Road transportation - 1,331 entries found
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Health and Safety Executive
New requirements for the transport of explosives by road - A comparison of GB Explosives Transport Regulations and ADR 2001
United Kingdom regulations on the transport of dangerous goods are to be replaced by a single regulation adopting the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) to be entitled the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail Regulations (CDGRR). This paper compares the existing regulations for the United Kingdom explosives sector with the draft text of ADR 2001 in order to highlight areas of differences likely to have an impact on industry in the United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 35p. Price: GBP 10.00.
Estaciones de servicio [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in service stations and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 53p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_019.pdf [in Spanish]
Plantas de asfaltado [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards when working with asphalting equipment and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 37p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_016.pdf [in Spanish]
Hazards associated with using farm tractors to move large bales
In the mid 1970s, standard small-bale balers began to be replaced by large-bale balers in the agricultural industry. The chance of serious injury or death to workers grows with the size and weight of the bales, and bales that weigh more than 750 pounds put workers at high risk. Contents of this information note on hazards associated with using farm tractors to move large bales: statistics; risk factors; description of three accidents; measures to be implemented by farm owners and farm workers to reduce the risk of injury and death.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, July 2001. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Reducing at-work road traffic accidents
Many vehicles are driven for work purposes, including trucks, vans, taxis, coaches, buses, emergency service and utilities vehicles and company cars. Many people also work on or by the road, for example maintenance workers, waste collectors, postal workers, police officers, etc. It is believed that one third of road accidents and fatalities involve a person who is at work. This report recommends that the government takes measures to reduce occupational road traffic accidents. Existing occupational safety and health regulations are sufficient, but need to be applied to road traffic as for other occupational safety and health risks. The measures involve extending the responsibilities of safety and health enforcing authorities to road traffic.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. viii, 31p. Price: GBP 6.95.
Mine Health and Safety Inspectorate
Guideline for the compilation of a mandatory code of practice - Trackless mobile machinery
Haulage and transport accidents are the second largest category of accidents in South African mines. The South African Mines Health and Safety Act (MHSA) requires employers to prepare and implement a code of practice (COP) on any matter affecting the safety and health of employees. These COPs must comply with official guidelines. This document has been compiled to assist employers in the mining industry to prepare a COP for improving safety and health in connection with trackless mobile machinery. Contents include: legal aspects; format and content of the mandatory COP; COP implementation plan.
Department of Minerals and Energy, Private Bag X 59, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 2001. 16p. Illus. 14 ref.
Andrieu F., Guinel P., Ichou O., Knab A.
Spray-gun painting and car body repair-shop work: What surveillance?
Peintres au pistolet et carrossiers, quelle surveillance? [in French]
The objective of this field study was to evaluate exposure hazards among spray-gun painters and body-repair-shop workers and to recommend appropriate medical surveillance. Ten garages, including four for trucks, were studied with respect to noise, working postures, workers' heart rate and the presence of chemicals (safety data sheets, ambient air analysis, determinations in urine). Results show that both categories of workers are exposed to noise and are subject to important postural, musculoskeletal and cardiac constraints, particularly in the case of garages for trucks. They are also both constantly exposed to atmospheric pollutants (solvents, thermal degradation products). Finally, the exposure of spray gun painters to isocyanates does not appear to be a problem if personal protective equipment is used.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.1, p.13-30. Illus. 14 ref.
Steward P.C., O'Neill D.H.
Health and Safety Executive
PTO shaft guards: Alignment of standard quality control in testing and manufacture
The objective of this study was to propose revisions to the current standard for testing the resistance of tractor power take-off shaft guards, taking into account the effect of UV radiation, dust and salt on the plastic material from which the guard is made, as well as new guard designs. Several recommendations are made, which are to be discussed in a working group prior to submitting them as possible revisions to the current ISO 5674 standard.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 36p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2001/crr01323.pdf [in English]
Häkkänen H, Summala H.
Fatal traffic accidents among trailer truck drivers and accident causes as viewed by other truck drivers
Causality factors, the responsibility of the driver and driver fatigue were studied in 337 fatal two-vehicle accidents occurring in Finland between 1991 and 1997 that involved a trailer truck driver. In addition, 251 long-haul truck drivers were questioned on their views regarding accident contributing factors. Trailer truck drivers were principally responsible for 16% of all the accidents. Younger driver age and night driving were significant predictors of being principally responsible. The probability of being principally responsible increased by a factor of >3 if the driver had a chronic illness. Only 2% of the drivers were estimated to have fallen asleep while driving just prior to the accident. According to the survey of truck drivers, accidents were most often caused by other road users, and driver fatigue was no more than the fifth (out of eight) most common causes of accidents. The probability of viewing fatigue as a more common cause increased significantly if the driver had experienced fatigue-related problems while driving.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2001, Vol.33, No.2, p.187-196. Illus. 46 ref.
