Road transportation - 1,331 entries found
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Psychosocial and other related factors contributing to road accidents in ports
The objectives of this study were to investigate the psychosocial factors contributing to road accidents in ports, to establish the importance of other factors and to suggest remedial actions. 727 vehicle drivers and 119 managers participated in the study. Participants responded to questionnaires and were administered a series of psychological tests. Accident reports from the port administration records were also analysed. It was found that there were three main factors contributing to accidents: poor vehicle conditions, environmental factors such as weather and behavioural factors including stress, driving at excessive speeds because of incentive payments and driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. A number of recommendations are proposed for reducing the level of road accidents in ports.
INDOSHNEWS, Jan.-Mar. 2002, Vol.7, No.1, p.7-11. 8 ref.
Lange J., Kessel G., Stehrenberg B., Groth J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Health-protection concepts for small and medium-sized port companies handling automobiles and bulk goods
Gesundheitsschutzkonzepte für kleine und mittlere Hafenbetriebe beim Auto- und Massengutumschlag [in German]
The aim of this study was to develop a health-protection concept addressing the different working conditions of port workers who handle the loading and unloading of bulk goods and automobiles. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 222 port workers (192 involved in automobile handling and 30 in bulk goods handling), by observing the work processes and the workplaces and by interviewing experts. It was found that the concept of integrated quality and safety management systems can successfully take into account the existing company safety and health organization systems as well as statutory labour protection provisions, with the participation of workers actively involved in the self-regulation of the system.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 279p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: EUR 24.00.
Heikkilä P., Riala R., Hämeilä M., Nykyri E., Pfäffli P.
Occupational exposure to bitumen during road paving
The exposure of workers to total particulates, bitumen fumes, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), low-molecular-weight amines, styrene, and 1,3-butadiene was studied at 13 road paving sites where 11 different asphalt mixtures were laid. 1-hydroxypyrene was analysed in the workers' pre- and post-shift urine samples. Mean concentrations of total particulates, bitumen fumes, SVOCs, and PAHs in the breathing zone of road pavers were 0.6mg/m3, 0.29mg/m3, 5.6 mg/m3, and 5.03µg/m3, respectively. Over 90% of air impurities were in the vapour phase. Exposure to PAHs during road paving operations was more than 10-fold higher than was the exposure of a traffic controller (0.34µg/m3) caused by automobile exhausts from background traffic. Concentrations of amines, impurities from polymer-modified bitumens, styrene, and 1,3-butadiene were below detection limits. Urinary 1- hydroxypyrene concentrations were higher among road pavers than among office workers serving as referents.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.156-165. Illus. 53 ref.
Computer-intensive methods in traffic safety research
The analysis of traffic safety data archives has been markedly facilitated by the development of procedures that are heavily dependent on computers. Three such procedures are described in this article: the first involves using computers to assist in the identification and correction of invalid data; the second makes greater computational demands, and involves using computerized algorithms to fill in the "gaps" that typically occur in archival data when information regarding key variables is not available; finally, the third and most computer-intensive procedure involves using data mining techniques to search archives for interesting and important relationships between variables. These procedures are illustrated using examples from data archives that describe the characteristics of traffic accidents in the USA and Australia.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2002, Vol.8, No.3, p.353-363. Illus. 10 ref.
Dykeman R., Aguilar-Madrid G., Smith T., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Piacitelli G.M., Hu H., Hernandez-Avila M.
Lead exposure in Mexican radiator repair workers
Lead exposure was investigated among 73 Mexican radiator repair workers employed in 31 repair shops, 12 members of their families (four children and eight wives) and 36 unexposed working controls. Exposure was assessed directly through the use of personal air sampling and hand wipe analyses. In addition, industrial hygiene inspections were performed, detailed questionnaires were administered and blood lead levels were measured. The mean values for blood lead of the radiator repair workers was 35.5µg/dL, compared to 13.6µg/dL for controls. Air lead levels ranged from 0 to 99µg/m3 with a mean value of 19µg/m3. The strongest predictors of elevated blood lead levels were smoking, the number of radiators repaired per day and the use of a uniform while at work, which were associated with blood lead elevations of 11.4µg/dL, 1.95µg/dL/radiator/day, and 16.4µg/dL, respectively. Uniforms were not laundered regularly and consequently served as reservoirs of contamination on which workers frequently wiped their hands.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.41, No.3, p.179-187. Illus. 23 ref.
Stockton A.D., O'Neill D.H., Hampson C.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Methods for optimising the effectiveness of roll-over protective systems
This report discusses the evolution of roll-over protective system (ROPS) standards and analyses their current application. In the last 40 years, more than 50 ROPS standards have been developed for different machine types in different sectors. In the last decade, there has been a major expansion in the market of dedicated equipment, particularly in ride-on lawnmowers and sweepers. In general, this equipment tends to be small and is not well served by existing ROPS standards. Through the analysis of a survey, the report also discusses the scope for computerizing the design and testing of ROPS and considers what alternative methods of protecting operators from roll-over hazards may be emerging. Recommendations are made for re-packaging and rationalizing ROPS standards and, thereby, ensuring their appropriateness for use with contemporary machine concepts and the anticipated needs of the industry in the 21st century.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 124p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: GBP 30.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2002/crr02425.pdf [in English]
Berquez-Doise C., Leroyer A., Frimat P., Werhly S.
Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among postal delivery workers
Prévalence et facteurs de risque de lombalgies chez les préposés à la distribution de La Poste [in French]
To assess backache prevalence among postal delivery workers in France and to identify occupational and non-occupational risk factors, a cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out between Oct. 1999 and March 2000, involving all of the 393 postal delivery workers (114 women and 279 men) having been subjected to a medical examination by an occupational physician at the French Post Office. Their mean age was 44.3 years (range: 23-63 years). The prevalence of low back pain was 46.3% (182 subjects), 51.8% among women and 44.1% among men. Logistic regression analysis highlighted different risk factors for men and women, apart from a history of spinal disorders common to both sexes. Risk factors for women included having children, sleep disorders and stress at work, while for men, they included an age of 45 or more, stress at work and letter delivery in a mixed rural and urban area compared with a purely urban area. No clear differences were found in the prevalence of low back pain according to how the rounds were made (on motorcycle, by automobile, by bicycle or on foot).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.364-373. 29 ref.
Crespo Poyatos J., Galán Cortés J., Bernier Herrera F.
Exposure to asbestos fibres during vehicle maintenance
Exposición a fibras de amianto en operaciones de mantenimiento de vehículos [in Spanish]
During vehicle maintenance work, workers are exposed to asbestos fibres (chrysotile) when working on brakes or the clutch. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of the fibres that were present in friction elements of vehicles and to determine the level of exposure of workers to asbestos during operations giving rise to a liberation of asbestos fibres in workplace air. An analysis of friction materials and fibre types was carried out, and air samples were collected from 24 workshops. Results confirm the established tend towards the substitution of asbestos. Chrysotile was present in 30% of the clutch disk and 41% of brake shoe samples analysed. 57% of the air samples contained either no asbestos or negligible concentrations. When asbestos fibres were present, their concentrations were below legal limits.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.21, p.11-21. Illus. 14 ref.
Binet B., Brasseur G., Lafontaine M., Dornier G.
Asphalt and road work
Bitumes et travaux routiers [in French]
75,000 workers are employed in road work in France, of whom 4200 are directly concerned by exposure to asphalt fumes. It is estimated that these workers are exposed for an average of 1000 hours per year. Asphalt smoke contains substances that are harmful to health. Consequently, due attention needs to be given to prevention measures to protect the workers' health. Contents of this safety data sheet on asphalt fumes during road work: risks to humans (exposed population, health effects); means of prevention (simple measures, technical improvements in products and processes); animal experiments; epidemiological and exposure evaluation studies in humans.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2002. 4p. Illus.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/bitumes_et_travaux_routiers.html [in French]
de Croon E.M., Blonk R.W.B., de Zwart B.C.H., Frings-Dresen M.H.W., Broersen J.P.J.
Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: Towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control
Based on Karasek's model, this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload and occupation-specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. Information on job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, supervisor demands, fatigue and job dissatisfaction was gathered through questionnaires from 1181 lorry (truck) drivers. Data were subjected to multiple regression analyses. Inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%). Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control dampened the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of occupation-specific job control and job demand factors gives occupational stress researchers a better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and well-being.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.59, No.6, p.356-361. Illus. 60 ref.
Dannerlein J.T., Meeker J.D.
Occupational injuries among Boston bicycle messengers
Most bicycle couriers work as independent contractors and their injuries are not well documented. In this study to quantify injury rates and severity among urban bicycle couriers, a sample of 113 couriers in the city of Boston completed a self-administered questionnaire survey. It was found that most couriers had suffered at least one injury resulting either in days lost from work (70%) or in visits to a health-care professional or hospital (55%). The annual incidence rate for injuries resulting in days away from work was 47/100-bike couriers. Bone fractures accounted for the most days lost from work, followed by dislocations, sprains, and strains. Collisions and avoiding collisions with motor vehicles, including during the opening of doors of vehicles parked on the side of the street into the path of the approaching cyclist, and collisions with pedestrians accounted for the majority (66%) of events leading to injury. Only 24% of messengers reported wearing a helmet on a regular basis, and only 32% have health insurance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec 2002, Vol.42, No.6, p.519-525. Illus. 17 ref.
Highways - The most common cause of fatalities in the construction industry
La route, premier risque mortel du BTP [in French]
Most fatal accidents in the construction industry do not occur on the construction site but during driving on highways, either while commuting or during work-related driving. In this sector in France, 1131 drivers, 121 passengers and 40 pedestrians were killed in highway traffic accidents during the year 2000. Contents of this special feature on highway traffic accidents in the construction industry: number of commuting accidents as a proportion of all construction industry accidents; accidents during work-related driving; pooled transport; awareness programme based on the ideas of children; experience of a construction enterprise in minimizing distances travelled by its employees; safety campaign of a temporary employment agency; safety programme of a construction enterprise; safety consultancy of an insurance company.
