Water transportation - 485 entries found
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Herald of Free Enterprise: Report retrospective
This report reviews the accident in which the British roll-on roll-off (ro-ro) ferry (Herald of Free Enterprise) capsized on 6 March 1987 near Zeebrugge, on the Belgian coast. The direct cause was the inflow of water through the bow door, which had not been shut (contrary to ship's standing orders). Although the ship did not entirely sink, a large number of passengers and crew were trapped inside and died. The report analyzes the reasons why the rescue organization failed. Among other causes: negligence of the captain and officers; passenger overloading; lack of electronic monitoring of the doors; difficulties in having access to lifejackets etc. Comments and recommendations are made relating to the safety, loading and stability of the ship and to life-saving measures in such emergencies.
Occupational Safety and Health, Nov. 1996, Vol.26, No.11, p.38-43. Illus.
Saarni H., Niemi L., Koskela R.S., Pentti J., Kuusela A.
Mortality among Finnish sea pilots 1956-85: A retrospective cohort study
Mortality data for 262 Finnish sea pilots who died during 1956-1985 were compared to data for the male population in southwest Finland in general. The mortality rate for all cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer was lower among the pilots than in the comparison population; the rates for ischaemic heart diseases were similar in both groups. The lower mortality from ischaemic heart disease among younger pilots who entered the service during this period indicated a health-based selection into piloting. The importance of appropriate medical examinations for sea pilots is stressed.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.46, No.4, p.281-284. 26 ref.
Pearce M.S., Buttery Y.E., Brueton R.N.
Knee pathology among seafarers: A review of 299 patients
A study of 299 actively serving or retired seafarers with knee problems revealed 51% with knee osteoarthritis and 31% with genu varus [sic] or bow legs. It is suggested that these problems resulted from repetitive minor trauma to the medial compartment of the knee and frequent climbing of stairs within the vertical environment of a moving ship. Improvements in ship design and the application of sound work practices are proposed.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1996, Vol.46, No.2, p.137-140. Illus. 10 ref.
Understanding some of the more difficult research problems in maritime human factor research
Study of ship-board cultures and lifestyles in order to understand the human errors that occur in seafaring and the accidents that occur because of them. Results of four particular studies are summarized: fatigue at sea; coronary heart disease (CHD) among seafarers; deaths and injuries from accidents on board merchant ships; problems caused by the multicultural nature of ship crews and from the attendant failures of verbal and non-verbal communication. Extensive statistical tables are presented. Background material: fatigue on merchant ships (research data, current methods for fatigue reduction, the changing ship environment, causes and measurement of fatigue, circadian rhythms, microsleep, high risk times, desirability of rest days, fatigue monitoring, further research topics, conclusions); quality of sleep; CHD (project design, aims: data collection, risk estimation, proposals for prevention); multicultural problems and verbal and non-verbal on-board, ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication (background on intercultural relationships, sources of friction, development of standard maritime vocabularies; objectives of a project examining the problem from various angles).
International Research Centre for Seafarers Safety and Occupational Health, Department of Maritime Studies and International Transport, University of Wales, Cardiff CF1 3TS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1996. [59p.]. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Koo D., Maloney K., Tauxe R.
Epidemiology of diarrheal disease outbreaks on cruise ships, 1986 through 1993
A total of 31 outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases on cruise ships were investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the period 1986 to 1993. Some of the outbreaks may have been caused by food handlers working while ill. Provision of free medical consultation to food-handling employees and a sick leave policy for ill food handlers may prevent a substantial number of such outbreaks.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 21 Feb. 1996, Vol.275, No.7, p.545-547. 7 ref.
Revision of the Labour Inspection (Seamen) Recommendation, 1926 (No.28)
Révision de la recommandation (n°28) sur l'inspection du travail (gens de mer), 1926 [in French]
This report contains the English and French versions of a proposed ILO Convention and a proposed ILO Recommendation concerning maritime labour inspection. The conclusions adopted by the Tripartite Meeting on Maritime Labour Standards, on which the texts are based, are also presented, along with the proceedings of the Tripartite Meeting with respect to this item.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. iii, 41p. Price: CHF 12.50.
Moen B.E., Hollund B.E., Berntsen M., Flo R., Kyvik K.R., Riise T.
