Road transportation - 1,331 entries found
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Tepper A.L., Burr G.A., Feng H.A., Singal M., Miller A.K., Hanley K.W., Olsen L.D.
Acute symptoms associated with asphalt fume exposure among road pavers
Although asphalt fume is a recognized irritant, previous studies of acute symptoms during asphalt paving have produced inconsistent results. Between 1994 and 1997, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated workers' exposure and health at seven sites in six States. Exposures of workers to total (TP) and benzene-soluble particulate (BSP) polycyclic aromatic compounds, and other substances were determined. Their peak expiratory flow was measured. Symptom questionnaires were administered pre-shift, every two hours during the shift and post-shift to exposed and non-exposed workers. Strong associations were observed between irritant symptoms and TP and BSP exposures, even at concentrations below 0.5mg/m3. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.49, No.9, p.728-739. Illus. 28 ref.
Torp S., Moen B.E.
The effects of occupational health and safety management on work environment and health: A prospective study
All companies in Norway are required to have an occupational safety and health (OSH) management system. This study investigated the effects of implementing or improving OSH management on the work environment, safety behaviour and musculoskeletal health of workers in small and medium-sized companies. A one-year prospective cohort study, using self-administered questionnaires, was performed among the managers and blue-collar workers in 226 motor vehicle repair garages. Out of 1559 workers that responded at baseline, 721 workers could be identified at follow-up. The analysis focussed on these 721 workers. It was found that workers in companies with improved OSH management from baseline to follow-up reported increased satisfaction with the OSH activities at the garage, improved support from management and colleagues, improved health-related support and control and increased participation in OSH activities.
Applied Ergonomics, Nov. 2006, Vol.37, No.6, p.775-783. Illus. 39 ref.
Carruth A.K., Skarke L., Gilmore K., Brown E.R.
Potential exposure to hazardous work activities: Tractor usage among farmwomen
This study examined the involvement and work patterns of 665 women in Texas and 657 women in Louisiana who were 18 years old and older and whose family participated in farming operations. Surveys were used to gather specific data regarding tractor work patterns, tractor knowledge, sources of information about tractors and demographic information. Among the women, 577 (43.6%) reported driving tractors at least one day a year. This subset was used to describe characteristics of tractors and tractor-related activities. Findings indicate that women learn to drive tractors in their 20s, use husbands as the primary source of their information about tractors, engage in a wide variety of farm activities and acknowledge having limited knowing about driving tractors. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that interventions that target women to become more knowledgeable regarding the injury risks associated with driving tractors need to be designed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2006, Vol.11, No.3/4, p.25-34. 31 ref.
Diniz E.P.H., Filho J.M.J., Sampaio M.R., Oliveira Pereira A.C., Assunção A.Á., Lima F.P.A.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Technical recommendations for the prevention of accidents in the motorcycle delivery sector
Recomendações técnicas para a prevenção de acidentes no setor de motofrete [in Portuguese]
Contents of these recommendations for the prevention of accidents in the motorcycle delivery sector: arguments in favour of a comprehensive review of accidents involving motorcyclists; why motorcyclists are exposed to accidents; list of 55 technical recommendations for the prevention of accidents in this sector of activity. A leaflet containing recommendations aimed at users of motorcycle delivery services, motorists and pedestrians is included.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2006. 58p. 21 ref.
Benoît R., Gou M., Bellavigna O., Vu-Hhanh T., Dolez P., Arrieta C., Nohilé C., Ha-Anh T.
Exploratory study of heavy truck tyre blowout and explosion phenomena
Etude exploratoire sur les phénomènes d'éclatement et d'explosion de pneus de camions lourds [in French]
In Quebec in the last four years, three fatal accidents involving heavy vehicles were directly attributable to the bursting of tyres. The degradation of the rubber under the effect of heat is the main cause. However, there are few apparent warning signs for detecting the beginning or the extent of the degradation with or without pyrolysis. This study provides updated information on the tyre bursting phenomenon, as well as its causes, consequences, risks and means of prevention. It involved a literature survey and an analysis of accident investigation reports. Previous studies dealing with means of degradation and aging of tyres, and the mechanical properties and failures of the wheel-tyre system were also updated.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. xii, 134p. Illus. 243 ref. Price: CAD 15.90. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-479.pdf [in French]
Tüchsen F., Hannerz H., Roepstorff C., Krause N.
Stroke among male professional drivers in Denmark, 1994-2003
The objective of this study was to estimate the relative risk of stroke among various groups of professional drivers. A cohort of 6285 bus drivers, 4204 car, taxi and van drivers, and 25,879 heavy truck drivers were followed up for hospital admission due to stroke and sub-diagnoses in the period 1994-2003. The standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) were calculated using hospital admission for all economically active men as the standard. Findings are discussed. All groups of professional drivers were found to be at increased risk of stroke, but the risk was higher among drivers carrying passengers than among drivers carrying goods.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.63, No.7, p.456-460. 39 ref.
