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Bus drivers: Occupational stress and stress prevention
This paper presents the results of a number of studies on the work and health of bus drivers in various countries. Health problems and stress factors are identified and recommendations are made for prevention and intervention in the areas of ergonomics and workplace design, job rotation, work schedules, and the social work environment and management style. The importance of organizational commitment and cooperation in the reduction and prevention of stress is discussed and a systematic participatory approach is put forward.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. v, 39p. Illus. 42 ref.
Car repair shops
Talleres de reparación de automóviles [in Spanish]
Electrical installations, location of tools, transport of heavy components, exhaust fume extraction, etc., are some of the structural measures that need to be worked on in order to avoid occupational accidents. Recommendations to be followed in chassis repair work, mechanical and electrical faults, bodywork, painting, welding and scrapping.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, ediciones y Publicaciones, C/ Torrelaguna, 73-28027 Madrid, Spain. PAL videotape (14min). Price: ESP 3000 + VAT. ###
Health and Safety Executive
Guidance for railways, tramways, trolley vehicle systems and other guided transport systems on the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995
This document provides guidance on compliance with the UK Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) (see CIS 95-1930) as they apply to railways and other guided transport systems. Guidance is given on: the main duties imposed; where the Regulations apply; who is covered by the Regulations; what is reportable; the reporting procedure; and record keeping. In appendices: definition of a relevant transport system; guidance on dangerous occurrences, major injuries, and specified diseases and conditions; sample reporting forms; text of the Regulations and Schedules.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iv, 86p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 11.50.
Maître A., Leplay A., Perdrix A., Ohl G., Boinay P., Romazini S., Aubrun J.C.
Comparison between solid sampler and impinger for evaluation of occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate polyisocyanates during spray painting
Two air sampling methods were used to monitor the level and variability of a painter's exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) polyisocyanates while spraying Tolonate-based paints in a paint booth. Personal air samples were collected by midget impingers containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MPP) absorber solution and by MPP-impregnated filters. Potential exposure to HDI polyisocyanates measured by impinger devices ranged from 0.25 to 3mg/m3. Impregnated filters significantly underestimated atmospheric concentrations of HDI polyisocyanates in the painter's breathing zone. Use of an appropriate half-face mask with 90% efficiency is recommended to reduce residual exposure to below the recommended STEL (1mg/m3).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.153-160. 36 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Sheeting and unsheeting of tipper lorries - Guidance for the road haulage industries
Contents of this guidance: general safety requirements; typical hazards of sheeting and unsheeting procedures (slips and falls, exposure to harmful substances, manual handling); analyzing the risk; selection of safety measures; types of sheeting systems (mechanical sheeting, spray sheeting, side wires, access platforms, overhead gantries, traditional loose sheeting). In appendices: legislation; ergonomic considerations; example of a safe system of work.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 24p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Dispensing petrol: Assessing and controlling the risk of fire and explosion at sites where petrol is stored and dispensed as a fuel
This guidance applies to petrol filling-stations, farms, commercial goods vehicle depots, private businesses and other premises where petrol is kept as a fuel. Contents: fire and explosion hazards of petrol; risk factors associated with the storage and dispensing of petrol and key precautions to prevent fire and explosion; detailed risk assessment and identification of control measures for delivery and venting, storage, pipework systems and dispensing. In appendix: systems of work; training; risk assessment examples; relevant legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. ix, 58p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
The first day
Le premier jour [in French]
Videotape on safety training for new workers. Topics: information of personnel; road work; safety films; safety training in industry; videotape.
OPPBTP, Comité national, Service Formation, Tour Amboise, 204, rond-point du Pont-de-Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex, France, 1995. VHS vidoetape (length: 13min). Price: FRF 1250.00 (FRF 1000.00 subscribers).
Partanen T.J., Boffetta P., Heikkilä P.R., Frentzel-Beyme R.R., Heederik D., Hours M., Järvholm B.G., Kauppinen T.P., Kromhout H., Langård S., Svane O.B., Bernstein M., Bertazzi P.A., Kogevinas M., Neuberger M.A., Pannett B., Sunyer J.