Prévention BTP, Jan. 2002, No.37, p.51-58. Illus.
Torén A., Öberg K., Lembke B., Enlund K., Rask-Andersen A.
Tractor-driving hours and their relation to self-reported low-back and hip symptoms
The purpose of this study was to quantify the total and the annual time spent driving tractors among Swedish farmers and its distribution into different work operations, and to investigate the risk of low-back and hip symptoms in relation to tractor-driving within different work operations. The data were collected from a questionnaire sent to all farms of more than 10ha in a Swedish county. The annual tractor-driving time and the percentage distribution within different work operations were calculated for female and male farm workers, the total group and four sub-groups according to the type of activity (crop, dairy, swine or livestock production). The results showed that the mean annual tractor-driving time was 472h. Ploughing was the most time-consuming operation but it had no influence on the risk for low-back or hip pain. Some of the factors relating to tractor driving that influence the risk for low-back and hip symptoms are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.139-146. Illus. 31 ref.
Lavoie J., Guertin S.
Study of biological agents and ergonomic constraints when using trucks with side-lift arms for collecting household waste
Etude des agents biologiques et des contraintes ergonomiques lors de l'utilisation des camions avec bras assisté pour la collecte des ordures domestiques [in French]
One of the ways of limiting the exposure of garbage collectors to bioaerosols consists of using trucks with side-lift arms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the exposure to bioaerosols with this form of garbage collection and to identify the potential ergonomic constraints when using this type of equipment. Personal exposure of garbage collectors to bioaerosols was measured for five different types of collection and under the most extreme conditions, those prevailing in summer. The exposure of workers to airborne bacteria and endotoxins was significantly reduced by using trucks with side-lift arms. The recommended 8h exposure limit of 104CFU/m3 was reached only in the case of mixed wastes. However, even when using trucks with side-lift arms, strict personal hygiene remains one of the most effective means of prevention. In the ergonomic study, the following parameters were taken into consideration: quantities collected; distances driven; number of collection points; incident records and the density of the wastes. It is concluded that certain changes are necessary in the way garbage is collected in order to benefit fully from the advantages offered by trucks with side-lift arms.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. 52p. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-317.pdf [in French]
Giguère D., Marchand D.
Low-back pain and musculoskeletal injuries among fire fighters - Identification and analysis of hazardous situations during vehicle access and the handling of tools
Lombalgies et accidents musculosquelettiques chez les pompiers - Identification et analyse des situations à risque lors de l'accès aux véhicules et de la manutention d'outils [in French]
Due to the nature of their work, fire fighters are vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders. Statistics show that sprains are among the most frequent lesions. The back is the main location of injury, followed by the feet and the ankles. Body movements, layouts of workplaces and vehicles are among the causes that are mentioned the most often. The purpose of this study was to identify hazardous tasks or situations in relation to fire fighting vehicles, to analyse the tasks and biomechanical constraints and to recommend ergonomic improvements. Various methods of acceding to vehicles were studied at two fire fighting stations. Practices with respect to the handling and use of tools and equipment were studied among 32 experienced fire fighters (28 men and four women) working at nine fire fighting stations. Several recommendations are made in the areas of vehicle access and the handling and storage of tools.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2002. [1 vol. ] Illus. 61 ref. An electronic version of the report in PDF format is also included on a CD-ROM.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-313.pdf [in French]
Torkki M., Malmivaara A., Reivonen N., Seitsalo S., Laippala P., Hoikka V.
Individually fitted sports shoes for overuse injuries among newspaper carriers
The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of new, individually fitted sports shoes against lower limb overuse injuries among newspaper carriers. 176 patients were randomly assigned to use either the new, individually adjusted footwear with good shock absorbing properties (test group = 86) or the subjects' own, used footwear (control group = 90). At the 6-month follow-up, there was a difference in favour of the test group with respect to lower-limb pain intensity and number of painful days. After one year, 53% and 33% of the test and control groups, respectively, thought they were better than at the time of the baseline examination. The test subjects had less foot fatigue and fewer hyperkeratotic skin lesions. There was no difference in the number of diagnosed overuse injuries between the groups. During the year of follow-up, the all-inclusive mean costs of foot care were USD 70 and USD 158 in the test and control groups, respectively.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2002, Vol.28, No.3, p.176-183. Illus. 10 ref.
Bicycle and motorcycle sales and repair shops
Comercio y talleres de bicicletas y motocicletas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in bicycle and motorcycle sales and repair shops and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 51p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_025.pdf [in Spanish]
Road passenger transport
Transporte de personas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in road passenger transport (loading, driving and issuing tickets) and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 51p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_020.pdf [in Spanish]
Automobile washing and lubricating workshops
Talleres de lavado y engrase de coches [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in automobile washing and lubricating workshops and the principal applicable prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 47p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_024.pdf [in Spanish]
Gaudin R., Ducos P., Francin J.M., Marsan P., Robert A., Nicot T., Lefèvre C., Lefebvre M.