Alcouffe J., Chaudron B., Montéléon P.Y., Roux F., Wargon C.
Evaluation of road accident risk among employees required to drive cars or commercial vehicles on public roads in the course of their work
Evaluation du risque routier chez les salariés qui conduisent sur la voie publique un véhicule (VL ou PL) pour leur activité professionnelle [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the occupational risk of having a road accident and its relationship with organizational factors in small and medium enterprises in the Ile-de-France (Paris) region of France. It was carried out by means of a questionnaire survey, including an evaluation based on the Epworth sleepiness scale. Among approximately 12,000 workers questioned, 12% drove vehicles as part of their job (other than construction site equipment and exluding home-workplace commuting). Most were men (84%), of average age 38.5 years, among whom only 12% suffered from disturbed vigilance, which however was not associated with the 126 accidents which had occurred in the preceding 12 months. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 2006, Vol.46, No.3, p.319-333. 5 ref.
Jones A.Y.M., Lam P.K.W., Dean E.
Respiratory health of bus drivers in Hong Kong
This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the lung function and respiratory symptoms of Hong Kong bus and tram drivers exposed to air pollutants. Demographic information, pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms and blood lead levels in 358 male drivers of air-conditioned buses (ACB) were compared with 129 male drivers of non-air-conditioned buses (NACB). Particulate matter, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide levels were measured in 16 air-conditioned and 15 non-air-conditioned trams along the same route. Findings are discussed. Overall, the lung function of NACB drivers was poorer than that of ACB drivers, probably due to prolonged exposure to air pollutants. However, the higher blood lead levels in ACB drivers could be the result of air recirculation.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2006, Vol.79, No.5, p.414-418. 23 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/ym2560nmh2319040/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Road hazards during work trips. Guide to hazard evaluation
Le risque routier en mission. Guide d'évaluation des risques [in French]
Many employees spend a large part of their working day at the wheel of a vehicle, during trips carried out on behalf of their employers. These workers are exposed to road accidents as a result of their work. This booklet provides guidance for enterprises on the evaluation this occupational hazard and the implementation of suitable prevention measures.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2006. 31p. Illus. Price: EUR 6.10. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/40841AA2CAC09278C12572120032198F/$FILE/ed986.pdf [in French]
Trombetta Zanin P.H.
Occupational noise in urban buses
The noise level environment for bus drivers in a Brazilian city was examined. Noise levels were measured in three types of buses. In 56 out of the 60 buses examined, the normalized noise exposure levels were below 82dB(A). The quality of the workplace was thus considered as acceptable overall. The four buses with noise levels above 82dB(A) require noise reduction measures. These buses are older and have the engine located in the front. Year of manufacture and location of the engine are two factors that highly contribute to the level of noise reaching the driver.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 2006, Vol.36, No.10, p.901-905. Illus. 29 ref.
Preventing asthma and death from MDI exposure during spray-on truck bed liner and related applications
Contents of these recommendations for preventing asthma and other respiratory diseases during polyurethane spray-on applications: description of the polyurethane spray-on truck bed lining process; spray applications other than truck bed lining; health effects of isocyanates (lung injury, respiratory sensitization, cancer); current exposure limits; workplace exposure assessments; case reports of isocyanate-induced asthma and other respiratory diseases investigated by NIOSH; recommendations aimed at shop owners and suppliers of chemicals; future research. These recommendations are also summarized on a detachable sheet for display on a notice board. Appendices include: properties and chemical structure of isocyanates; spray enclosure and ventilation design considerations; supplied-air respirators and elements of a respiratory protection programme; surveillance guidelines for work-related asthma.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2006. 35p. Illus. 57 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-149/pdfs/2006-149.pdf [in English]
Lui Y., et al.
Respiratory protection from isocyanate exposure in the autobody repair and refinishing industry
This study evaluated the effectiveness of respiratory protection against exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates in automobile body repair shops. A total of 36 shops were assessed for respiratory protection programme completeness. 142 workers were measured for respirator fit factor. In addition, 22 painters from 21 shops were sampled to determine the protection factors of negative pressure, air purifying half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapour cartridges and paint pre-filters during spray-painting and priming activities. Findings are discussed. It is concluded half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapour cartridges and paint prefilters provide effective protection against isocyanate exposure in spray and priming operations if workers are properly trained and fitted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2006, Vol.3, No.5, p.234-249. Illus. 58 ref.
Roberge B., Ménard L., Turcotte A., Beadet Y., Lazure L.