Cancer risk for European asphalt workers
Topics: asphaltic materials; asphalting; bitumen; cancer; coal tar; confounding factors; epidemiologic study; epidemiological aspects; Europe; exposure evaluation; lung cancer; mortality; road work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1995, Vol.21, No.4, p.252-258. 16 ref.
Coronary heart disease among truckdrivers
Topics: carbon monoxide; lead; conference; coronary diseases; drivers; epidemiologic study; hours of work; literature survey; mental stress; noise; ongoing research; physical workload; risk factors; road transport; social aspects; trucks.
European Commission, Directorate-General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Public Health and Safety at Work Directorate, Bâtiment Euroforum, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1995. 67p. Illus. 59 ref.
Méndez Bernal B.
Static electricity: Loading and unloading of road tankers (II)
Electricidad estática: carga y descarga de camiones cisterna (II) [in Spanish]
This information note presents measures to prevent static electricity hazards in the loading and unloading of tank trucks. Flow velocity, antistatic additives and earthing are discussed. See NTP 374-1995 (CIS 97-1675) for additional information.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 6p. 4 ref.
Méndez Bernal B.
Static electricity: Loading and unloading of road tankers (I)
Electricidad estática: carga y descarga de camiones cisterna (I) [in Spanish]
This information note presents basic concepts on the physics of static electricity generation in the loading and unloading of tank trucks. Flammable substances and electrostatic discharge hazards are also discussed. See NTP 375-1995 (CIS 97-1676) for additional information.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 5p. 4 ref.
Williams A.F., Paek N.N., Lund A.K.
Factors that drivers say motivate safe driving practices
An interview survey of 543 licensed drivers showed that these drivers rate themselves above average in terms of both driving skill and safe driving practices. Men tended to rate themselves more highly than women. Negative consequences, such as the potential for a car crash and increase in car insurance, were cited as important factors in increasing concern for safe driving. Increased enforcement and awareness of negative outcomes may be important in promoting safe driving practices.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1995, Vol.26, No.2, p.119-124. Illus. 8 ref.
Dahlqvist M., Tornling G., Plato N., Ulfvarson U.
Effects within the week on forced vital capacity are correlated with long term changes in pulmonary function: Reanalysis of studies on car painters exposed to isocyanate
Study to examine if car painters who work with polyurethane paints that contain hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) and hexamethylenediisocyanate biuret trimer (HDI-BT) develop acute as well as chronic impairment of lung function. Data were reanalyzed from two earlier studies on a group of car painters. Data on changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) within the week were available for 20 car painters who were also examined six years later. Ten men showed a decline in FVC within the week. A significant correlation was found between the change in FVC within the week and the long term (six year) change in FVC, standardized for the effects of aging and smoking and adjusted for the number of peak exposures. The results suggest that the decrease in FVC within the week might serve as a guide to identify car painters at risk of a further decrement in lung function above the effects of aging, smoking and exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.192-195. 17 ref.
Nakae H., Endo S.
Lower extremity injuries caused by the rotary blades of pulling-type tractors
Hokōgata torakutā no rōtarī ni yoru kashi sonshō no kentō [in Japanese]
Clinical analysis of five cases of lower extremity injury caused by the rotary tilling blade of pulling-type (two-wheeled) farm tractors. The injuries are of two types. Femoral injuries were associated with environmental and mechanical factors, and took the form of impalement injury to the thigh not accompanied by bone fracture. Crural injuries involved both decortication and fracture, and were due to human factors. All patients healed without sequelae after thorough cleaning and primary closure of the wound. Prevention of such accidents will require improvement in tractor design and training in the safe operation of tractors.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, 1 June 1995, Vol.43, No.5, p.376-380. Illus. 4 ref.
Fischer S., Göres B., Gondek K.H., Sayn D.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Effects of vibration on the work environment of drivers of trucks with gross weights up to 7.5T
Schwingungseinwirkung an Arbeitsplätzen von Kraftfahrern auf Lkw bis 7,5T [in German]
Report containing data and vibration spectra for the drivers of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) with a total permissible laden weight of up to 7.5T. The 24 vehicles examined were monitored over representative terrain and the acceleration at the transmission points lorry/cab/seat (seat mounting point) and driving seat/driver was measured in both cases for the three directions of vibration, X (back-chest), Y (shoulder-shoulder) and Z (direction of the spinal column). It seems that HGVs with gross weights up to 7.5T are comparable with HGVs with gross weights in excess of 7.5T not just in terms of the spectral distribution of the chassis vibrations but also with regard to the intensity of the vibrations. Summaries in English, French, German and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstr. 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1995. 77p. Illus. 14 ref.