Exposure of the deck crew to carcinogenic agents on oil product tankers
Work on deck on eight oil product tankers was examined. The purpose was to evaluate the need for improvement of the working environment to reduce the risk of occupational cancer. Benzene, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic lead compounds were sampled and the crew answered a questionnaire on acute health effects. By area monitoring, benzene was generally found to be in the range from the detection limit of 0.01ppm up to 1.15ppm, but one tanker which loaded gasoline with the hatches open had levels up to 55ppm. Personal monitoring showed exposure levels in the range 0.01-1.15ppm. The PAH-levels and the levels of organic lead were low. No seamen were observed using respiratory protective equipment. Central nervous system symptoms were reported by the crew with the highest exposures to benzene although benzene may not be the only cause. The exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons on the deck of oil product tankers ought to be reduced.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 1995, Vol.39, No.3, p.347-361. Illus. 25 ref.
Safety of ships and accident prevention on ships with a small crew
Schiffssicherheit und Unfallverhütung auf Schiffen mit kleinen Besatzungen [in German]
In the period 1986-1993, between 170 and 250 ships per year were lost due to accidents worldwide. Out of this number, between 65 and 105 annually were lost due to sinking. Human errors prompted 75% of these accidents. Fatigue, lack of concentration, alcohol and drug abuse, errors of judgement and insufficient technical knowledge were found to be behind the human errors. Due to improved training, the accident rate on board of German commercial ships with small crews was cut between 1964 and 1994 by about two thirds.
Schiffsingenieur-Journal, 1995, Vol.41, No.240, p.12-20. Illus.
Marine medical research collection: Extracts from the Japanese Journals of Maritime Medicine
Translation from the Japanese of 134 research papers published during the period 1958-1994. The papers are classified according to the following topics: introduction to marine medicine; studies of the effects on the health of seamen of living on a ship; statistical studies of illnesses, injuries and accidents of seamen; studies on the health conditions of seamen's insurance pensioners; studies on medical counsel for ships at sea; studies on the care of sick and injured seamen at sea; studies of infectious diseases in seamen; studies of various issues related to illnesses, injuries and accidents among seamen; clinical studies of adult diseases among seamen; studies on the health care of seamen. In annex: future maritime medicine research topics.
SEMPOS (The Seamen's Insurance Foundation), 5-6 Shibuya 1-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan, 1995. xvi, 744p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Frieze P.A., Lewis T.C., Miller B.L.
Health and Safety Executive, Offshore Technology Report
Criteria for jack-ups manoeuvring in close proximity to jacket platforms
Risks associated with the manoeuvring of jack-ups onto location next to a fixed installation were investigated. In order to establish likely impact locations and velocities, a typical procedure for such a manoeuvre was drawn up. Impact modelling studies show that if the mean clearance cited in the procedure can be maintained, the likelihood of impact under normal circumstances is extremely small. The resulting graphs can be used to determine the risk level for a given seastate, duration and intended clearance between the jacket and the jack-up.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. i, 58p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Moen B.E., Hollund B.E., Berntsen M., Flo R., Kyvik K.R., Riise T.
Occupational exposure of deck crews to carcinogenic agents on crude oil tankers
Exposure to carcinogenic agents was examined on the decks of six Norwegian crude oil tankers in harbours in Norway and the USA. Technical arrangements and the work on deck were observed during loading and unloading. Air monitoring of benzene, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and some aldehydes showed that the levels of these carcinogens were low, probably because of the closed loading systems in use on all tankers. A questionnaire survey of the crewmen revealed irritative and central nervous system symptoms which were probably due to other chemical agents. Painting with paint that contained lead chromate (a known carcinogen) was frequently carried out without protective clothing.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1995, Vol.27, No.4, p.555-564. 23 ref.
Council Dir. 95/21/EC of 19.6.95 re the enforcement, in respect of shipping using Community ports and sailing in the waters under the jurisdiction of the Member States, of interna. standards for ship safety, pollution prevention and shipboard living and working conditions (port State control) [EC]
Dir. 95/21/CE du Conseil, du 19.6.95, concernant l'application aux navires faisant escale dans les ports de la Communauté ou dans les eaux relevant de la juridiction des Etats membres, des normes intern. rel. à la sécurité maritime, ... et aux conditions de vie et de travail ... [CE] [in French]
This Directive applies to all ships used for commercial purposes (except for fishing vessels) and their crew if they call at a port of a Member State or at an off-shore installation or if they are anchored off such a port or installation. Contents: obligation of Member States to maintain ship inspection authorities; inspection commitments and procedures; rights of detention; follow-up to inspections and detention; administrative matters. In annex: ships to be considered for priority inspection; list of certificates and documents; examples of "clear grounds" for more detailed inspections; procedures for the control of ships; categories of ships subject to expanded inspection; criteria for detention of a ship; minimum criteria for inspectors.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 7 July 1995, Vol.38, No.L 157, p.1-19.