Evaluation of an exhaust gas evacuation system during propane-fuelled lift truck maintenance
Evaluation d'un système d'évacuation des gaz d'échappement lors de l'entretien des chariots élévateurs au propane [in French]
Propane-fuelled lift truck tuning activities produce carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the workers' breathing zone that may exceed threshold limit values. Mechanics often tune and maintain these vehicles in open area shops, which in many cases do not meet minimum ventilation requirements. During the initial site studies carried out within the scope of this project, it was noted that a mobile system of CO collection system might solve this problem. The efficiency of such a system, consisting of a collection hose used alone or coupled with a portable fan connected to a vehicle's exhaust pipe, was demonstrated.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 37p. Illus. 7 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-458.pdf [in French]
Oggero A., Darba R.M., Muñoz M., Planas E., Casal J.
A survey of accidents occurring during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail
A study of 1932 accidents that occurred during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail from the beginning of the 20th century to July 2004 was carried out. Findings show an increase in the frequency of accidents over time. More than half of the accidents occurred on roads (63%). The most frequent accidents were releases (78%), followed by fires (28%), explosions (14%) and gas clouds (6%). The causes of the accidents, the type of substance involved and the consequences for the population (number of people killed, injured or evacuated) are discussed. Among the various measures taken to improve this situation, the training of workers involved in transportation of dangerous substances appears to be the most important.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 2006, Vol.133, No.1-3. p.1-7. Illus. 8 ref.
Occupational safety and health actions: Automobile repair shops
La prévention en action. Maintenance de véhicules automobiles: mécanique et carrosserie [in French]
The purpose of this booklet is to offer guidance for the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards in automobile repair shops. It is aimed at the heads of establishments as well as at workers and their representatives. It addresses the five steps of the prevention approach: preparation; hazard evaluation; definition of the action plan; implementation of the action plan; evaluation of the approach. Appendices include the main French laws and regulations, together with examples of a hazard evaluation checklist and a preventive action programme.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Sep. 2006. 40p. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.anact.fr/pls/portal/docs/1/19105.PDF [in French]
Lavoie J., Guertin S., Trudel M., Filion M.
Optimal layout for a garbage truck with an articulated arm
Aménagement optimal du camion avec bras assisté pour la collecte d'ordures ménagères [in French]
Trucks with articulated arms significantly reduce the main biological and ergonomic hazards as well as the safety risks to which garbage collectors are exposed when collecting household waste. However, they also cause new problems related to their layout, cleaning and maintenance. The objective of this study was to validate various proposed improvements in workplace layout and driving methods, aimed at resolving these problems. Data were collected by means of job observations during six garbage collection journeys as well as through interviews of the workers. Changes were generally beneficial and most have already been implemented.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iii, 25p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-461.pdf [in French]
Lewné M., Nise G., Lind M.L., Gustavsson P.
Exposure to particles and nitrogen dioxide among taxi, bus and lorry drivers
The objective of this study was to investigate differences in exposure to motor exhaust between taxi, bus and truck drivers. A total of 121 drivers were included in the study: 39 taxi drivers, 42 bus drivers and 40 truck drivers. Personal exposure measurements were performed during one working day. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was measured with passive diffusive samplers. Particles were measured using a monitoring instrument detecting particles between 0.1 and 10µm in size. It was found that truck drivers experienced the highest exposure and taxi drivers the lowest with bus drivers in an intermediate position, regardless of whether NO2 or particles were used as exposure indicator. The levels of both NO2 and particles were higher for bus drivers in the city than for those driving in the suburbs. Using diesel or petrol as a fuel for taxis had no influence on the exposure for the drivers, indicating that the taxi drivers' exposure mainly depends on exhaust from surrounding traffic.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.220-226. Illus. 16 ref.
Bernadou A.M., et al.
Enterprise sheet: Garages
Fiche d'entreprise: Garages [in French]
Example of enterprise sheet for garages, complying with the French labour code. For each enterprise for which they are responsible, occupational physicians are required to prepare and regularly update this sheet which lists the various occupational hazards to which workers may be exposed and specifies the number of persons exposed. The sheet contains the following information: general information on the enterprise; evaluation of the hazards and the corresponding number of potentially-exposed workers; actions aimed at reducing the risks; list of documents to be appended.
Bossons Futé, 2006. 11p. Illus. 20 ref. PDF document.
http://www.bossons-fute.com/Entreprises/entreprise0009.php [in French]
ADR 2005-2007: Road transport of dangerous goods
ADR 2005-2007: Transport samochodowy towarów niebezpiecznych [in Polish]
Guide to the European Agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road (ADR) effective 1 January 2005 (see CIS 05-2). Contents: classification of dangerous goods; requirements relating to transport documentation; equipment and marking of vehicles; packaging and labelling; responsibilities of the parties involved; technical specifications of the vehicles for carrying dangerous goods; rules for the exemption from ADR regulations; responsibilities and scope of activity of safety advisers; procedures in the event of an incident; regulations.