Spagnoli G., Ogis M., Maglione F., Spagnoli M.
Engine lubricants: Characteristics, toxicological features, risks and preventive measures
Oli lubrificanti per motori - caratterizazione, schede tossicologiche, rischio e prevenzione [in Italian]
This study is a review of the additives used to improve engine lubricating oils. Short data sheets on the toxicological aspects of 12 such additives are provided: phenol, methyl red, furfural, polyacrylates (methyl and ethyl acrylates), polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene, polyolefines (ethylene mostly), alkyl phosphonates, salicylates (methyl and octyl), naphthenates (cobalt, aluminium and lead), phenyl-1-naphthylamine, succinimide. Animal data and possible risks to humans who handle these substances are outlined.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-June 1995, Vol.7, No.1-2, p.185-199. 8 ref.
Laubignat J.F., Barraud P., Fontana L., Romain M.C., Cassagnes J., Catilina P., Chamoux A.
Pulmonary embolism and road transport - A recognized case of occupational accident
Embolie pulmonaire et transport - A propos d'un cas reconnu en accident du travail [in French]
A case of pulmonary embolism in a truck driver is described. Prolonged immobilization caused by a long journey appears to be the triggering factor. The medico-legal consequences are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.6, p.474-475. 3 ref.
Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry: Technical means for ensuring safety - Part 6. Equipment for crop protection
Tracteurs et matériels agricoles et forestiers: dispositifs techniques permettant d'assurer la sécurité - Partie 6. Matériel de protection des cultures [in French]
This part of ISO 4254 specifies special requirements to be considered when designing power-assisted sprayers for crop protection and liquid fertilizer application which are mounted, trailed or self-propelled. The requirements specified in this part of ISO 4254 are supplementary to those in ISO 5254-1. Main contents: definitions; technical requirements; optional fittings; safety information; operator's manual.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1995. ii, 3p.
Platforms for maintenance and repair of air-conditioned trucks
Arbeitsbühnen für Wartungs- und Reparaturarbeiten an Kühlfahrzeugen [in German]
Fruits and vegetables are usually transported in air-conditioned trucks. The air-conditioning system is usually installed at the top of the truck. For access, ladders need to be installed on these trucks which, in Germany, must be designed in compliance with Accident Prevention Directive VBG 74. Different types of mobile platforms are described for the installation, maintenance and repair of air-conditioning equipment on trucks. Some are adjustable in height and all have railings protecting against falls from heights.
Unfall-Stop - Mitteilungsblatt der Grosshandels- und Lagerei-Berufsgenossenschaft, Mar. 1995, No.2, p.11-13. Illus.
Assessment of benzene exposure among automobile and gardening machine repair workers by the measurement of urinary muconic acid
Evaluation par le dosage de l'acide muconique urinaire de l'imprégnation par le benzène, chez les mécaniciens en réparation automobile et motoculture [in French]
Evaluation of exposure to benzene among car mechanics requires a reliable analytical method in order to define specific criteria for medical supervision. Previous studies took only atmospheric exposure into account. Exposure was evaluated by measuring urinary phenol, a method that was not sensitive enough when atmospheric concentrations were at the ppm level. The measurement of urinary muconic acid, a specific metabolite of benzene, by HPLC chromatography is sensitive enough to reveal low levels of exposure. A study conducted of the exposure of employees over a one-week period showed that there was no overexposure. Only the seasonal activities of servicing and repairing garden machinery would lead to a global exposure greater than 1ppm.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.620-623. 8 ref.
Molina Benito J.A.
Motorcycle couriers and occupational accidents
Short article discussing the hazards faced by motorcycle couriers in Spain. Most of the couriers are young men 16-22yrs old. According to a recent study, an accident occurs in this sector for every 7400hrs worked. The very high job demands (estimated time allotted for each delivery: 15min) seem to be the main factor in making this job dangerous.
Janus, 1995, Vol.III, No.21, p.11. Illus.
Moen B.E., Hollund B.E., Torp S.