Moen B.E., Riise T., Helseth A.
Mortality among seamen with special reference to work on tankers
Mortality was studied in 1687 men who were captains and mates during the period 1970-1987, and were registered by a Norwegian census in 1970. In all 181 deaths were found. Each case was age-matched at the time of death to three individuals from the rest of the population alive at this date. Information about the seamen's work on different ships was obtained for cases and controls. Seamen working on tankers had a higher mortality rate ratio (RR=2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-3.60) than seamen not working on tankers. The increased risk was especially related to death from cancer and from accidents, while no significantly increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease was found. Employment as a mate on tankers showed the highest all-causes risk of death (RR=3.14, 95% CI: 2.04-4.82) as well as for cancer (RR=4.24, 95% CI: 2.02-8.88) and accidents (RR=5.85, 95% CI: 1.66-20.60). Employment as a captain on tankers showed no significantly increased mortality.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Aug. 1994, Vol.23, No.4, p.737-741. 21 ref.
Rafnsson V., Gunnarsdóttir H.
Mortality among Icelandic seamen
In all 27,884 Icelandic seamen, both fishermen and sailors of the merchant fleet, who had been members of a pension fund between 1958 and 1986, were followed-up. Most standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were greater than 1: 1.26 for all causes, 1.13 for all malignant neoplasms, 1.80 for liver cancer, 1.19 for stomach cancer, 1.56 for lung cancer, and 1.21 for kidney cancer. The highest SMR was found for unknown causes, 3.16. There was no "healthy worker effect". For most causes of death latency time and mortality were strongly correlated. When analyzing the relation between duration of employment and mortality a correlation was found for all-causes and for stomach cancer; however, this was not statistically significant. The excess of stomach and lung cancer was high but it was not convincingly related to duration of employment and thus a relationship to occupation cannot be confirmed.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Aug. 1994, Vol.23, No.4, p.730-736. 30 ref.
Health and Safety Executive - Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB)
"Havkong" Incident - A joint report of the "Havkong" incident at Braefoot Bay Terminal by Aberdour, Fife on 23 January 1993
Report of a full investigation into an incident in which an LPG tanker broke loose from its moorings while loading butane. Though no serious injury or damage resulted from the incident, its circumstances merited an investigation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 58p. Illus. 6 ref. ###
Brandt L.P.A., Kirk N.U., Jensen O.C., Hansen H.L.
Mortality among Danish merchant seamen from 1970 to 1985
Retrospective cohort study of the mortality patterns of Danish merchant ships in the period 1970-1985. An increased overall mortality among all groups of seamen was found, being highest for deck and engine crew members. The overall mortality was strongly dependent on age and marital status. The highest mortality rate ratios (MRR) were found among young seamen and unmarried seamen. Elevated MRRs for cancer of the respiratory system were found among engine officers and crew. The MRRs for accidents and suicide were increased for all seamen, and were highest for crew members, among whom the MRR from accidents was stable within age groups but fell for suicide with increasing age. The same pattern was found with cirrhosis of the liver, although this was positively associated with increasing age. Excess mortality from ischaemic heart disease was only found among engine crew.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1994, Vol.25, No.6, p.867-876. 24 ref.
Maritime Labour Conventions and Recommendations [ILO]
Conventions et recommandations sur le travail maritime [OIT] [in French]
This publication contains the text of 28 ILO Conventions and 22 Recommendations dealing with conditions of employment of seafarers. It also gives the text of four ILO Conventions which apply to all workers including seafarers, but which are considered to form part of maritime minimum standards. Topics covered: general recommendations; training and entry into employment; conditions for admission to employment; certificates of competency; general conditions of employment; safety, health and welfare (food, accommodation, prevention of accidents, health protection and medical care); labour inspection; social security.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. vi, 194p. Index. Price: CHF 22.50.