Ośrodek Doradztwa i Doskonalenia Kadr Sp. z o.o., ul. Obrońców Westerplatte 32a, 80-317 Gdańsk Oliwa, Poland, 2005. 494p. Illus.
Smith T., Couper G., Donaldson W., Neale M., Caroll J.
Health and Safety Executive
Seatbelt performance in quarry vehicle incidents - Final report
The most frequent type of accident in quarries is those involving vehicles, accounting for approximately 40% of all accidents. Various industry standards have been implemented in the United Kingdom, including those applying to all-round visibility from vehicles, edge protection and brake testing, in order to reduce the number of casualties. The effectiveness of restraint systems is considered as the next step to achieving further safety improvements. In this study, current standards and practices of several countries were firstly reviewed. Next, a range of accident conditions were simulated using human body numerical models that were evaluated against data from full scale tests. Findings are discussed. Restraint of the torso was shown to provide additional benefits over the current lap belts.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 141p. Illus. 42 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr406.pdf [in English]
Toward M.G.R., Gunston T.P., Griffin M.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of whole-body vibration exposures in British industry
This study involved the measurements of whole-body vibration on eight excavators and two compact skid-steer loaders. Of the excavators, four were fitted with impact hammers, two with hydraulic crushers, one with a backhoe shovel and one with steel shears. Accelerations were measured on the seat surface and on the floor within the operators' cabs of the machines in accordance with the ISO 2631 (1997) standard. The data have been evaluated in the context of the levels set out in the European Union Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive (2002/44/EC). The report provides predicted daily vibration exposure for each machine. The effects of machine operation and other parameters on the vibration exposures are also considered.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. viii, 79p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr377.pdf [in English]
Chiang W.K., Chan C.C., Tseng C.T., Wang J.D.
Reduction of post-shift traffic injuries among gasoline station workers: Are they related to the reduction of occupational gasoline vapor exposure?
Solvent exposures are known to impair psychomotor performances. This study investigated after-shift commuting injuries among gasoline station workers in Taiwan following the installation of gasoline vapour recovery devices (GVRDs). Data on post-shift commuting accidents were obtained from occupational injury registry data in a gasoline refining and retailing company in Taiwan employing 20,000 workers. The cumulative injury rate (CIR) was calculated to estimate lifetime risk. Workers of gasoline sales were compared with those without gasoline exposure and the relative risk (RR) was calculated. The CIR was reduced by a factor of 3.14 during 1997-2000 for post-shift commuting accidents compared with 1991-1992. The RRs of post-shift commuting accidents in the exposed group significantly decreased from 2.15 to 0.53. This improvement may be related to the reduction in exposure to solvents.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.37, No.5, p.956-961. Illus. 20 ref.
Otmani S., Rogé J., Muzet A.
Sleepiness in professional drivers: Effect of age and time of day
The effects of age and time of day on objective and subjective sleepiness in professional drivers were investigated during a simulated driving task. Thirty-six young and middle-aged professional male drivers, free from any sleep disorder, took part in two simulated driving sessions; one carried out in the afternoon, the other at night. Half of each age group drove in light traffic conditions while the other half drove in heavy traffic. Throughout the driving task, subjects' electroencephalogram and Karolinska sleepiness scale scores were recorded. Visual analogue scales measuring alertness and sleepiness levels were also completed before and after the driving. After each session, subjects filled out the NASA-TLX questionnaire and were asked if they had felt sleepy during the driving. The young drivers presented a significant decrease in alertness in the low traffic condition and a strong propensity to sleep during the night test in contrast to middle-aged drivers.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.37, No.5, p.930-937. Illus. 30 ref.
Bunn T.L., Slavova S., Struttmann T.W., Browning S.R.
Sleepiness/fatigue and distraction/inattention as factors for fatal versus nonfatal commercial motor vehicle driver injuries
A retrospective population-based case-control study was conducted to determine whether driver sleepiness/fatigue and inattention/distraction increase the likelihood that a commercial motor vehicle collision will be fatal. Based on the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic database, 1998-2002, cases were identified as commercial vehicle drivers who died following a collision accident and controls were drivers who survived an injury collision. Cases and controls were matched by vehicle and roadway type. Conditional logistic regression was performed. Driver sleepiness/fatigue, distraction/inattention, 51 years of age and older, and non-use of safety belts increased the odds of fatal commercial vehicle collision accidents. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.37, No.5, p.862-869. Illus. 31 ref.
Jones C.B., Dorrian J., Rajaratnam S.M.W., Dawson D.