Benzene exposure among mechanics - Atmospheric and biological monitoring
Exposition au benzène chez les mécaniciens - Evaluation atmosphérique et surveillance biologique [in French]
This study on the evaluation of benzene exposure was carried out among 114 vehicle mechanics working in 37 garages. On each evening during a week of work, workers were questioned on the tasks they performed during the day. Daily samples of personal workplace air and urine were collected, the latter for the purposes of determining muconic acid excretion, which is an indicator of all modes of benzene exposure. Results indicate that the exposure to atmospheric benzene is moderate, but more pronounced among mechanics working in garages for motorcycles or agricultural equipment (0.14 and 0.16ppm respectively) than among those working in automobile garages (0.03ppm). Atmospheric concentrations were in agreement with urinary concentrations of muconic acid, which were 0.21, 0.27 and 0.09mg/L among mechanics at garages for motorcycles, agricultural equipment and automobiles, respectively. It is concluded that preventive measures should focus mainly on mechanics in motorcycle and agricultural equipment garages.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.27-36. Illus. 26 ref.
Seward P.C., Semple D.A.
Health and Safety Executive
PTO shaftguards - Development of strength tests for tractor/machine "interface" standards
This project was commissioned by HSE following concern about the safety of power take-off shafts for agricultural tractors and their guards. HSE was an important contributor to the work which lead to ISO draft international standard 5674 "Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry - Guards for power take-off (PTO) drive shafts - Wear and strength tests". Although this document has received a positive vote, several queries have been raised by various international delegations to ISO concerning certain aspects of testing required under this draft standard. This report aims to answer these queries and promote involvement by manufacturers and other parties involved in advocating its adoption.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 53p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr051.pdf [in English]
af Wåhlberg A.E.
Characteristics of low speed road accidents with buses in public transport
Low-speed accidents involving public transport buses in the city of Uppsala, Sweden, during the years 1986-2000 were coded according to 17 variables. It was found that more than a quarter of all accidents occurred at bus stops. It is argued that the validity of this database exceeds that of company self-reports and reports from state and police archives, due to more extensive reporting and corroborating experience. The practical usefulness of these results and accident classifications in general are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2002, Vol.34, No.5, p.637-647. 39 ref.
Jørgensen F., Pedersen P.A.
Drivers' response to the installation of road lighting: An economic interpretation
An economic model of drivers' behaviour is introduced in order to explain recently published empirical findings according to which road lighting increases speed, decreases concentration and reduces accidents. The model, combined with the empirical results, indicate that drivers perceive speed and concentration as complementary safety variables, while common sense suggests that speed and concentration influence real accident rate as substitutable safety means. If this holds, a positive but concave relationship between subjective and objective risks exists, which means that as the objective accident risk rises, it has less influence on perceived risk.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2002, Vol.34, No.5, p.601-608. Illus. 23 ref.
Vu-Duc T., Huynh C.K., Lafontaine M., Bonnet P., Binet S.
A spectrophotometric method for the determination of organic soluble matter in bitumen fumes
A UV spectrophotometric procedure was validated for the determination of organic soluble matter in bitumen fumes collected by filtration. Ultrasonic extraction was carried out with toluene, followed by UV absorbance measurements at 320nm. A calibration curve was plotted from the same set of samples determined by classical weighing method. Further determinations can also be made using the slope factor of the calibration curve. The procedure is simple and fast, and is less prone to losses than weight measurements. Inter-method comparisons of samples collected from experimental laboratory-generated bitumen fumes commonly used in road paving showed that the three available procedures for the determination of organic soluble matter, namely weighing, infrared and UV yield equivalent results.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.495-500. Illus. 15 ref.
Recent development of exposure to gasoline in the distribution chain
Gasoline is a complex mixture of aliphatic and cyclo-aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons (primarily benzene) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure to these substances among tank truck drivers delivering gasoline to service stations as well as harbour and storage depot workers. Samples were collected in the workers' breathing zone. Tank truck drivers typically are involved in three loading or unloading operations per day, lasting an average of half an hour. During these tasks, the concentration of C3-C11 hydrocarbons, MTBE and benzene varied between 5-500, 1-20mg/m3 and 0.25-17.5mg/m3 respectively. The exposure of harbour and depot workers was significantly lower. Exposure levels have decreased considerably in recent years with the introduction of vapour recovery systems.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. 68p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Woskie S.R., Kalil A., Bello D., Virji M.A.
Exposures to quartz, diesel, dust, and welding fumes during heavy and highway construction
Personal samples for exposure to dust, diesel exhaust, quartz and welding fume were collected on 260 heavy and highway construction workers. Respirable quartz exposures exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) in 7-31% of cases for the jobs sampled. More than 50% of the samples in the installation of ceilings, wall tiles and concrete finish operations exceeded the NIOSH REL for quartz. Thoracic exposures to quartz and dust exceeded respirable exposures by a factor of 4.5 and 2.8, respectively. Inhalable exposures to quartz and dust exceeded respirable exposures by a factor of 25.6 and 9.3, respectively. 14% of the personal samples for elemental carbon collected as a marker for diesel exhaust, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for diesel exhaust. 17 of the 22 samples taken during a partially enclosed welding operation reached or exceeded the ACGIH TLV of 5 mg/m3 for welding fume.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.447-457. 62 ref.