Marine Safety Act 1994 [Australia - Queensland]
This Act received assent on 27 Apr. 1994 and commenced on 3 June 1994. It repealed the Queensland Marine Act 1958. OSH-related aspects (the only parts microfiched by CIS) include: objectives of the Act; mechanisms for ensuring safety at sea; safety obligations of ship designers and builders, marine surveyors, ship owners and masters, and of persons involved with ship operations; marine incidents (definition, duties of masters, reporting, investigation); reporting of dangers to navigation; obligation of master to give help; shipping inspectors (functions, rights of entry).
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera & Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.3, 6p. (pages numbered 68,841 - 68,846).
Health and Safety Executive
Fatigue in dock work
This data sheet provides guidance on factors to be considered when assessing health and safety risks due to both mental and physical fatigue with particular reference to dockwork. These include: the need for concentration, length of the working day, intervals between working days, shift work, night work. The need for rest days at appropriate intervals is emphasized.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1993. 2p.
Drugs and alcohol in the maritime industry
Report of the ILO Interregional Meeting of Experts held in Geneva, Switzerland, 29 September - 20 October 1992. It contains a synthesis of the discussions of the meeting, reports of three working groups and full texts of three discussion papers on the following subjects submitted by the ILO: drug and alcohol problems in the maritime industry; drug and alcohol screening issues in the maritime industry; proposed action plan to address these problems in the maritime industry. Il also contains notes submitted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) on its activities relevant to drug use and alcohol abuse, an International Shipping Federation paper on drugs and alcohol in the shipping sector, an International Transport Workers Federation policy paper on drugs and alcohol, and texts of country papers prepared by government participants from Brazil, Egypt, India, Norway, the Philippines, Poland and the United States.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. 165p. Bibl.ref.
Fröhner K.D., Angermann K.
Design of a control centre with special consideration of the age of employees
Leitwartengestaltung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Altersstruktur [in German]
The nautical centre in Hamburg, Germany, monitors and directs all traffic on the last section of the Elbe river emptying into Hamburg harbour. Analyses of workplace design revealed deficiencies in visual and acoustic perception and a failure to take into account the fact that the majority of the employees was over 50 years old. Outdated equipment and the room design created a working situation which did not meet the communicative and cooperative needs of the employees in terms of their own health and comfort or their ability to ensure safe water transport. The new equipment layout and workplace design, which support safe operations even in critical situations and thus diminishes strains on the employees, are presented.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, June 1993, Vol.47, No.2, p.79-84. Illus. 5 ref.
Council Directive 93/75/EEC of 13.09.1993 concerning minimum requirements for vessels bound for or leaving Community ports and carrying dangerous or polluting goods [European Communities]
Directive 93/75/CEE du Conseil, du 13.09.1993, relative aux conditions minimales exigées pour les navires à destination des ports maritimes de la Communauté ou en sortant et transportant des marchandises dangereuses ou polluantes [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive lists the type of information that the operator of a vessel leaving or entering a port should report to the competent authority. It also presents the check-list which the operator must fill in.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 5 Oct. 1993, Vol.36, No.L 247, p.19-27. Appendices.
Behörde für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg
Occupational health and safety in Hamburg harbour
Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz im Hamburger Hafen [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium on the health and safety of workers in the harbour of Hamburg, Germany. Subjects addressed include: effects of the lifting and carrying of loads on the musculoskeletal system, hazards involved in the slinging of loads, health hazards caused by exposure to organic dusts and diesel engine emissions, conditions and hazards associated with grain handling and exposure to vibrations and noise (e.g. on fork-lift trucks).
Edition Temmen, Hohlenstr. 21, 20209 Bremen, Germany, 1993. 160p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: DEM 19.90.
Aspects of work at height and the hazard of falls from height exemplified by the sailing ship Gorch Fock
Aspekte der Höhenarbeit und Absturzproblematik am Beispiel des Segelschulschiffes Gorch Fock [in German]
Taking the sailing ship Gorch Fock as an example, the conditions of work in the riggings are described. They are characterized by work at great height without guaranteed protection against falls. Most of the accidents that occurred on the sailing ship were due to falls from heights of more than 10m. Safety belts are presently in use for lack of any other suitable method. In addition, safe work practices and safety rules are taught. The personnel assigned to work at height is carefully selected after medical examinations.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, July 1993, Vol.28, No.7, p.308-313. Illus. 16 ref.
Turi E., Tidei F., Paoletti L.