Working hours regulations and fatigue in transportation: A comparative analysis
Fatigue is recognized as one of the most important safety issues in transportation. This article identifies and compares the laws and regulations of four English speaking nations that limit working hours for safety purposes, and evaluates them against eight fatigue-related criteria. In addition, International and European Union law are considered where relevant. Two different styles of regulation were utilized by the countries surveyed: a prescriptive "hours of service" approach, and a non-prescriptive "outcomes" approach. The advantages and disadvantages of these two models are discussed. A proposal for a hybrid approach between the prescriptive and non-prescriptive systems is presented.
Safety Science, Apr. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.225-252. Illus. 42 ref.
Older drivers in the workplace - Crash prevention for employers and workers
Roadway accidents are the leading cause of occupational fatalities for older professional drivers in the United States. Between 1992 and 2002, nearly 3200 professional drivers aged 55 years and older died in motor vehicle crashes on public highways, accounting for 22% of all occupational fatalities among this worker group. This information sheet discusses the relationship between age, driving behaviour, the use of sedatives and the occurrence of fatal accidents, and provides safety tips for employers and employees aimed at avoiding accidents among older drivers.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Sep. 2005. 2p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-159/ [in English]
Tractor safety - For the landscaping and horticultural services industry
Seguridad al usar el tractor - Para las industrias de la jardinería y servicios hortícolas [in Spanish]
This document provides support materials for a training course on tractor safety in the landscaping and horticultural services sector. It is composed of six lessons: taking control of one's safety; preparing for safe operation; avoiding rollover accidents; avoiding run over accidents and collisions; moving parts and machinery hazards; highway safety and other hazards. Safety tips and accident reports are included to provide a better understanding of the risks associated with this type of work.
Production Services, Kansas State University, 24 Umberger Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-3402, USA, ca 2005, 40p. Illus.
http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/agsafe/training/hort_manuals/ENG/TractorENG.pdf [in English]
http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/agsafe/training/hort_manuals/SP/TractorSP.pdf [in Spanish]
Bellemare M., Beaugrand S., Champoux D., Larue C., Massicotte P., Gonella M.
Study of subway operators' OHS problems and possibilities for cab layout reorganization
Etude de la problématique santé et sécurité du travail des opérateurs du métro et des possibilités de réaménagement des loges de conduite [in French]
This study examined the working conditions and health status of subway drivers in Montreal. It was based on an analysis of company data on occupational accidents and sickness absences, a questionnaire survey of drivers and observations of drivers at work. Results indicated that exposure to vibration and uncomfortable work posture were the main constraints for cab drivers. Computer simulations and full-size mock-up trials led to proposed modifications for increasing the space inside the cab and to proposed criteria for choosing and positioning new seats.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. xii, 169p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: CAD 16.05. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. Report is also available on CD-ROM (included).
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-431.pdf [in French]
Lozano Gordillo S., Mañas Lahoz J.L., Vila Ajates M.
ADR 2005 - Significant changes
El ADR 2005 - Cambios más significativos [in Spanish]
This article comments on the main changes made in the 2005 version of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) (see CIS 05-2). The changes concern in particular the addition of new provisions as well as changes in classification.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2005, No.171, p.22-32. Illus.
Bohy M., Bianchi P.
Work-related road hazards
Risques routiers au travail [in French]
Special feature on work-related road hazards. Contents: management of hazards related to driving; integrating road hazards into the single document on the evaluation of occupational hazards; review of a seminar on safety in the road transport and logistics sector.
Face au risque, Nov. 2005, No.417, p.9-22. Illus.
Kumar A., Mathur N.N., Varghese M., Mohan D., Singh J.K., Mahajan P.
Effect of tractor driving on hearing loss in farmers in India
Indian tractors do not have adequate vibration and noise attenuating design features. In this cross-sectional study, 50 tractor-driving farmers and 50 non-driving farmers matched for age, sex, ethnic group, land holding, education levels and work routines were selected from two villages. Participants were interviewed for details of work routine and noise exposures, and were subjected to audiograms. Noise measurements were taken on tractors and other agricultural machines. Self-reported hearing problems were similar (four cases each) in both groups. However, audiogram analysis showed higher prevalence of high-frequency hearing loss in cases (24) when compared to controls (14). The noise levels observed on tractors in various operations were in the range of 90-110 dB(A).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p.341-348. Illus. 21 ref.
De Fex R.L.
Guide to the hazard evaluation of chemical substances during transport over land
Guía para evaluar el peligro de una sustancia química durante su transporte terrestre [in Spanish]
This article proposes a method for calculating the chemical substance transport risk index (IRTPQ) for evaluating the hazards of dangerous substances during transportation. It is based on the hazard evaluation scales of the NFPA 704 standard (standardized system for the identification of hazards due to substances for the purposes of emergency interventions) and on three additional factors: odour intensity, complications related to the planned route and the availability of help in the event of an emergency along the route. Two examples of calculations are also included.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 2005, Vol.51, No.304, p.52-58. Illus. 4 ref.