Work-related fatalities involving tractors in Australia, 1989 to 1992
This report on work-related fatalities involving tractors 1989 to 1992 is part of a larger study of all work-related traumatic fatalities in Australia during this period. 144 persons (132 males and 12 females) were fatally injured during this period in separate incidents involving tractors, which account for 5,7% of all work-related deaths. Statistics are given by duty context, age group, jurisdiction, site and activity at the time of the fatal incident and type of incident. Scenarios of the accident and contributing factors are analysed. Recommendations are made regarding equipment safety and design, maintenance of machinery, safe working practices and procedures, training and information.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, July 2000. viii, 88p. Illus. 17 ref.
http://www.nohsc.gov.au/PDF/Statistics/report_tractors.pdf [in English]
Mehta C.R., Tewari V.K.
Seating discomfort for tractor operators - A critical review
This article consists of a literature review of published studies on the evaluation of tractor seat comfort and suitability. Various parameters, including the body pressure distributed by the buttocks, thighs and the back of drivers, control of posture in static or dynamic conditions, ride vibration, task exposure times and other factors have been proposed. However, in the absence of more definite and logical biomechanical criteria, researchers will continue to design conditions and procedures to understand the seat dynamics and evaluate seating discomfort. A procedure for the assessment of seat discomfort during tractor driving is proposed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 2000, Vol.25, No.6, p.661-674. Illus. 43 ref.
Garbarino S., Nobili L., Beelke M., Balestra V., Carrea P., Ferrillo F.
Sleepiness and road accidents in Italian traffic policemen on shift-work: A study on the national autostrada network during 1993-1997
Sonnolenza ed incidenti stradali nei turnisti della polizia stradale italiana: uno studio sulla rete autostradale nazionale nel quinquennio 1993-1997 [in Italian]
In order to evaluate the time distribution and the possible role of sleepiness in highway accident causation among highway patrol personnel, a study was conducted of 1218 traffic accidents involving traffic police that occurred on the Italian autostrada (expressway/motorway) network during 1993-1997. Accidents occurring during the day were significantly correlated with traffic density, while those occurring during the night were not. During the 7 p.m. - 1 a.m. shift the number of accidents showed a progressively increasing trend with two significant peaks around 11 p.m. and 1 a.m. Information about sleep habits before starting night shifts was obtained by means of telephone interviews. The factors considered included circadian rhythms, homeostasis and fatigue. Long naps seemed to reduce the risk of accidents, however policemen seem to underestimate the risk of sleepiness during the 7 p.m. - 1 a.m. shift.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2000, Vol.91, No.5, p.486-493. Illus. 13 ref.
Edwards M.J., Neale M.
Health and Safety Executive
The effectiveness of lap straps as seat restraints on tractors in the event of overturning
The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER, see CIS 99-1429) requires an employer in Great Britain to fit seat restraints to tractors. Two-point lap belts are the only means of providing this protection in retrofitted existing tractors, since the fitting of restraints such as a three-point harness would involve drilling or welding fittings to the safety cab, which is illegal unless approved by the original manufacturer. In order to develop a better understanding of the effectiveness of lap straps, a numerical model of a overturning tractor was developed and used to provide a comparative analysis of the likely injuries to a restrained and unrestrained operator for a number of overturning scenarios. The model was based on the dimensions of a commercially-available tractor, which was also used for the validation tests. It was found that the body regions most likely to be injured would be the head and neck due to impact with the cab interior and, in addition, the lumbar spine for the restrained operator.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 29p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Hillecke M., Schütte M., Laurig W.
Anthropometric analysis and design of a driver's workplace in a side-loading refuse collecting vehicle
Anthropometrische Analyse und Gestaltung des Fahrerarbeitsplatzes eines Seitenlader-Abfallsammelfahrzeugs [in German]
The postures of drivers in side-loading garbage collecting trucks were determined by anthropometric analyses according to the ISO 3411 and EN 894 standards. Side-loading garbage collection trucks are equipped with an extension arm which picks up the garbage containers and empties them into the truck. The driver controls the extension arm from his seat with a joystick. The anthropometric analyses revealed that very unfavourable postures were adopted for viewing the automatic emptying process. Recommended design changes include the installation of a revolving driver's seat and a larger side window. A new design for side-loading garbage collection trucks is also presented, requiring no rotating movement by the driver, who can remained seated in an upright position.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.3-4, p.249-257. Illus. 20 ref.