Johanning E., Fischer S., Christ E., Göres B., Landsbergis P.
Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives - An ergonomic risk assessment
Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 locomotives built between 1959 and 2000 was studied using international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation, the vector sum, the maximum transient vibration value, the vibration dose value and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor were calculated. The power spectral densities were also reported. It was found that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road and off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.439-446. Illus. 28 ref.
Bonne B., Chartier A.M., Crette A., Grabiaud M.H.
Motorcycle dispatch workers
Les coursiers deux roues [in French]
This article discusses the risks incurred by motorcycle dispatch workers. This activity is characterized by high rates of severe road accidents, lack of training and the absence of recognition under collective agreements. Workers come from different backgrounds, often unrelated to the activity. Atmospheric pollution is a legitimate case for concern among workers. Three fictional case descriptions illustrate the working conditions experienced in this activity. Contents of the occupational information sheet accompanying the article: characteristics of the activity; description of the activity; risks and constraints; occupational diseases; preventive measures; regulations; aptitude criteria and contraindications.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.29-36. Illus. 12 ref. + 2p. Insert.
Auffarth J., Hebisch R., Johnen A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Exposure to harmful products during automobile recycling
Stoffbelastungen beim Kraftfahrzeugrecycling [in German]
This study examines the exposure of workers at 13 automobile recycling facilities. Results show that during fluid draining and disassembly operations workers are exposed to fuel vapours and dust, the concentrations of which, however, remain within permissible limits. During fluid draining, the source of exposure is motor fuel (maximum exposure of 67mg/m3, namely one quarter of the exposure limit for benzene-containing gasoline), while exposure to dust is negligible. Exposure to gasoline vapour is considerably lower during disassembly operations (maximum exposure of 10mg/m3). Maximum levels of breathable and inhalable dusts are below permissible levels (0.61 and 2.6mg/m3 respectively). However, there is evidence of skin damage among workers, mainly affecting the hands, the forearms and the face.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. xii, 86p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: EUR 11.00.
Scarlett A.J., Price J.S., Stayner R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration: Initial evaluation of emissions originating from modern agricultural tractors
This study was conducted to quantify whole-body vibration (WBV) emissions levels found in five modern agricultural tractors when operated in controlled conditions (traversing ISO ride vibration test tracks). Vibration emission levels were found to increase with tractor speed and surface roughness, but were lowered as vehicle size increased. The presence of suspension systems reduced the degree of vibration increase with travel speed. Under standard test conditions, the highest single-axis vibration emission magnitude (for all the tractors tested) was within the range 0.8-1.5m/s2. However, application of the 1.4 multiplication factor (as required by ISO 2631:1997), increased this range to 1.2-2.0m/s2, in excess of the WBV exposure limit value (ELV) proposed by the EU Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive. Further investigation is required to establish linkage between the test track WBV emissions characteristics of given vehicles, and subsequent WBV emissions and driver daily WBV exposures encountered during typical agricultural operations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 26p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Drivers of mobile equipment - Fed up with vibrations
Conducteurs d'engins mobiles - Vibrations, plein le dos [in French]
Drivers and operators who work in a sitting posture are regularly exposed to vibrations, tremors and jolts transmitted to the whole body by the seat and the cab floor, resulting in backache and injuries to the spinal column and inter-vertebral disks. This booklet is aimed at helping employers and persons responsible for occupational safety and health to limit the exposure of drivers of mobile equipment to whole-body vibrations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2001. 12p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view/E32A5138E64C8273C1256CD900505A00/$File/ed864.pdf [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Prevention of tractors overturning
46 persons were killed in tractor overturn accidents on farms in the United Kingdom between April 1986 and March 1995. This booklet on the prevention of tractors overturning sets out important points for using tractors safely. Topics covered: maintenance; safe working methods; training of drivers; basic precautions for safe tractor driving (driving and turning on slopes, towing equipment, braking system, parking, clutch use, using loaders and trailers); other safety precautions. Replaces CIS 98-300.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2001. 15p. Illus. 2 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Worker's magazine: Accidents linked to pesticides (modules 1 and 2) - Manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly areas - Manual Harvesting of sugar cane - Work in potteries - Peroxydizable substances - Forestry work - Benzene - Agricultural tractors - Cashew nuts
Revista do trabalhador: Acidentes com agrotóxicos (Módulos 1 e 2) - Corte manual de cana em região amorrada - Corte manual de cana-de-açúcar - Trabalho em olarias - Substâncias peroxidáveis - Trabalhos na atividade florestal - Benzeno - Tratores agrícolas - Castanha de caju [in Portuguese]
These ten tapes are part of a collection entitled "Worker's magazine" published by the Fundacentro covering various occupational safety and health issues related to pesticides and other chemicals, as well as other agriculture and forestry-related activities. Topics covered: accidents due to pesticides (prevention of hazards among users and during production, and interviews of researchers and managers of occupational safety and health institutions, two cassettes); manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly regions; manual harvesting of sugar cane; work in potteries; peroxydizable substances; forestry work; benzene; tractors used in agriculture; cashew nut industry.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, no date. 10 videotapes (VHS format), 17min 50sec; 17min 11sec; 13min 42sec; 14min 31sec; 16min 13sec; 12min 46sec; 14min 05sec; 18min 52sec, 13min 20sec; 12min 45sec. Price: BRL 20.00 (each tape).