Mohan S., Zech W. C.
Characteristics of worker accidents on NYSDOT construction projects
The objective of this project was to identify cost-effective safety measures to protect construction workers in highway work zones, based on data on work area accidents and traffic accidents involving construction workers. A analysis of work zone accidents involving 36 fatalities and 3,055 severe injuries to construction workers on New York State Department of Transportation construction projects from 1990 to 2001 established that five accident types accounted for nearly 96% of the fatal accidents, nearly 63% of the hospital-level injury accidents, and nearly 91% of the total costs of USD 133.8 million. With respect to traffic accidents, statistical analyses established that five accident types accounted for nearly 86% of the fatal accidents, nearly 70% of the hospital-level injury accidents and USD 45.4 million (79. 4%) of the total accident costs.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 4, p. 353-360. Illus. 9 ref.
Stuckey R., Lamontagne A.D.
Occupational light-vehicle use and OSH legislative frameworks: An Australian example
Occupational light vehicle (OLV) use and associated hazards in Australia are described. Available insurance data indicate that the OLV injury burden is greater than that of other types of occupational road vehicles and is growing. Legislation that affects OLV users is reviewed and the shifting of the burden of responsibility for injured or killed OLV users between workers' compensation, motor accident insurance and public health systems is described. Changes to occupational safety and health regulatory frameworks are proposed to better address OLV-relevant policy and practice. These issues are also relevant for many international jurisdictions.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2005, Vol.11, No.2, p.167-179. Illus. 36 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1102_Stuckey.pdf [in English]
Gwin K.K., Wallingford K.M., Morata T.C., Van Campen L.E., Dallaire J., Alvarez F.J.
Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: II. Chemical surveys
NIOSH conducted a series of surveys to evaluate occupational exposure to noise and potentially ototoxic chemical agents among members of a professional car racing team. Area samples were collected during visits to the team's shop. Exposures to these chemicals were all below their corresponding OSHA, NIOSH and ACGIH recommended exposure levels. Area and personal samples were also collected for organic compounds, lead and carbon monoxide (CO) in and around the racetrack pit area where the cars undergo race preparation and are refuelled before and during the race. Exposures to organic compounds and lead were either non-detectable or too low to quantify. Although some CO concentrations exceeded the recommended levels, exposures to potentially ototoxic chemicals are probably not high enough to cause hearing loss greater than that produced by the high sound pressure levels alone.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.406-413. Illus. 21 ref.
Van Campen L.E., Morata T., Kardous C.A., Gwin K., Wallingford K.M., Dallaire J., Alvarez F.J.
Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: I. Noise surveys
Noise exposure was evaluated for a professional stock car team at their race shop and during two races at one racetrack. At the team's shop, area noise levels ranged from 58 to 104dBA for various work tasks. Personal noise dosimetry was conducted for at least one employee for each job description in car assembly. The OSHA permissible exposure limit of 90dBA for an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) was never exceeded, but in two instances values exceeded OSHA's action level of 85dBA for hearing conservation implementation. During the races, noise levels averaged above 100dBA in the pit area where cars undergo adjustments and refuelling, both before and during the race. Peak levels reached 140dBA. NIOSH-recommended exposure limits were exceeded for every personal noise dosimetry measurement. Recommendations include vocal communication by radio and the use of headsets, allowing hearing protectors to be worn at all times.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.383-390. Illus. 21 ref.
Torp S., Grøgaard J.B., Moen B.E., Bråtveit M.
The impact of social and organizational factors on workers' use of personal protective equipment: A multilevel approach
On the basis of the job demands-control-support model by Karasek and Theorell, this study investigated how social and organizational factors influence workers' use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1420 workers in 203 motor vehicle-repair garages. Multilevel modelling was performed to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. Social and management support correlated positively with PPE use at the worker level. Low demands measured at the garage level and having a health and safety management system at the garage also correlated with active use of PPE. An interaction effect between social support and garage-level demands was observed. In addition to health information and provision of PPE, focusing on social and organizational factors seems necessary to get more workers to comply with the instructions on PPE use.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.47, No.8, p.829-837. Illus. 58 ref.
ILO Programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work (ILOAIDS)
HIV/AIDS in the transport sector of Southern African countries: A rapid assessment of cross-border regulations and formalities
This report assesses policies and practices relating to HIV/AIDS in the transport sector of Southern African countries, focusing on the harmonization of border-crossing procedures to prevent long waiting periods. Common risk factors are identified and recommendations are presented for the implementation of policies and activities to help prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in the sector.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. ix, 35p. 4 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/trav/aids/publ/tc3.pdf [in English]
Tiwari P.S., Mehta C.R., Varshney A.C.