Javelaud B., Vian L., Molé R., Allain P., Allemand B., André B., Barbier F., Churet A.M., Dupuis J.C., Galand M., Millet F., Talmon J., Touron C., Vaissière M., Vechambre D., Vieules M., Viver D.
Exposure to benzene among automobile repair shop mechanics and tank-truck drivers
L'exposition au benzène des mécaniciens et des citernistes [in French]
Unleaded fuel contains benzene, the haematological toxicity of which is well documented. Consequently, it was decided to conduct a study of occupational exposure among automobile repair shop mechanics and tank-truck drivers. A survey was carried out in April 1995 with the purpose of identifying occupational factors which represent sources of exposure to benzene, and to derive corresponding prevention measures. 66 automobile repair shop mechanics, 34 tank-truck drivers and 28 controls answered questionnaires; atmospheric sampling, urinary trans,trans-muconic acid determinations and blood analyses were also carried out. Results show that 6.1% of the mechanics and 33% of the tank-truck drivers are exposed to levels above the 0.3ppm limit proposed by the ACGIH, and that 3% of the mechanics and 12% of the tank-truck drivers are exposed to more than 1ppm.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.82, p.125-131. 21 ref.
Wendling J.M., Heid L., Gonzalez M., Mirabel D., Wirrmann C., Lenoble H., Zorgnotti M., Barbier M., Machacek A.
Assessment of benzene exposure among car mechanics
Evaluation de l'exposition au benzène chez les mécaniciens automobiles [in French]
The level of exposure to benzene was evaluated among 56 car mechanics. Urinary trans-trans muconic acid analysis was performed before and after the shift among workers who carried out tasks involving exposure to gasoline (changing the fuel filter, and working on the carburettor or tank). Subjects were given a questionnaire related to both medical and work issues. It was found that exposure at the end of the shift (0.35mg/g creatinine) was significantly higher than before the start of work (0.14mg/g creatinine). However, this level is moderate and corresponds to an atmospheric concentration of benzene of 0.5 to 0.6ppm. Changing the filter, the most frequent task, involved the least exposure. However, the average exposure level was found to be significantly higher during winter than in summer. Certain working procedures, such as soaking parts in gasoline, cleaning by blowing through parts, not using the degreasing fountain and onychophagia resulted in higher levels of exposure. The observations confirm literature reports indicating that car mechanics tend to use less and less gasoline to clean parts and wash their hands. The study confirms that car mechanics are exposed to moderate levels of benzene. Measures to further reduce exposure levels are proposed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.162-169. 21 ref.
Accident caused by cleaning operations in an underground car park
Massenunfall bei Reinigungsarbeiten in einer Tiefgarage [in German]
All four workers performing cleaning work in an underground car park with a high-pressure jet-cleaner with oil-fired heater had to be treated for carbon monoxide poisoning. The exhaust gases from the oil-fired heater had increased the carbon monoxide concentration in the underground car park to 500mL/m3. This level was roughly 16 times higher than the German exposure limit of 30mL/m3. Current German regulations require the employer to take precautionary measures during such cleaning work to make sure the limit is not exceeded. A high-pressure jet cleaner with an electric heater is to be used where possible. Otherwise, the employer has to inform the workers of the hazards to ensure that the area where the cleaning operations are performed is properly ventilated and that the equipment is in good operating condition.
BAU-BG Aktuell, 2000, No.2, p.6-8. Illus.
Tracteurs sur chenilles [in French]
This booklet is primarily aimed at operators of crawler-mounted tractors and persons responsible for their maintenance, with certain aspects addressed more particularly to managers and supervisors. Contents include: general information on crawler-mounted tractors including regulatory aspects; types of crawler-mounted tractors; what needs to be done before starting up, on starting and during operation; hazards (work on sloping or hazardous ground, electrical hazards, demolition work, clearing and deforestation work); safe behaviour; malfunction at the work site; moving and transporting crawler-mounted tractors; what needs to be done at the end of the working day; maintenance.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 4th ed., Apr. 2000. 73p. Illus. 9 ref.