A descriptive study of health problems on car mechanics' hands
In a questionnaire survey of 172 car mechanics, 14% reported white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon), 24% reported paraesthesias in the hands or arms, 41% reported dry skin on the hands, 46% reported hand eczema, and 28% had experienced more than 20 cuts on the hands during the previous year. Hand eczema, white finger and cuts on the hands were all associated with employment for less than 14 years as a car mechanic. Further surveillance of the working environment of car mechanics is required.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1995, Vol.45, No.6, p.318-322. Illus. 14 ref.
Theeuwes J., Riemersma J.
Daytime running lights as a vehicle collision countermeasure: The Swedish evidence reconsidered
According to a 1981 study, the introduction of daytime running lights (DRL) in Sweden in 1977 resulted in a reduction of 11% of multiple accidents during daytime. The present study re-examines this evidence and shows that the reported 11% effect is spurious. The effect is mainly the result of the application of a model that shows selective effects of DRL through modelling of unexplained changes in the number of single accidents. It is concluded that the Swedish data fail to show a clear effect of DRL.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Oct. 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.633-642. Illus. 14 ref.
Farm-tractor-related fatalities - Kentucky, 1994
Tractor-related fatalities identified by the Kentucky Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Project (USA) in 1994 are analysed. Of the total 28 fatalities, the most common cause was rollover (82%) followed by runover (18%); the most common activity at the time of injury was mowing with a rotary mower trailing a tractor (32%). An editorial comment considers that most of the rollover fatalities could have been prevented if the tractors had been equipped with roll-over protective structures and the operators secured with seat belts.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 27 Sep. 1995, Vol.274, No.12, p.936-937. 5 ref.
Driving and fatigue: Driver impairment, driver fatigue and driving simulation
Proceedings of a conference held in Fremantle, Australia, 16-17 September 1993. Papers are presented under the following headings: fatigue in the transport industry (managing driver fatigue in long-distance road transport, driver fatigue and alertness, role of fatigue research in setting driving hours regulations); the epidemiology of fatigue-related crashes (Australian accident statistics, drugs, driving and enforcement, interaction between driver impairment and road design in the causation of accidents); preventive measures (vehicle deceleration indicators, alcohol and drugs education programme, profile line-marking and noise, detecting fatigued drivers with vehicle simulators); empirical analysis of the impact of fatigue; theoretical considerations in research into driving.
Taylor & Francis Ltd, Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 8PR, United Kingdom, 1995. xi, 278p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 34.95.
Heitbrink W.A., Wallace M.E., Bryant C.J., Ruch W.E.
Control of paint overspray in autobody repair shops
Controls for reducing worker exposure to paint overspray were evaluated in six autobody shops and a spray-painting equipment manufacturer's test facility. Respirator usage was also studied. Of the three types of spray-painting booths studied, downdraft spray-painting booths appeared to provide the lowest worker exposure to paint overspray. Ventilated vehicle preparation stations did not control paint overspray. Switching from a conventional spray-painting gun to a high-volume low-pressure gun reduced particulate overspray exposure by 50%. Respirator usage was generally inappropriate; respirators were poorly maintained and/or did not fit. Proper use of engineering controls and respirators is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1995, Vol.56, No.10, p.1023-1032. Illus. 39 ref.
Loading and unloading. Road transport of dangerous materials
Chargement-déchargement. Transport des matières dangereuses par route [in French]
Recommendation adopted by the French national technical committees for the transportation and chemical industries during their meetings on 9 and 16 June 1994, respectively. Because of the hazards they cause during their transportation, dangerous materials require special preventive measures. Contents: general information (definitions of terms, main regulatory texts in force); general preventive measures; technical preventive measures concerning tanker trucks and other means of transport (vehicle safety, access points of loading and unloading stations, loading and unloading zones etc.); safety measures relating to procedures involving tanker trucks and other means of transport (periodic controls, vehicle reception, safety checks after the arrival of a vehicle etc.); commentary. Proposal for a "check list for procedures involved in the transfer of hazardous liquids".
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 1995, No.533, p.124-130. Illus. Also available as an offprint from INRS.
Langley J., Marshall S., Clarke J., Begg D., Reeder A.