Metabolic cost and subjective assessment during operation of a rotary tiller with and without an operator's seat
This study was conducted to quantify the reduction in drudgery when an operator's seat was fitted as an attachment to a rotary power tiller to eliminate the need to walk behind the tiller. Heart rate and oxygen consumption rate of the subjects were measured at three levels of forward speed under actual field conditions using an ambulatory metabolic measurement system. It was observed that the attachment of an operator's seat to the power tiller reduced human energy expenditure by 16.7-28.6%. Subjective discomfort was also reduced. It is concluded that the provision of an operator's seat would increase the comfort and work output of the operator.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Apr. 2005, Vol.35, No.4, p.361-369. Illus. 13 ref.
Cecala A.B., Organiscak J.A., Zimmer J.A., Heitbrink W.A., Moyer E.S., Schmitz M., Ahrenholtz E., Coppok C.C., Andrews E.H.
Reducing enclosed cab drill operator's respirable dust exposure with effective filtration and pressurization techniques
Many different types of surface mining equipment use enclosed cabs to protect equipment operators from health and safety hazards. Mining processes can be extremely dusty and can cause excessive dust exposure. A cooperative research programme was established between NIOSH, mining industries and mining equipment manufacturers aimed at lowering respirable dust levels in an enclosed cab on a surface drill at a silica sand operation. A number of modifications were incorporated into the drill's filtration and pressurization system, as well as in other areas, to improve its design and performance. An average cab efficiency of 93.4% was determined with gravimetric sampling instruments when comparing the outside with the inside cab dust levels on the final design. Although this research was originally directed towards the mining industry it is also applicable to agricultural or construction equipment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2005, Vol.2, No.1, p.54-63. Illus. 19 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Workplace transport problems data collecting and mining
This report provides an assessment of the use made of a transport safety advisory service programme implemented jointly by the Health and Safety Executive and the UK Freight Transport Association. The service includes access to a dedicated toll-free number to provide guidance and advice to vehicle operators, drivers and all persons responsible for safety relating to workplace transport. The assessment of the use of the service includes the number of calls made by postcode, size of enterprise (expressed by number of vehicles and employees), nature of business, nature of the problems and responses.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. iv, 7p. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr327.pdf [in English]
Ferguson Carlson K., Goodwin Gerberich S., Church T.R., Ryan A.D., Alexander B.H., Mongin S.J., Renier C.M., Zhang X., French L.R., Masten A.
Tractor-related injuries: A population-based study of a five-state region in the Midwest
Tractor-related injuries are among the most severe of agricultural injuries. This study on tractor-related injuries identified the incidence, consequences and potential risk factors for tractor injuries among 3,765 agricultural households in a five-state region. Demographic, injury and exposure data were collected during 1999 using telephone interviews. A causal model served as a basis for survey design, data analysis and interpretation of results. The overall injury rate was 9.6 events per 1000 persons per year. Increased personal risk was observed for males and prior agricultural injury experience. Compared with ages 35-44, decreased risks were identified for younger age groups.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.47, No.3, p.254-264. Illus. 40 ref.
Cowie H.A., Hughson G.W., Creely K.S., Graham M.K., Hutchison P.A., Aitken R.J.
Health and Safety Executive
An occupational hygiene assessment of the use and control of isocyanates in the UK
Approximately 6200 motor vehicle repair (MVR) workshops in the United Kingdom use isocyanates, with around 15000 employees directly exposed. In the non-MVR sector, a further 1600 enterprises were estimated to use isocyanates, with around 7000 employees directly exposed. Enterprises carrying out work with the greatest potential for exposure were generally aware of the health hazards and had taken appropriate action to control workers' exposure. Workplace surveys confirmed that exposure levels were generally low and that it was possible to control air concentrations to below the existing exposure limits with basic exposure control measures. These results suggest that isocyanate related asthma cases could be due to momentary lapses in exposure controls rather than prolonged, high level exposure that might be attributed to ignorance of the health risks and the recommended control measures. Alternatively, it is possible that the existing exposure limits do not ensure the adequate protection of exposed workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 238p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr311.pdf [in English]
The Labour Protection Council in session: Exposure to carcinogenic agents, psychosocial hazards, occupational safety in forestry work and in the road transport of dangerous substances
Obradowała Rada Ochrony Pracy przy Sejmie RP: Narażenie na czynniki rakotwórcze, zagrożenia psychospołeczne, bezpieczeństwo przy pracach w lesie i w transporcie drogowym towarów niebezpiecznych [in Polish]
The meeting held on 29 and 30 November 2004 focused - among others - on the impact of carcinogenic agents on cancer incidence, psychosocial hazards at work, occupational safety in forest and during road transport of dangerous substances. The aim of the meeting was to publicize the fact that the working conditions in Poland still depart from European standards. In this article different hazards are described, and statistical evidence concerning these hazards is presented.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Jan. 2005, Vol.402, No.1, p.8-10. Illus.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Pollution in closed garages
Revista do trabalhador: Poluição em garagens fechadas [in Portuguese]
This videotape explains how workers in closed garages are exposed to high concentrations of carbon monoxide gas from car exhausts and describes measures for minimizing risks to workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 11min.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Safety and health of truck drivers - Use of safety belts - Defensive driving
Revista do trabalhador: Segurança e saúde do caminhoneiro - O uso do cinto de segurança - Direção defensiva [in Portuguese]
The first of these two videotapes examines the hazards to which truck drivers are exposed and describes health and safety measures. The second highlights the dangers of driving without a safety belt and the third explains the benefits of defensive driving.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Three videotapes (VHS format), 13min, 11min and 12min.