Asbestos exposure on board ships - Environmental study of two categories of ferries
L'esposizione all'amianto a bordo di navi - Uno studio sulla situazione ambientale in due classi di navi traghetto [in Italian]
The results of a study of contamination by airborne asbestos fibres on board a number of Italian ferries are presented. Asbestos is widely used throughout the ships as fire and soundproofing insulation. Samples taken before, during and after removal of the insulation in areas of the ship outside the asbestos removal worksite gave concentration levels that were similar to those observed in other indoor environments (buildings), varying according to the sample location and the condition of the insulation material. The results are discussed taking into consideration the fact that a ship is also a living environment for crew and passengers.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1993, Vol.84, No.3, p.201-210. Illus. 21 réf.
Light I.M., Coleshaw S.R.K.
Health and Safety Executive
Survivability of occupants of totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft
Trials undertaken with a totally enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) indicated that the internal environment was related to occupancy level, with full occupancy causing greatest stress. Under summer conditions, high internal temperatures caused considerable thermal stress, particularly in those wearing survival suits. The onset of motion sickness was recorded within the first half-hour of the sea trial, with 49% of occupants feeling unwell. Major recommendations are that the occupancy level of the TEMPSC should be reduced, fluids should be supplied to help prevent dehydration and the design of the TEMPSC should be reconsidered with particular regard to ventilation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1993. v, 56p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Health hazards from grain dust during the loading and unloading of ships
This data sheet identifies the hazards associated with grain dust and summarises the necessary precautions. Contents: definition of grain dust; health hazards (lung diseases, irritation, cancer, sensitisation); occupational exposure limits; legal requirements (hazard evaluation, control measures, provision of respiratory protective equipment, maintenance of control measures and protective equipment, monitoring and air sampling, health surveillance, instruction and training, duties of employees).
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 4p. 22 ref.
Council Directive 92/29/EEC of 31 March 1992 on the minimum safety and health requirements for improved medical treatment on board vessels [European Communities]
Directive du Conseil 92/29/CEE, du 31 mars 1992, concernant les prescriptions minimales de sécurité et de santé pour promouvoir une meilleure assistance médicale à bord des navires [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive describes the provisions that should apply to all commercial vessels flying the flag of a European Community member state and not operating on inland waterways. The directive deals with medical equipment and medicines that should be on board vessels. Main topics: classification of vessels, antidotes, allocation of responsibilities, information and training, medical consultation by radio, inspection, advisory committee for the EC Commission, provisions for the member states in respect of implementation. The checklist for medical equipment and medicine that is to be carried is amended.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 30 Apr. 1992, Vol.35, No.L.113, p.19-36.
Occupational exposure to grain dust
This report describes the nature of grain dust and reviews exposure data in agriculture, malting, mills and storage and at terminals and docks. Operations involving high exposure levels are highlighted and dust control methods are outlined. Tables summarise occupational exposure to grain dust during various activities.
Health and Safety Executive, Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. ii, 15p. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The freeing of jammed freight containers and container fittings on ships
This data sheet describes a fatal accident involving attempts to free two jammed twistlocks during the loading of a container ship. Problems associated with the use of twistlocks are described along with requirements for a safe system of work to free a jammed container.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Sep. 1992. 4p.
Larsson T.J., Lindquist C.
Traumatic fatalities among Swedish seafarers 1984-1988
Data on all reported fatalities among Swedish seafarers 1984-1988 were collected from a number of sources and a comparison was made with the official register of causes of death held by Statistics Sweden. It was concluded that nearly half the traumatic fatalities among seafarers (44%) were work related. More than one work-related traumatic fatality in four was unknown at the Swedish Work Related No-Fault Liability Insurance. One conclusion from this study is that traumatic mortality among seafarers is considerably higher than that officially reported in Sweden. Summaries in French and German.
Safety Science, Sep. 1992, Vol.15, No.3, p.173-182. 12 ref.
Piniella Corbacho F.
The human factor in maritime risk
El factor humano en el riesgo marítimo [in Spanish]
Study of personal risk factors in maritime transport. Legislative aspects, such as international agreements, standards and conventions are reviewed. Training and instruction in maritime safety in Spain are discussed. Emphasis is made on the need for educational programmes in order to prevent occupational accidents. The link between maritime safety and environmental protection is noted. Various aspects included in the Spanish National Plan for Maritime Salvage and Pollution Control, introduced in October 1989, are outlined. Summary in English.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1992, No.48, p.3-9. Illus. 8 ref.