Preventing road accidents involving heavy goods vehicles
Forebyggelse af færdselsulykker, hvor tunge godskøretøjer er impliceret [in Danish]
Att förhindra vägtrafikolyckor med tunga fordon [in Swedish]
Ē prólēpsē tōn odikṓn atuhmátōn pou prokaloúntai me summetohḗ tōn baréōn fortēgṓn ohmátōn [in Greek]
Prevención de accidentes de carretera en los que estén implicados vehículos pesados de mercancías [in Spanish]
Raskeveomasinatega maanteeõnnetuste ärahoidmine [in Estonian]
Kuorma-auto-onnettomuuksien torjunta [in Finnish]
Prévenir les accidents de la route impliquant des poids lourds [in French]
Prevenire gli incidenti stradali in cui sono coinvolti veicoli pesanti [in Italian]
Nelaimingų atsitikimų darbe, susijusių su transporto priemonėmis, prevencija [in Lithuanian]
Voorkoming van verkeersongevallen met vrachtwagens [in Dutch]
Zapobieganie wypadkom drogowym z udziałem ciężarówek [in Polish]
Prevenção dos acidentes rodoviários com veículos pesados de mercadorias [in Portuguese]
Prevencia dopravných nehôd s vozidlami s t'ažkými nákladmi [in Slovak]
Preprečevanje prometnih nesreč s težkimi tovornimi vozili [in Slovenian]
Vermeidung von Unfällen mit Lastkraftwagen [in German]
Road safety is a priority for the European Union's transport policy. Although it is a shared responsibility between public authorities, enterprises and the general public, enterprises and employees in the transport sector should take a leading role. This fact sheet outlines some basic good practice principles for the road transport sector. Topics covered: safety aspects of road transportoperations; promotion of road safety in business relations; partnership with local authorities; professional driving and safety; employers' good practice checklist; drivers' good practice checklist.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2001. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/en/FACTSN18-EN.pdf [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/fr/FACTSN18-FR.pdf [in French]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/da/FACTSN18-DA.pdf [in Danish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/de/FACTSN18-DE.pdf [in German]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/et/facts18_et.pdf [in Estonian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/el/FACTSN18-GR.pdf [in Greek]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/it/FACTSN18-IT.pdf [in Italian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/lt/faktai18.pdf [in Lithuanian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/nl/FACTSN18-NL.pdf [in Dutch]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/pl/Fakty_18_PL.pdf [in Polish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/pt/FACTSN18-PT.pdf [in Portuguese]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/sk/Fact18_SK.pdf [in Slovak]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/sl/FACTS18_SL.pdf [in Slovenian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/fi/FACTSN18-FI.pdf [in Finnish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/sv/FACTSN18-SV.pdf [in Swedish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/18/es/FACTSN18-ES.pdf [in Spanish]
Lefebvre M., Sésé B.
Road hazards faced by employees - Understanding in order to act - Evaluation guide
Risque routier encouru par les salariés - Comprendre pour agir - Guide d'évaluation [in French]
Around 800 persons are killed each year in France in commuting or work-related road accidents, making them the prime cause of occupational fatalities. When not fatal, these accidents are often more serious than accidents that occur within the enterprise. Even though these accidents occur off premises, it remains possible for enterprises to contain these hazards on the condition that they be addressed like other occupational hazards. This guide presents a global approach for the prevention of road hazards consisting of the following six steps: ensure the commitment of all parties; analyse the causes; develop an action plan; implement the actions; evaluate the actions; ensure sustainability of the actions by integrating the prevention plan into the daily operations of the enterprise.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, Oct. 2001. 34p. Illus. Price: EUR 7.30.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/E0AA65AC0A815476C1256CD900503EE8/$FILE/ed877.pdf [in French]
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Transporte: Mão dupla: Abertura; Cidadania no trânsito; Transporte de cargas; Transporte de passageiros; Transporte de trabalhadores; Profissão - motociclista; Álcool e drogas. Manual prático do trabalhador: Transporte de passageiros; Perigo sobre rodas; Motociclista profissional [in Portuguese]
The Fundacentro has published ten videotapes on occupational safety in road transport. They describe the hazards that are present in this sector and propose solutions for improving safety. Seven of these tapes are part of a collection entitled "Two ways", covering the following topics: opening of the series (general discussion); civic sense during driving; transportation of loads; transportation of persons; transportation of workers; motorcycling as an occupation; alcohol and drugs. Three tapes are part of a series entitled "Practical manual of the worker", covering the following topics: transportation of passengers; hazards on wheels (transportation of hazardous substances), motorcycling as an occupation.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 10 videotapes (VHS format), 25min 11sec; 26min 13sec; 25min 15sec; 25min 51sec; 24min 57sec; 26min 03sec; 26min 33sec; 10min 45sec; 16min 47sec; 15min 31sec.