Study of the effectiveness of ultrasonic sensors - Alarm systems on trucks for parking manoeuvres can avoid accidents
Tauglichkeit von Ultraschall-Sensoren untersucht - Rangier-Warneinrichtungen an LKW helfen Unfälle vermeiden [in German]
Accidents during truck parking manoeuvres, particularly during reversing, are frequent and often fatal. In Germany, there were 158 such occupational accidents between 1992 and 2000, excluding those that occurred in the mining industry. The Federal institute of occupational safety and health (BAuA) analysed the most important safety characteristics of three alarm devices for parking manoeuvres that can be mounted on the rear of trucks. They are based on an echo system and on ultrasounds. All three devices evaluated showed weaknesses with respect to safety. However, it was found that devices based on ultrasonic sensors complying with the DIN 75031 standard can reduce the number of accidents occurring when reversing. The results of this study are published in a BauA report (Fb 999).
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, 2004, No.2, p.7. Illus.
http://www.baua.de/nn_30122/sid_8C98007FE351CB6AD1D7807E4F8D2EFF/nsc_true/de/Publikationen/BAuA-AKTUELL/2001-2004/pdf/2004-2.pdf [in German]
Bråtveit M., Hollund B.E., Moen B.E.
Reduced exposure to organic solvents by use of water-based paint systems in car repair shops
The objective of this study was to determine exposure to organic solvents for spray painters in car repair shops. Air sampling and personal sampling was carried out in eight car repair shops and blood samples were analysed for organic solvents at the beginning and end of the shift. The exposure levels of the organic solvents were well below the Norwegian limit values. Toluene was detected at the highest concentration in air samples when solvent-based paint systems were used (0.8ppm), whereas xylene was found at the highest level when water-based systems were used (0.25ppm). When solvent-based paint systems were used, the additive factor for organic solvent exposure based on Norwegian limit values was three-times higher than when water-based systems were employed. However, at the levels of organic solvents observed, the risk of acute and chronic health effects caused by organic solvents is low.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.77, No.1, p.31-38. Illus. 18 ref.
Ballue C., Lavergne G., Vernois G.
Delivery of beverages for non-domestic consumption. Prevention of occupational hazards
La distribution de boissons en consommation hors domicile. Prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
This guide is intended for managers of enterprises that deliver beverages to sectors other than retail outlets, such as restaurants, hotels, canteens, hospitals, etc. It provides guidance on the analysis and assessment of hazards and the adoption of preventive measures and is the result of collaboration between several trade federations in the beverages and hotel sectors. Contents: responsibilities of management; health hazards in this sector of activity; managing the risks; occupational accidents in this sector, conclusions.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2003. 64p. Illus. 53 ref. Price: EUR 8.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://en.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ED%20892/$File/ED892.pdf [in French]
Sundin A., Christmansson M., Larsson M.
A different perspective in participatory ergonomics in product development improves assembly work in the automotive industry
This paper describes a product development process in a bus manufacturing company. A participatory ergonomics approach was used that gathered a group of designers and production engineers from different plants, including also ergonomics researchers. The group used different methods to improve chassis design with respect to the productivity and ergonomics of the assembly process. Besides analyses of running chassis production, simulations were made by experienced workers using prototypes of the new chassis and were complemented with computer mannequin analyses. The participatory ergonomics approach used resulted in new chassis designs that improved the efficiency and ergonomics of the assembly operations.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 2004, Vol.33, No.1, p.1-14. Illus. 24 ref.
The effect of age on cognitive performance under the impact of vibration in a driving environment
The effect of age on human cognitive performance was studied under the impact of vibration in different automobile driving environments, namely city streets, rural roads and highways. Reaction time was measured in milliseconds through a human response measurement system specifically designed for the purpose. Results of the study showed that age had a significant effect in city street and rural road conditions. It was also found that the level of equivalent acceleration of vibration and a difficulty index significantly affected cognitive performance in all driving conditions. However it was found that youngsters and older persons are stressed differently in specific driving environments, suggesting that specific stress management strategies should be developed for them.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.333-348. Illus. 14 ref.
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