Health effects of occupational exposure to asphalt
This report evaluates the data on health effects of occupational exposure to asphalt that have become available since the publication of a NIOSH criteria document in 1977. Known carcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic compounds are likely to be present in asphalt fumes generated at worksites. There is epidemiological evidence that roofers are at an increased risk of lung cancer. The main toxic effects include irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, although numerous symptoms including skin irritation, nausea, headaches and fatigue are also reported. Based on current information, NIOSH recommends adhering to the exposure limit of 5mg/m3 during any 15-minute period, and preventing dermal exposure, keeping the temperature of heated asphalt as low as possible, using controls and good work practices to minimize exposure, and providing appropriate respiratory protection.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Dec. 2000. xviii, 132p. 179 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/01-110.pdf [in English]
Car repair - Safety signalling
Reparação automóvel - Sinalização de segurança nas oficinas [in Portuguese]
Safety signs play an important role in the information of workers concerning the hazards to which they may be exposed. This manual gives guidance on correct safety signalling in the automobile repair sector. Different types of signals (lights, pictogrammes, acoustic signals) and places where they have to be posted are described.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, May 2000. 43p. Illus. 8 ref.
Automobile repair - Respiratory protective equipment for painting
Reparação automóvel - Aparelhos de protecção respiratória em pintura [in Portuguese]
Training manual on respiratory protective equipment for painting in automobile repair shops. Main topics covered: descriptions of main hazards and intoxication routes; exposure limit values; types of respirators; components of respirators; classification of respirator filters; selection of respirators; use and maintenance; safety signs required when working with paint.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, May 2000. 49p. Illus. 9 ref.
Road, rail and water transport of dangerous materials and goods
Veszélyes anyagok és tárgyak közúti / vasúti / vízi szállítása [in Hungarian]
Survey of the written guidance offered to transporters in North America concerning the prevention of major hazards during the surface transport of dangerous goods and materials.
Munkavédelem és Biztonságtechnika, 2000, Vol.12, No.4, p.17-22. Illus. 1 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Tractor action - A step-by-step safety guide
This training guide describes safety procedures for the use of tractors and tractor-operated machinery. A number of tractor accidents are described and guidance is given on their avoidance. These include safety checks, safe stopping procedures, positioning and use of controls, awareness of other people in the immediate vicinity, safe use of power take-off shafts and protection against overturning. Replaces CIS 95-1280.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2000. 26p. Illus. 8 ref.
Santoro D., Blandini G., Schillaci G., Cerruto M., Manetto G.
Modifying existing regulations with a view of making them suitable to the safety of agricultural tractors
Revisione delle normative esistenti ai fini della loro applicabilità sulla sicurezza delle trattrici agricole [in Italian]
An analysis of most frequent safety and health hazards related to agricultural tractors currently used in Italy was conducted along with a review of the existing regulations. The main hazards identified were poor transversal and longitudinal stability, noise perceived by the driver, vibrations of the driver's seat, risk of contact with transmission parts and incorrect manoeuvres and driving habits. The noise levels to which drivers are exposed when farm tools are attached to the tractor also need to comply with the regulations. Other hazards where safety measures are currently inadequate include using a power take-off unit at 1000rpm on a tool that requires 500, and the accidental setting-in-motion of the lever of the manual accelerator.
Prevenzione oggi, 2000, Vol.XII, No.1, p.89-142. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Fitting and use of restraining systems on lift trucks
This information sheet concerns the retrofitting of operator and passenger restraining systems and attachment points to lift trucks. It is aimed at employers of persons using lift trucks at work, as well as at operators and hirers of lift trucks. It summarizes the requirements of the United Kingdom regulations with respect to the need to provide restraining systems. Contents include: legal requirements; situations where restraining systems are required; types of trucks with the highest risk of overturning; preventing overturning accidents; technical requirements for driver restraints; special provisions applicable to hired equipment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2000. 3p. Illus. 7 ref.
Moen B.E., Hollund B.E.
Exposure to organic solvents among car painters in Bergen, Norway
Several official regulations have been adopted in Norway in recent years to reduce the exposure of car painters to organic solvents. This study evaluated some of the effects of these regulations, by measuring the levels of exposure to organic solvents in six car-painting garages. Both stationary and personal monitoring were performed. In addition, the occurrence of acute symptoms in the nervous system, skin and upper airways, the use of personal protective equipment and the workers' satisfaction with the ventilation were determined using the results of a questionnaire study. All air samples showed low levels of exposure, far below the limit values. The highest levels were found for toluene. Most workers reported always using gloves, overalls and respiratory protective equipment during the car painting. The study indicates that the exposure to organic solvents is low and the risk of adverse health effects related to organic solvents is probably also low.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 2000, Vol.44, No.3, p.185-189. 13 ref.