Motorcycle/ATV crashes on farms
Data on crashes involving two-, three- and four-wheelers on New Zealand farms are analyzed. During the period 1978-1987 there were 12 fatalities and during the period 1980-1989 there were 2,004 hospitalizations. Young males had especially high rates of injury; 25% of injuries occurred to persons less that 15 years of age and males represented 87% of victims. The most common injuries were fractured limbs and head injuries. Limited information is available on the type of motorcycle involved or on the nature of the incident.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 1995, Vol.11, No.4, p.387-394. 19 ref.
The investigation of vehicle fires
This data sheet describes a systematic approach for the investigation of a fire in a road vehicle. Contents: determining relevant background details of the vehicle and the fire; hazards associated with the vehicle and its load; searching the surrounding area; examination of the exterior and interior parts of the vehicle; investigation of fires in motor cycles, buses and lorries; hazards of diesel engines, liquefied petroleum gas and electric vehicles.
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, no date. 12p. Illus. 11 ref.
The driver's workplace 1995
This report summarizes the results of Swedish research into the workplaces of drivers of cars, trucks, buses and other vehicles between 1972 and 1993. Topics discussed include: noise, vibration, visibility and lighting, climate and dust, ergonomics, chemical risks, accidents, interaction between several factors and the incidence of stress, tiredness and heart disease. Effects of each factor are described along with incidence and countermeasures. Individual project titles are listed.
Swedish Work Environment Fund, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1995. 26p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Tractor action - A step-by-step safety guide
This training guide describes safety procedures for the use of tractors and tractor-operated machinery. A number of tractor accidents are described and guidance is given on their avoidance. These include safety checks, safe stopping procedures, positioning and use of controls, awareness of other people, safe use of power take-off shafts and protection against overturning.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1995. 26p. Illus. 8 ref.
Tondel M., Persson B., Carstensen J.
Myelofibrosis and benzene exposure
A case of myelofibrosis in a petrol station attendant is briefly described along with other reports of myelofibrosis after benzene exposure obtained from the Swedish Cancer Environment Register. Findings of an increased risk for myelofibrosis in the transport sector also suggest a causal relationship with benzene.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.45, No.1, p.51-52. 9 ref.
Méndez Bernal B.
Safety conditions in the loading and unloading of road tankers: Flammable liquids (II)
Condiciones de seguridad en la carga y descarga de camiones cisterna: líquidos inflamables (II) [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; explosion prevention; fire prevention; flammable liquids; loading and unloading; safe working methods; safety devices; Spain; tank trucks; transfer of liquids; warning notices.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 5p. Illus. 9 ref.
Méndez Bernal B.
Safety conditions in the loading and unloading of road tankers: Flammable liquids (I)
Condiciones de seguridad en la carga y descarga de camiones cisterna: líquidos inflamables (I) [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; explosion prevention; flammable liquids; loading and unloading; safe working loads; safety by design; safety devices; Spain; static electricity elimination; tank trucks; transfer of liquids; ventilation systems.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 7p. Illus. 9 ref.
Gasoline tank removal
Enlèvement de réservoirs d'essence [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; fire protection; flammable substances; fuel tanks; motor fuel; service stations and repair shops.
Industrial Health and Safety Program, Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Feb. 1994. 1p.
European Parliament and Council Directive 94/63/EC of 20 Dec. 1994 on the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions resulting from the storage of petrol and its distribution from terminals to service stations [European Communities]
Directive 94/63/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 1994 relative à la lutte contre les émissions de composés organiques volatils (COV) résultant du stockage de l'essence et de sa distribution des terminaux aux stations-service [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Directive applies to the operations, installations, vehicles and vessels used for the storage, loading and transport of petrol (gasoline) from one terminal to another or from a terminal to a service station. Contents: definitions; storage installations at terminals; loading and unloading of mobile containers at terminals; mobile containers; loading into storage installations at service stations. Member States are asked to implement this Directive into their national legislation by 31 Dec. 1995. In annex: requirements for storage, loading and unloading installations at terminals, service stations and terminals for intermediate storage; specifications for bottom-loading, vapour collection and overall protection of European road tankers.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 Dec.1994, No.L 365, p.24-33.
