquefied petroleum gas installations on board river-going ships, with a critical appraisal of present regulations
Flüssiggasanlagen an Bord von Binnenschiffen unter kritischer Würdigung der derzeitigen Vorschriften [in German]
The properties of liquefied petroleum gas and its accident hazards are pinpointed. The requirements for design and installation of a supply unit and for pipework, valves and consumer equipment as laid down by the current German (Fed.Rep.) regulations and directives (which are listed) are discussed.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Sep. 1974, Vol.86, No.9, p.394-397. Illus.
Guidelines concerning in-port safety activities during loading and unloading of ships
Vejledning om internt sikkerhedsarbejde ved lastning og losning [in Danish]
These guidelines comment the Notification of 15 Nov. 1973 made by the Danish Ministry of Labour concerning in-port safety activities. They explain the reasons for, and the basis and scope of, safety activities in connection with dock work and show how these activities should be organised. They outline the tasks of the safety service and the functions, powers and duties of supervisors, safety officers and employers, and deal with the functions of the safety committee, auxiliary occupations in docks, routine safety activities, training of safety officers, planning for safe work, accident investigation, safety propaganda, campaigns and publicity, responsibilities and competencies. The relevant articles of the Workers Protection Act and the Notification are reproduced.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1974. 60p. Illus. Gratis.
All India seminar on dock safety, Bombay, 25th and 26th November, 1974.
The accident statistics for all ports in India from 1968 to 1974 reproduced in this pamphlet indicate that about 75% of accidents are due to 4 factors: handling of cargo, falling objects, handling of articles other than cargo, and stepping on or striking against objects; over this period, the accident rate in Indian ports was reduced by almost 60%. Of the 16 papers read at the seminar, 13 abstracts (mostly quite exhaustive) of those on the following subjects are given: adequacy of port facilities for modern cargo handling; multipurpose carriers; training; employer-employee relationships; the government's role in accident prevention; incentives and dock safety; work in confined spaces and tank cleaning; modernisation of port facilities in India; safety in dry docks; chipping and painting operations; cargo handling appliances.
Indian National Shipowners' Association and Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes, Bombay, India, Nov. 1974. 23p.
Causes of disabling accidents in thirteen large undertakings
Oorzaken van ongevallen met verzuim bij dertien grote bedrijven [in Dutch]
Compilation of statistical data obtained from the occupational medical service of the port of Rotterdam (number of accidents, working hours lost, cost of accidents and percentage of all accidents) for 1972 and 1973, broken down by causes and location of injury.
De veiligheid, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.471.
García Rico A.M., Garcés J., Más J., Nolla R.
Collective acute methyl bromide poisoning
Intoxicación aguda colectiva por bromuro de metilo [in Spanish]
Description of a case of collective poisoning involving a group of 13 seamen (of whom 2 died) who entered the hold of a ship carrying a natural fertiliser cargo (ground cattle bones which had been treated with methyl bromide as an insecticide before sailing). Symptoms, case history, clinical picture, differential diagnosis, aetiology, pathogenesis, pathological findings. Description of symptoms of chronic poisoning. Treatment. The authors recommend that the use of methyl bromide as a disinfectant in enclosed spaces should be prohibited.
Medicina clínica, Oct. 1974, Vol.63, No.6, p.291-296. 14 ref.
Loading and unloading of dangerous goods
Lasting og lossing av farlig gods [in Norwegian]
Guidelines for the safe handling of dangerous substances on board ships: employers' duties; informing dockworkers about hazards and supplying personal protective equipment; organisation of loading and unloading; rules for handling substances with an unknown or very high degree of hazard; fire and explosion hazards; care in handling; loading and unloading equipment; elimination of spills; oxidation and polymerisation hazards; prohibition of open flames, smoking and eating; first aid rules. A compilation of Norwegian and international regulations governing the transport of dangerous goods is appended.
Veiledning nr.5, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, May 1974. 6p. Gratis.
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