Sato S., Taoda K., Kawamura M., Wakaba K., Fukuchi Y., Nishiyama K.
Heart rate variability during long truck driving work
Ambulatory electrocardiograms of six long-distance truck drivers were recoded during their work period in order to observe the autonomic nervous function and symptoms during work. The RR50 (the number of cycles with R-R interval >50ms) and the low-frequency power/high-frequency power (LFP/HFP) ratio were calculated every two minutes. During naps, RR50 was significantly higher than during other periods of the work shift, while the LFP/HFP ratio was significantly lower. RRRR50 was also significantly higher in the morning than in the afternoon, while again the LFP/HFP ratio was lower. These results show that the parasympathetic nervous activities were more dominant than sympathetic nervous activities in the morning. Driving during high parasympathetic nervous activity levels may add to cardiovascular stress and lead to drowsiness.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.235-240. Illus. 17 ref.
Verma Y., Rana S.V.S.
Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners
Exposure to benzene was monitored in service station employees and dry cleaners in Meerut City (India) by measuring the phenol content in urine samples taken from them. The influence of three factors was determined, namely alcohol consumption, smoking and food habits (vegetarians and non-vegetarians). While smoking and food habits had little effect on phenol excretion, it was found that alcohol-consuming subjects excreted more phenol. It is concluded that alcohol can alter the susceptibility of humans to benzene toxicity by affecting its metabolism.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.330-333. 29 ref.
Low-vibration fork-lift trucks
Pour des chariots élévateurs moins vibrants [in French]
Drivers of power trucks are exposed to vibrations, which cause backache and inter-vertebral disk hernia. This article describes work undertaken by the mechanical prevention systems modelling laboratory of the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) aimed at reducing these vibrations. Test benches for testing cab suspensions, seats and tyres were designed and set up, and a numerical modelling calculation system was developed and applied for estimating vibration levels in the driver cab. Other topics covered: regulations concerning the compensation of chronic lumbar column diseases caused by vibrations, draft "vibrations" directive on the minimal safety and health requirements for the exposure of workers to physical agents (vibrations), according to which permissible values (8-hour average) would be 0.6m/s2 for whole-body vibration, with a threshold limit value of 1.15m/s2.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2001, No.610, p.12-17. Illus.
Victims of road accidents - EPICEA analyses 1901 fatal accidents involving employees during the course of their work
EPICEA étudie 1901 accidents mortels survenus à des salariés en mission [in French]
The 1901 fatal road accidents that occurred in France between 1990 and 1997, excluding commuting accidents, were analysed. The scope of the study included light vehicles, trucks, motorized two-wheelers and bicycles. Victims included drivers and passengers of vehicles as well as pedestrians who were knocked down by vehicles. Data are presented by sector of activity, level of responsibility of the victim, type of vehicle and company size. A typological classification into nine risk classes is proposed.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2001, No.611, p.32-35. Illus.
Torp S., Riise T., Moen B.E.
The impact of psychosocial work factors on musculoskeletal pain: A prospective study
This study, conducted through a questionnaire survey of 721 workers at 226 automobile repair shops in Norway, indicates that psychosocial factors at work may have a role in the prediction of musculoskeletal pain. The best predictors were: low levels of decision authority and of management support.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.120-126. 56 ref.
Becker G., Lohmeyer M., Mathys W., Neumann H.D.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Methods for reducing the release of microorganisms during lifting processes by refuse collection vehicles
Methoden zur Minderung der Keimfreisetzung bei Schüttvorgängen an Abfallsammelfahrzeugen [in German]
The objective of this study was to evaluate garbage truck designs and methods of work aimed at reducing the exposure of garbage collectors to microorganisms. Breathing air was analysed for bioaerosols. Vehicle design parameters studied included the type of compaction system (packer plates or rotating drums), rave rail height, intake hopper depth, body design and closure system (curtain or hinged lid). A prototype suction-type aerosol interceptor was evaluated with inconclusive results, requiring further development work. Several truck design factors and lifting device types resulted in reduced levels of microbial emission. The importance of regular high-pressure water-jet cleaning of the lifting device at fortnightly intervals in stressed. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 131p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.
Fire fighter deaths from tanker truck rollovers
Mobile water supply vehicles, known as tankers or tenders, are widely used to transport water to areas beyond a water supply system or where the water supply is inadequate. Tanker trucks are more difficult to control than passenger vehicles. During 1977-1999, 73 deaths of firefighters occurred in 63 crashes involving tankers. Of those deaths, 54 occurred in crashes in which tankers rolled over and 8 in crashes in which the tankers left the road. Contents of this information note on firefighter deaths from tanker truck rollovers: risk factors; description of 2 accident cases; recommendations for prevention.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Dec. 2001. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hid14.html [in English]
Regulation No.1263 of 20 Sep. 2001 of the Minister of Economy concerning occupational safety and health while operating machinery and other equipment used for earth-moving, construction and road building [Poland]
Rozporządzenie Ministra gospodarki z dnia 20 września 2001 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy podczas eksploatacji maszyn i innych urządzeń technicznych do robót ziemnych, budowlanych i drogowych [in Polish]
Contents of these Regulations: general provisions; special provisions for particular operations and machinery. In annex: training level required from operators, depending on machine type and capacity.