Union des Syndicats de l'Industrie routière française (USIRF)
Safety guide to the highway building and repair industry
Guide de prévention "Industries routières" [in French]
Training manual aimed at workers in highway construction and maintenance. The manual consists of three main sections: I - General OSH measures (hygiene, medical surveillance, safety training, worksite organization, operation of machines and vehicles, personnel transportation, personal protection, working posture, lifting of loads, hand and portable tools, documentation). II - Safety in road works (materials movement, temporary warning and highway signs, trenches, work near electric lines, pneumatic machines and tools, operation of roadwork machinery). III - Workshop safety (machine operation and repair, inspection pits, batteries, welding operations, painting operations, maintenance and safety checks, electrical work, dangerous substances). In annex: safety contacts at the worksite (labour inspectors, health insurance funds, occupational physicians, professional safety organizations, safety and health committees).
OPPBTP Comité national, Tour Ambroise, 204, Rond-Point du Pont-de-Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex, France, 1994. 86p. Illus. Price: FRF 96.00.
Safe two wheeler driving
This leaflet describes defensive driving techniques for motorized two-wheelers.
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India, 1994. 6p. Illus.
Highway heroes in trouble
Highway-Helden in Not [in German]
Subjects covered in this publication of a doctoral thesis are: conditions of work including safety and health risks of long-distance truckers; stress factors and social aspects of the work of long-distance truckers.
Edition Sigma, Heimstrasse 14, 10965 Berlin, Germany, 1994. 344p. 386 ref. Price: DEM 35.00.
The influence of the microclimate in commercial vehicles on the driver's performance
Der Einfluss des Mikroklimas im Nutzfahrzeug auf die Leistungsfähigkeit des Fahrers [in German]
The results of simulation tests are used to illustrate the effects of temperature rises in the driver's cab. An increase to 30°C increased the number of errors by 28%. At an increase to 35°C the errors rose by 40%. Present air conditioning systems for commercial vehicles are helpful in maintaining a comfortable climate that neither lowers the attention-span of drivers nor increases their reaction time.
ATZ, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.96, No.7-8, p.406-410. Illus. 7 ref.
Mounted antivibration drivers' cabs
Schwingungsdämpfende Aufhängung von Fahrzeugkabinen [in German]
An active hydraulic vibration damping system is presented. It comprises hydraulic cylinders which counteract the vibrations. Field tests with a forestry tractor equipped with a hydraulic damping system confirmed that an 80% reduction of the vibration exposure of drivers is feasible. With this vibration damping system installed, the average driving speed in forests increased by 10%.
A F Z - Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, Oct. 1994, Vol.49, No.21, p.1156-1159. Illus.
European Agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road (ADR) and protocol of signature [United Nations]
This two-volume set comprises the 17 articles of the Agreement, the Protocol of signature, the annexes in the form in which they entered into force on 29 July 1968 and amendments up to 1 January 1995. Annex A covers the provisions concerning dangerous substances and articles and Annex B covers provisions concerning transport equipment and transport operations. Replaces previous edition (see CIS 93-361).
United Nations, Publications and Sales, Palais des Nations, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 1994. 2 vols. (xxi, 591p. + vi, 395p.). Illus.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Occupational safety in small and medium-sized plants as well as in the skilled trades
Arbeitsschutz in Klein- und Mittelbetrieben sowie im Handwerk [in German]
Proceedings of the symposium on safety and health organization in small plants including those involving skilled trades, held in 1992 in Dortmund, Germany. Main subjects covered: safety and health training of personnel, plant safety and health organization exemplified by a vehicle repair shop, basic safety and health needs of small plants.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1994. 57p. Illus. 7 ref.
Directive on driver safety on old tractors [Norway]
Forskrift - Førervern på gamle traktorer [in Norwegian]
This Directive (published in the Norsk Lovtidend on 4 Oct. 1994, entry into force: 4 Oct. 1996) specifies the safety provisions to be applied to the operation of old tractors (delivered before 1 Sep. 1964 or imported before 1 Jan. 1967). Detailed commentary.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Fr. Nansens vei 14, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, Nov. 1994. 11p.
Directive on the approval of tractors in accordance with European Economic Area rules [Norway]
Forskrift - EØS-godkjenning av traktorer [in Norwegian]
This Directive (entry into force: 1 Dec. 1994) completes the provisions of the 1977 Norwegian directive on tractor safety (see CIS 79-197) by making appropriate references to various EEC directives on the same subject. Technical specifications are introduced this way for: driver's cabin, driver's seat, passenger seat, protection against overturning, noise, power take-off.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Fr. Nansens vei 14, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, Mar. 1995. 4p.