Mewes D., Becker K.
Self-locking and self-braking of screw jacks in elevating platforms
Selbsthemmung und Selbstbremsung von Schraubengetrieben in Hebebühnen [in German]
Tests revealed that steel screw jacks of vehicle inspection lifts retained their self-locking capacity throughout their lifetime of 30,000 cycles of lifting and lowering. Screw jacks with trapezoidal thread having angles of pitch of 2.43°C and 3.49°C were tested according to VDI guideline 2158 with grease based on lithium soap as the lubricant. The former retained their self-braking capacity while the latter attained a hazardous deceleration path of more than 1m over the service life. Screw jacks with polyamide nuts lasted longer than screw jacks with bronze nuts. Particulate pollutants in the lubricant severely shortened the service life of all screw jacks studied.
Maschinenmarkt, Feb. 2000, Vol.106, No.9, p.66-69. Illus.
Zagury E., Le Moullec Y., Momas I.
Exposure of Paris taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants within their vehicles
In a cross-sectional study of the exposure of Parisian taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants, measurements were made in the vehicles of 29 randomly selected drivers. Carbon monoxide (CO), fine suspended particles according to the black smoke index (BS) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) were measured. Results show exposure to relatively high concentrations of pollutants: CO (3.8ppm), BS (168µ/m3), NO (625µ/m3) and NO2 (139µ/m3). For CO, the concentrations were clearly lower than the WHO-recommended threshold values. However, the situation is less satisfactory for the other pollutants, especially for the BS index. All concentrations of pollutants recorded were noticeably higher than concentrations in air recorded by the ambient Parisian air-monitoring network and were close to, or slightly exceeded, the concentrations measured at the fixed stations close to automobile traffic. Results justify a medical follow up of this occupational group.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.406-410. Illus. 18 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Parking large goods vehicles safely: Guidance for drivers on coupling and uncoupling large goods vehicles (LGVs)
Truck drivers frequently get run over by moving vehicles or crushed between the vehicle and another object as a result of unsafe practices during coupling and uncoupling of trailers and semi-trailers. These accidents often occur when the trailer air lines are coupled and when the semi-trailer parking brake had not been applied. This booklet contains a checklist for safe coupling.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 6p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use of petrol in garages
This leaflet lists safety recommendations and acts to avoid when handling motor fuel in garages. It can also be displayed in the form of a poster on a safety notice board.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2000. 2p. Illus.
Decanting of a tank truck: Acids and caustic soda
Dépotage d'un camion: acide et soude [in French]
Training material for persons required to make presentations on the safety of tank truck decanting operations involving sulfuric acid or caustic soda, containing an audio cassette, 74 slides and corresponding scripts and notes. The sequence of events is described, from the arrival of the tank truck on the site until its departure: administrative formalities; preliminary precautions prior to the operation; decanting procedures; procedures in the event of an incident. Safety rules applicable to each step in the process are highlighted.
AIX-Audio-Visuel, Chemin de la Blaque, 131000 Aix-en-Provence, France, no date. 25p. Illus. (+audio cassette et 74 slides).
Gaudry M., Lassarre S.
Structural road accident models: The international DRAG family
International study of road accidents through the application of a family of multi-factor accident modelling systems known as DRAG (Demand for Road use, Accidents and their Gravity), based on regression analysis. Among the positive correlations for accident incidence are: total mileage driven; average speed; early pregnancy; high vehicle occupancy; high levels of alcohol and medicine consumption; certain safety measures and laws (which may instill a false sense of security). Among negative correlations are: increased traffic congestion; imposition of speed limits; mandatory seat belts (impact on injuries and fatalities); higher fuel prices; possibly also: moderate alcohol consumption. Data and their analysis were included from the following countries: Canada (Quebec), Germany, Norway, France, Sweden, United States (California).
Pergamon, Elsevier Science, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands and P.O. Box 945, Madison Square Station, New York, NY 10160-0757, USA, 2000. xxii, 347p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: NLG 185.00 and USD 97.00.
Rienstra S.A., Rietveld P., Lindeijer J.E.