Dziennik Ustaw, 15 Oct. 2001, No.118, p.9279-9287.
Professional drivers' working time as a factor of flexibility and competitiveness in road haulage
Summary of a report on professional road-transport drivers, analysing working time and conditions, accident risks and occupational illnesses, and taking into account competitive conditions and European legislation on weekly working hours.
Newsletter of the European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety - Bulletin d'information du Bureau technique syndical européen pour la santé et la sécurité, Feb. 2001, No. 15-16, p.39-47. Illus. 19 ref.
The highway accident and its victims
L'accident routier et ses victimes [in French]
Between 1990 and 1997, there were approximately 6000 fatal occupational accidents in France, of which close to 2000 were road accidents involving employees in the course of their work. This article focuses on the road accidents, and contains a number of tables showing accident occurrences by type of vehicle, industrial sector, age of victims, size of company and employee level of responsibility. A typological classification occupational fatal road accidents in nine classes is proposed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.91-101. Illus.
Tractor-drawn mower occupational fatalities in production agriculture, 1992-1997
Data on occupational fatalities while using tractor-drawn mowers in the agricultural sector in the United States from 1992-1997 were analysed. There were 126 deaths, including 32% from tractor overturns and 29% as a result of falling from the tractor or being struck by the farm equipment. The majority of workers fatally injured were self-employed (98 deaths, 77%). Fatalities were concentrated in the South (67 deaths, 53%) and the Midwest (40 deaths, 32%). The crude fatality rate was 1.0 death per 100,000 workers (crop production 1.8 deaths per 100,000 workers, livestock production 0.4 deaths per 100,000 workers). Workers 65 years and older reported the most fatalities (62 deaths, 49%), for a rate of 3.4 deaths per 100,000 workers. This analysis shows that an average of 21 workers die each year from this single work activity. Prevention strategies should address roll over protective structures (ROPS), older workers and hazard awareness.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.53-62. Illus. 17 ref.
Oliver L.C., Miracle-McMahill H., Littman A.B., Oakes J.M., Gaita R.R.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function in workers in heavy and highway construction: A cross-sectional study
Respiratory symptoms and lung function were examined in labourers, tunnel workers (TWs) and operating engineers (OEs) in highway and tunnel construction. Data were obtained on 389 unionized workers: 186 labourers, 45 TWs, and 158 OEs. Prevalence of asthma was 13 and 11.4% for labourers and operating engineers, respectively, and of symptomatic chronic bronchitis, 6.5 and 1.9%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) for undiagnosed asthma were significantly elevated in TWs compared to OEs, and marginally elevated for chronic bronchitis. Inverse relationships were observed between duration of membership of the union, and risk for asthma and chronic bronchitis. Asthma predicted lower FEV1. TWs, labourers, and OEs in highway construction are at increased risk for asthma. TWs also appear to be at increased risk for chronic bronchitis. The data suggest that symptomatic workers are self-selecting out of their trade. Asthma was associated with lower lung function in those affected.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.73-86. Illus. 36 ref.
Marlenga B., Pickett W., Berg R.L.
Assignment of work involving farm tractors to children on North American farms
Children are at high risk for tractor-related injury. The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) provide recommendations for the assignment of tractor work. This analysis describes tractor-related jobs assigned to farm children and compares them to NAGCAT. A descriptive analysis was conducted of baseline data collected by telephone interview. The study population consisted of 1,138 children who worked on 498 North American farms. A total of 2,389 farm jobs were reported and 456 (19.1%) involved operation of farm tractors. Leading types of tractor jobs were identified. Modest, yet important, percentages of children were assigned tractor work before the minimum ages recommended by NAGCAT. Children on farms are involved in tractor work at a young age and some are involved in jobs that they are unlikely to have the developmental abilities to perform.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.15-22. Illus. 17 ref.
Pratt S.G., Fosbroke D.E., Marsh S.M.
Building safer highway work zones: Measures to prevent worker injuries from vehicles and equipment
Highway and street workers are at risk of fatal and serious non fatal injury when working in the vicinity of passing motorists, construction vehicles and equipment. This document summarizes the data from current literature on highway safety, analysis of worker fatalities in the highway and street construction industry and workshop discussions on the measures that could be taken by employers, equipment manufacturers, government bodies and research agencies to reduce or eliminate these hazards. It lists interventions which can be implemented according to specific situations. A total of 29 fatality cases are analysed and measures to prevent future occurrences are provided.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Apr. 2001. ix, 71p. 77 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
New requirements for the transport of explosives by road - A comparison of GB Explosives Transport Regulations and ADR 2001
United Kingdom regulations on the transport of dangerous goods are to be replaced by a single regulation adopting the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) to be entitled the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail Regulations (CDGRR). This paper compares the existing regulations for the United Kingdom explosives sector with the draft text of ADR 2001 in order to highlight areas of differences likely to have an impact on industry in the United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 35p. Price: GBP 10.00.
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