Rapiti E., Turi E., Forastiere F., Borgia P., Comba P., Perucci C.A., Axelson O.
A mortality cohort study of seamen in Italy
A total of 2,208 male subjects, enrolled as merchant marine seamen at the Civitavecchia (Italy) harbour from 1936 to 1975 were followed up through 1989 in order to evaluate their mortality experience. The subjects were divided into two subgroups: 948 workers with at least one sailing (cohort A) and 1,260 with no reported sailing (cohort B). Fewer than expected overall deaths were observed in both cohorts (cohort A: SMR=0.83; cohort B: SMR=0.81), mainly due to a lower mortality from circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases. Lung cancer deaths were significantly increased in cohort A, whereas no excess was observed in cohort B. Among subjects employed aboard ship, a trend in SMRs for lung cancer increasing with duration of employment was observed. Three neoplasms of other parts of the respiratory system (including one mesothelioma) were detected in cohort A, and one in cohort B. The study substantiates an increased risk of respiratory cancer among subjects with an occupational history of sailing; past exposure to asbestos and to other environmental carcinogens aboard could be implicated.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1992, Vol.21, No.6, p.863-872. 23 ref.
Landolt J.P., Light I.M., Greenen M.G., Monaco C.
Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: Five offshore oil rig disasters
Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Other marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was carried out to assess the same seasickness problem. Seasickness was found to occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in four of the rig disasters studied. Good leadership and practical training in sea survival play a major part in the amelioration of seasickness, and good ergonomics and redesign of the TEMPSC would help control seasickness and improve habitability.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1992, Vol.63, No.2, p.138-144. Illus. 23 ref.
Department of Transport
Container packing. Guidance for those packing and transporting dangerous goods in CTUs for carriage by sea
This guidance provides practical advice for those involved in the packing and carriage of dangerous goods in cargo transport units (CTUs) for consignment by sea. The guidance does not deal fully with the handling of explosives and does not refer to road tankers in which dangerous goods are transported in bulk. Topics covered: definitions; legal requirements; responsibilities of the packer, the shipper, the freight forwarder and the carrier. Appendices include: UN recommendations for the training of persons engaged in the transport of dangerous goods; examples of International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG) placards and marks; packers' and drivers' pocket cards; checklist of legal duties.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 23p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Better working environment - The sea
Bättre arbetsmiljö - Sjö [in Swedish]
This manual describes the working environment at sea and gives suggestions on measures to improve it. It covers: human beings and work; work environment factors; laws and regulations; safety organization in the shipping company and on ships; occupational accidents; hazards at deck; hazards in the engine room; hazards at the commissariat service; "happy ships".
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 2nd ed., 1994. 141p. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Principles of accreditation of qualified persons for the testing of liquefied gas installations on watercraft
Grundsätze für die Ermächtigung von Sachverständigen für die Prüfung von Flüssiggasanlagen auf Wasserfahrzeugen [in German]
Contents of this statement of the principles of accreditation in Germany of these specialists, who are responsible for the inspection of liquified gas installations on watercraft on inland waterways and in maritime ports: the process of accreditation; qualifications; duties; the certificate of accreditation; withdrawal of accreditation. Model application forms and accreditation certificates are appended.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1991. 7p. Price: DEM 1.30.
Hazardous substances: Safety in transport and warehousing
Gefährliche Arbietsstoffe: Sicherheit bei Transport und Lagerung - 14. Internationales Kolloquium [in German]
Proceedings of the 14th international symposium on the prevention of occupational risks in the chemical industry: safety in transport and warehousing of hazardous substances held in Frankfurt, Germany, 10-12 June 1991. Topics covered include: in-plant transport (safety of chemical containers; tank transport of hazardous goods; cleaning of tank wagons, tanker trucks and transport containers; loading and unloading of liquid hazardous goods); transport outside the plant (response to transport accidents in the USA, Switzerland and Germany; evaluation of product properties; safety superstructures and safety containers; road transport risks and improvement possibilities; psychophysiological aspects of the transport of hazardous materials; review and analysis of transportation accidents); warehousing (guidelines for safe warehousing of hazardous materials; combined storage of chemicals). Only abstracts (in German, English and French) are provided for many of the communications.