Economic evaluation of traffic safety measures for transport companies
This paper addresses the economic feasibility of measures to reduce the material damage of transport companies. The results of a series of interviews among transport companies as well as from a postal questionnaire survey are presented. Calculations are made for three types of companies: a small family company, a large family company and a large, non family-controlled company. From the viewpoint of costs and benefits, damage prevention measures appear to be particularly interesting to larger companies. Small companies tend to have an informal culture in which measures are less effective. Measures perceived as particularly attractive by transport companies are those for which no large investments are needed, which influence the behaviour of drivers and which need not be contracted out.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2000, Vol.32, No.5, p.679-687. 12 ref.
Stevenson M.G., Coleman N., Long A.F., Williamson A.M.
Assessment, re-design and evaluation of changes to the driver's cab in a suburban electric train
A new type of electric train began replacing older trains on the Sydney city and suburban network in 1990. Shortly afterwards, some of the train drivers began reporting pain in the arms while driving the new train. The Ergonomics Unit of Worksafe Australia was engaged to identify and assess ergonomic problems in the driver's cab by means of direct observation of drivers at work, distribution of a questionnaire to all drivers, and analysis of anthropometric problems using a computer-aided design package. The results were used in developing an improved design. A mock-up of the modified cab was made and tried out by 134 drivers whose comments led to further changes. By 1996, 96% of the driver's cabs conformed to the new design. An evaluation of the new design was undertaken using written questionnaires, which were completed by 227 drivers. The results were strongly in favour of the new design, showing the effectiveness of the ergonomic modifications.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2000, Vol.31, No.5, p.499-506. Illus. 10 ref.
Fathallah F.A., Grönqvist R., Cotnam J.P.
Estimated slip potential on icy surfaces during various methods of exiting commercial tractors, trailers, and trucks
Many commercial vehicles are equipped with steps and grab-rails to help drivers safely enter and exit the vehicle. Nevertheless, many drivers do not use these aids. The purpose of this study was to assess the slip potential of various exit methods from five common types of commercial vehicles under icy conditions. The study assessed the required coefficient of friction of 10 male subjects as they exited cab-over-engine and conventional tractors, a step-van, the back of a box trailer, and the back of a cube-van. The results showed that the estimated probability of a fall was high (over 0.9 for wet ice conditions) when the exit aids were not utilized. Full use of the steps and grab-rails resulted in a substantial decrease in the estimated probability of a fall. An approach to safety that emphasizes optimal design of entry/exit aids, and driver training and education, can minimize exit-related slips and falls and their corresponding potential injuries.
Safety Science, Nov. 2000, Vol.36, No.2, p.69-81. Illus. 11 ref.
Fathallah F.A., Cotnam J.P.
Maximum forces sustained during various methods of exiting commercial tractors, trailers and trucks
Many commercial vehicles have steps and grab-rails to assist the driver in safely entering or exiting the vehicle. However, many drivers do not use these aids. The purpose of this study was to compare impact forces experienced during various exit methods from commercial equipment. The impact forces on ten male subjects while exiting different types of tractors and vans was investigated. The results showed that jumping out resulted in impact forces as high as 12 times the subject's body weight, whereas utilizing the steps and grab-rails resulted in impact forces less than two times body weight. Optimal design of entry/exit aids coupled with driver training and education should minimize exit-related injuries.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 2000, Vol.31, No.1, p.25-33. Illus. 17 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Carriage of passengers on farm trailers
This information sheet is aimed at all persons who use a trailer to move people around on a farm, and sets out the features the trailer should have if it is used for carrying passengers. Main topics covered: requirements for the towing vehicle and the trailer; equipment for trailers used regularly for workers or for carrying members of the public; trailers used for workers on exceptional basis; safety rules; legal requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 4p. Illus. 1 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Crossing high-speed roads on foot during temporary traffic-management works
This information sheet provides advice on health and safety issues where traffic management workers cross on foot the carriageways of high-speed roads which are open to traffic. Contents: legal requirements; design and planning of temporary traffic management arrangements; health assessment of workers; training of workers; personal protective equipment and high-visibility garments; advance signing; rules of safe crossing; hours of work; accident reporting.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2000. 2000. 4p. 13 ref.
Kurosaka K., Daida H., Muto T., Watanabe Y., Kawai S., Yamaguchi H.
Characteristics of coronary heart disease in Japanese taxi drivers as determined by coronary angiographic analyses
This study investigates the relationships between taxi driving and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). The coronary angiograms of 57 male taxi driver patients were analyzed and compared with those of 215 age-adjusted male controls. The number of diseased vessels and risk factors were compared between two groups. The prevalence of myocardial infarction and multi-vessel disease was higher in the taxi-driver patients than in the controls. The taxi-driver patients had higher levels of LDL-cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) and higher prevalence diabetes, smoking, and lower levels of apolipoprotein AI. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that multi-vessel disease was associated with high BMI and diabetes mellitus in taxi-driver patients. These characteristics may be explained in part by their working environment.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.15-23. Illus. 52 ref.
Gregory D.C., Kerr I.D.
A method for assessing the performance of CCTV systems used as vehicle reversing aids
The support of the Health and Safety Laboratory was requested for conducting a series of tests on a number of camera systems, representative of those commercially available for use as vehicle reversing aids. It was intended that the test procedures developed would inform discussions for a draft ISO standard for such systems. Seven systems were evaluated. Findings are discussed.
Health and Safety Laboratory, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1999. 16p. Illus. 3 ref.
Dynamic testing of two vehicle visibility aids using the reversing aids test facility
The objective of this project was to assess how various truck drivers' reverse driving visibility aid systems performed under dynamic conditions. The visibility aids included a radar system and an ultrasonic system. A test facility was designed and used to investigate how these systems performed when mounted on a moving vehicle and presented with a stationary target. Findings are discussed.
Health and Safety Laboratory, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1999. 17p. Illus. 6 réf.
Kliemt G., Voullaire E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Hazardous substances in automobile repair shops: Can supra-company support be mobilized?
Gefahrstoffe im Kraftfahrzeuggewerbe: Läßt sich überbetriebliche Unterstützung mobilisieren? [in German]
The objective of this project was to analyse the occupational safety and health hazards in automobile repair shops due to harmful substances that could be addressed through technical support from automobile industry manufacturers. Four aspects were evaluated: reducing exposure to harmful substances during vehicle maintenance; reducing exposure to carbon monoxide in vehicle repair shops; support with respect to harmful substances. The project enabled the highlighting of conditions under which effective support from the automobile industry manufacturers was possible, and discusses requirements for the effective management of such cooperation projects.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 228p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: EUR 18.50.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Safety rules of 1 April 1999 on vehicle maintenance [Germany]
BG-Regeln Fahrzeug-Instandhaltung vom April 1999 [in German]
Safety regulations of the German Occupational Accident Insurance Federation (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften) concerning vehicle maintenance that came into effect in April 1999. They replace safety regulations ZH 1/454 (see CIS 82-256) and apply to the maintenance, modification and disassembly of vehicles or vehicle parts, as well as to installations used for these purposes. Contents: definitions; general requirements; requirements applicable to premises and equipment; general provisions concerning the various tasks, protective equipment and personal hygiene; provisions concerning specific hazards (dangerous substances, fire or explosions, electrical hazards, work on vehicles or on rails); testing of equipment. Appendices include: check lists for electrical safety of installations and equipment; other controls to be made; legislation, regulations and related standards.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 1999. 85p. Illus. Index.
http://www.bgfe.de/pages/gesetze/bgr/BGR_157.pdf [in German]
Internal audit - Garages (automobile repairs, light vehicles)
Autodiagnostic - Garages (réparation automobile; véhicules légers) [in French]
Through an internal auditing of hazards, one can develop a safety and health plan adapted to the company. A check-list for conducting such an audit in automobile repair garages is proposed, consisting of the following parts: analysis of the location; activities and equipment (repair, mechanical and car-body workshops, storage and handling of parts, cleaning of floors, test-driving on roads, personal protective equipment, safety training of workers); waste management; part-time workers; action plan.
CRAM des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue de Président E. Hériot, BP 93405, 44034 Nantes, France, Oct. 1999. 22p. Illus. 4 ref.
EL 2000 - Rheinbraun's new generation of electric locomotives - Ergonomic and safety conception
EL 2000 - Die neue Lok-Generation bei Rheinbraun - Ergonomie- und Sicherheits-Konzept [in German]
With the help of feedback from drivers on ergonomic issues, the cabs of locomotives for coal-transporting freight trains of a German mining company were redesigned. The operating panels were designed with displays and controls which are easy to read, understand and operate. Swivel chairs were ergonomically designed, with arms rests that can be raised to avoid uncomfortable sitting postures. The floor of the driver's cabin is designed to provide insulation against vibration. An air conditioning and heating system provides temperatures between 18 and 24°C. The stairs leading to the driver's cab have hand rails for support and a large-enough platform to avoid falls from heights. A radio, installed to ameliorate the monotony of work, is automatically turned off whenever communication or warning signals are received.