International Section of the ISSA for the Prevention of Occupational Risks in the Chemical Industry, Gaisbergstrasse 11, D-W-6900 Heidelberg, Germany, 1991. 295p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Inland navigation vessels - Demountable signal masts for push-tows - Mounting attachment
Bateaux de navigation intérieure - Mâts de signalisation amovibles pour convois poussés - Ferrure d'attache [in French]
This international standard specifies the main dimensions, design, technical requirements and materials of the lower part of demountable signal masts and mast stands for fixing signal masts, for push-tow inland navigation vessels.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 June 1991. 4p. Illus.
Marine (Dangerous Goods) Regulations 1990 [Australia - Queensland]
Regulations issued under the authority of the Queensland Marine Act 1958-1989, and effective 28 July 1990. Contents: definitions; general safety requirements for ships; further provisions relating to tankers and other ships carrying dangerous goods in bulk, to explosives and to radioactive substances. In annex: labels to be used with various kinds of substances; limitations on quantities.
Queensland Government Gazette, 28 July 1990, Vol.294, No.101, p.1926-1953. Illus.
Hazard assessment of floating chemicals after an accidental spill at sea
A classification system has been developed for hazard identification of compounds transported in bulk by sea. Assessment of the hazard resulting from an accidental spill requires data on both toxicity and environmental exposure concentrations of the spilled product. Procedures for acute toxicity testing are described along with methods for the assessment of environmental concentrations of the spilled product. A computer model called CHEMSPIL is described which may be used to predict the exposure resulting from an accidental spill of a poorly water soluble, volatile and low-density product under calm sea conditions.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, 250 Avenue Louise (Bte. 63), 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, July 1990. 55p. Illus. 37 ref.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code [IMO]
Code maritime international des marchandises dangereuses [OMI] [in French]
This Code is recommended to Governments for adoption into national legislation as directed by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (1974 SOLAS Convention) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1973, as modified in 1978). Vol.I: introduction; basic concepts; sample hazard labels; lists of substances suitable for certain kinds of transport, with associated codes (ca. 1100 liquid substances for carriage in portable tanks and road tank vehicles; 47 non-refrigerated liquefied gases of Class 2 for carriage in tanks; ca. 760 liquid and 450 solid substances for transport in intermediate bulk containers (IBCs)); general index of ca. 4000 substances with their IMDG Codes, UN Code, Packaging Group, Subsidiary Risk Label(s), Emergency Schedule No. and MFAG No. (for first aid). Vols.II-IV: data sheets on specific substances, grouped by Class (II: explosives, gases, flammable liquids; III: flammable solids, oxidisers and organic peroxides; IV - toxic and infectious substances, radioactive materials, corrosive substances, miscellaneous substances). Supplement: list of units; emergency and first aid procedures; code of safe practice for solid bulk cargoes; reporting procedures; packing cargo transport units; safe use of pesticides in ships. In annex: full texts of relevant IMO resolutions and circulars.
International Maritime Organization (IMO), 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom, consolidated ed., 1990. 4 vols + Supplement. Illus.
Kelman H.R., Kavaler F.
Mortality patterns of American merchant seamen 1973-1978
Among 1,922 deaths in the American merchant marine population who were patients in the United States Public Health Service Hospital system in 1973-78, 46% were cancer associated. Eighteen percent of all deaths were due to heart disease. This pattern represented a reversal of the pattern found among patients of acute general care hospitals nationwide for the year 1975. The finding in this study of an excess of cancer-associated deaths, particularly respiratory cancer, could be indicative of an occupationally-associated risk. Data on the total population of merchant seamen at risk and of seamen deaths which may have occurred outside of the United States Public Health Service Hospital system are required to test more definitely the hypothesis of an occupational risk of cancer - especially lung cancer - among American merchant seamen.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.4, p.423-433. 11 ref.
Selikoff I.J., Lilis R., Levin G.
Asbestotic radiological abnormalities among United States merchant marine seamen
A total of 3324 chest radiographs (1985-7) of long term United States seamen were reviewed. One third (34.8%) had parenchymal or pleural abnormalities, or both (ILO classification); pleural changes were predominant. Abnormalities increased with longer duration from onset of shipboard exposure (as defined by first year at sea). The prevalence of asbestotic changes was greater among seamen who had served in the engine department (391/920; 42.5%) compared with seamen in other departments, including deck (301/823; 36.6%), steward (279/981; 28.4%), or with service in multiple departments (167/541; 30.9%). Since many vessels, particularly those built before 1978, contain asbestos materials, appropriate engineering controls (including complete removal, if possible) are required as well as appropriate medical surveillance for those who served aboard such ships.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1990, Vol.47, No.5, p.292-297. 26 ref.