Braunkohle - Surface Mining, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.51, No.4, p.429-433. Illus.
Gamble J.F., Nicolich M.J., Barone N.J., Vincent W.J.
Exposure-response of asphalt fumes with changes in pulmonary function and symptoms
This study examines possible associations between asphalt fumes and changes in lung function and symptoms among 170 workers of the asphalt industry exposed to asphalt fumes. Exposure was estimated from measurements of total particulate (TP), respirable particulate, the benzene-soluble fraction of the TP, volatile hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in breathing-zone samples. Ozone and humidity levels were also measured in the work area. In addition, daily cigarette smoking was determined by questionnaire. Overall, no consistent association was observed between an acute reduction in lung function or the incidence of symptoms and exposure to asphalt fumes. There were no observed adverse effects at concentrations close to maximum levels. There were no exposure-response trends with ozone, heat stress, cigarette smoked, or workday length.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.186-206. Illus. 35 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
European Week for Safety and Health at Work: From workplace design to business management - Information workshop for the automobile service and repair trade
Europäische Woche für Sicherheit und Gesundheit bei der Arbeit. Von der Werkstattplanung bis zur Führung des Betriebes. Informationstagung für das Kfz-Handwerk [in German]
Proceedings of a meeting on occupational safety and health in automobile repair shops held in Dortmund, Germany, 30 October 1998. Main topics covered: design and operation of modern repair shops; health promotion; presence of dangerous substances; support from specialized safety and health experts; recycling from the standpoint of both safety and environmental aspects; management systems; safety and health organization in the shops; exposure to carbon monoxide.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 230p. Illus.
Fischer S., Göres B., Gondek K.H., Sayn D.
Effects of vibration on bus drivers' cabs
Schwingungseinwirkung an Fahrerarbeitsplätzen von Kraftomnibussen [in German]
Topics: buses; drivers cabs; drivers seats; exposure evaluation; Germany; report; research; vibration amplitude; vibration frequency; vibration measurement; vibration transmission; whole-body vibration.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, June 1999. 129p. Illus. 17 ref.
Brehier M., Dupéry M., Djemil K.
Refuse collection with selective sorting: What impact on working conditions? - Ergonomic study (I)
La collecte des ordures en tri sélectif: quel coût pour l'homme au travail? - Etude ergonomique (I) [in French]
Refuse collection involving selective sorting is increasingly practiced for economic reasons. An ergonomic study of the conditions of municipal waste collection with a novel concept truck having a lowered cabin and no rear step, was conducted by observing the activities of waste collectors and the driver, measuring the pulse rate, the distance covered and the sound level. The observation enabled the highlighting of gaps between job descriptions and the tasks effectively carried out, and revealed dysfunctions, in particular with respect to some of the work postures. On the basis of pulse rate measurements, the activity is classified as being "strenuous" or "very strenuous". One of the waste collectors covered a distance of 16.8km while running. Noise dosimetry reveals a high level of noise exposure. The new job descriptions and the numerous dysfunctions caused by the new equipment (in particular without rear steps) increased the strenuousness of the work. The results were taken into account by the waste collection company, which required the manufacturer to modify the trucks and truck cabins.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.3, p.297-306. Illus. 6 ref.
Automotive repair - Safety when working on the tyres of heavy vehicles
Reparação automóvel - Segurança no trabalho em pneus de veículos pesados [in Portuguese]
Accidents while working on heavy vehicle tyres are not frequent but they can be extremely dangerous. This guide highlights the hazards associated with the main operations and presents the corresponding prevention measures. Personal protective equipment and required signalling are also described.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, 1999. 53p. Illus. 4 ref.
Caws A., Kupper A., Heasman T.
Health and Safety Executive
Quarry vehicle access and egress - An ergonomics study
This report contains the results of a study investigating problems experienced by drivers entering or leaving the cabs of large quarry vehicles. Recent statistics show a high injury risk associated with slips, trips and falls. Telephone interviews were conducted and site visits organized in order to observe the range of vehicles and the methods of access and egress used. It was found that in many cases the standard basic dimensions of the access systems were not satisfied, and in particular the height of the first step: of 13 vehicles evaluated, none met the requirement for the basic dimension (400mm); all but two met the requirements for maximum height. Recommendations are made to manufacturers to integrate ergonomics early in their design process.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. viii, 47p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
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