Inspection of labour conditions on board ship: Guidelines for procedure
Inspection des conditions de travail à bord des navires: directives concernant les procédures applicables [in French]
This safety guide provides detailed information and practical recommendations to be observed during the inspection procedures of labour conditions on board ships. Contents: introduction; recommended procedures for the inspection of ships; guidelines for ship inspectors (minimum age; medical examination; articles of agreement; vocational training; officers' certificates of competency; food and catering; crew accommodation; hours of work and manning; prevention of occupational accidents; sickness or injury benefits; repatriation; freedom of association, protection of the right to organise and collective bargaining). Substantive provisions of the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976 (No.147) and the Labour Inspection (Seamen) Recommendation, 1929 (No.28) are reproduced in annexes.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1990. v, 76p. Price: CHF 17.50.
Overhead travelling cranes, portal and semi-portal cranes
Ponts roulants, portiques et semi-portiques. Mesures de prévention des accidents [in French]
These recommendations concern the prevention of accidents during the use of overhead travelling cranes and portal and semi-portal cranes. Potential hazards on the ground and at height are identified and guidance is given on safety measures: correct use of equipment and installation of safety devices, operational procedures, the personal protection of workers and regular inspection of the equipment.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1989. 3p. Illus.
http://www.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/atmp_media/R318.pdf [in French]
Timber handling in ports. Measures for the prevention of accidents
Manutention portuaire des grumes. Mesures de prévention des accidents [in French]
These recommendations concern the prevention of accidents during the handling of timber in ports. Guidance is given on lifting methods (use of slings, grasping devices), use of cranes, handling of loads on board and on the dock, selection of appropriate lifting equipment and measures for the personal safety of workers (safety helmets and footwear, training).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1989. 2p.
http://www.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/atmp_media/R316.pdf [in French]
Inter-Ministerial Order of 5 Nov. 1989 concerning the supervision of the loading and unloading of dangerous merchandise [Algeria]
Arrêté interministériel du 5 nov. 1989 relatif à la procédure de contrôle des opérations de chargement et de déchargement de marchandises dangereuses [Algérie] [in French]
This Order defines the responsibilities of the Master of a ship and of the operator of port installations for the safe loading and unloading of dangerous merchandise.
Journal officiel de la République algérienne, 31 Jan. 1990, No.05, p.192-193.
The purpose of this booklet is to provide the beginning longshoreman with some basic information on safe working practices. Major topics covered: appropriate work clothing; bulk terminals; commonly handled commodities and the hazards associated with them (sulfur, potash, coal, phosphate, lead and copper concentrates, bran pellets, fertilisers, woodchips, grain); forest product terminals and the commodities they handle (pulp, paper and newsprint, lumber, plywood, logs); container and general cargo terminals; different kinds of cargo ships; mobile equipment operation.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, 6951 Westminster Highway, Richmond, British Columbia V7C 1C6, Canada, 1989. 48p. Illus.
Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP)
The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. Revision of GESAMP Reports and Studies No.17
A hazard evaluation rationale developed for the particular purpose of the development of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships is described; hazard profiles are intended to be used solely for that purpose. A detailed explanation of the hazard evaluation steps is given along with a consideration of certain classes of chemicals (alcohols, halogenated compounds, phthalates, chlorinated paraffins, pesticides), mixtures under trade or generic names and substances containing mineral oil. A composite list of hazard profiles for a number of substances is included.
International Maritime Organisation, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom, 1989. 220p. Bibl.ref.
Container top safety
This report is based on the results of a questionnaire survey made of several shipping and other cargo-handling companies. Various means of gaining access to container tops both ashore and on ship are reviewed, and suggestions given for the design of safety features. The survey also covers physical precautions used during work on tops of containers, types of ship securement systems available and the need for safety education. Appendices include extracts from relevant safety codes and regulations, illustrations of safety harnesses, examples of safety posters and leaflets, and a list of available videos on container top safety.
International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association (ICHCA), 71 Bondway, London SW8 1SH, United Kingdom, 1989. 64p. Illus. 8 ref.
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