Lagorio S., Forastiere F., Ivarone I., Rapiti E., Vanacore N., Perucci C.A., Carere A.
Mortality of filling station attendants
The health impact of exposure to gasoline has not been fully elucidated. The article reports on the mortality of a cohort of 2,665 filling station managers from the Latium region (Italy). The follow-up period extended from 1981 through 1992. The mortality experience of the cohort was compared with that of the regional population. The overall analysis for standardized mortality ratios (SMR) showed a significantly decreased mortality from all causes, mainly due to a deficit of cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms. Non-significant increased risks for oesophageal cancer (SMR 241), brain cancer (SMR 195) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR 173) were found for men. Among the attendants of small stations, the SMR values for oesophageal cancer (SMR 351) and brain cancer (SMR 266) showed increased values. Filling station attendants are exposed to gasoline vapours and seem at risk of cancer of various sites. Due to the limitations of this study, however, a precise estimate of the risk for many causes of death was not achievable.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1994, Vol.20, No.5, p.331-338. 51 ref.
Burton A.K., Tillotson K.M., Boocock M.G.
Estimation of spinal loads in overhead work
A field study revealed that motor mechanics typically spent 8% of their time working overhead with up to 10° of lumbar extension. In a laboratory study, stature change was measured in subjects performing simulated motor vehicle maintenance tasks both overhead and at chest height. The overhead task entailed more lumbar extension and perceived exertion than did the chest-height task; only small changes in stature were observed at the end of the work period and there was no significant difference between the tasks. No evidence was found to indicate a need for ergonomic intervention in overhead work tasks as far as spinal loading is concerned.
Ergonomics, Aug. 1994, Vol.37, No.8, p.1311-1321. Illus. 39 ref.
Armed hold-ups and cash handling. A guide to protecting people and profits from armed hold-ups
This guide outlines a range of work practices and principles of workplace design for reducing the incidence and severity of armed robbery. Contents: main targets (small retail businesses) and characteristics of robbers; layout of premises, use of security devices and adequate lighting; cash minimization and use of time delay safes; safe transfer of cash; staff training; armed hold-up survival rules; identifying robbers; post hold-up procedures; dealing with post traumatic stress; assessment of business premises.
WorkCover Authority, 400 Kent Street, Sydney 2000, New South Wales, Australia, 1994. 20p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: AUD 4.95 plus AUD 2.50 postage.
Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function in bus drivers and mechanics
Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms as well as ventilatory capacity were studied in 116 bus drivers and 119 mechanics. A control group of 174 male workers, not exposed to dust or fumes, with similar age and smoking habits was identified. Drivers and mechanics had a higher prevalence of most chronic respiratory symptoms than did control workers, in particular lower airway symptoms of nasal catarrh. Drivers and mechanics who were smokers had higher prevalences of respiratory symptoms than non-smoking bus drivers. Drivers and mechanics employed for more than 10 years had higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms than those exposed for 10 years or less. Many of the workers complained of acute symptoms during the work shift. The ventilatory capacity data showed lower values for all parameters compared to control worker values as well as to predicted normal values, for drivers and mechanics who were smokers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.26, No.6, p.771-783. Illus. 31 ref.
Heitbrink W.A., Cooper T.C., Edmonds M.A.
Evaluation of ventilated sanders in the autobody repair industry
Orbital and reciprocating sanders were evaluated in an autobody shop to obtain information on the ability of the sanders to control worker dust exposures. When unventilated sanders were used, short-term total dust exposures ranged between 2 and 170mg/m3. When ventilated sanders were used, short term total exposures ranged between 0.22 and 1.2mg/m3. Aerosol photometer measurements showed that ventilation decreased dust exposure by a factor of 10 when body-filling compound was sanded. These results indicate that the use of sanders equipped with high-velocity, low-volume ventilation should be encouraged in the autobody repair industry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.756-759. Illus. 9 ref.
Bailer H., Tränkle U.
Task variation with the aim of reducing stress and strain: Exemplified by the driving tasks in local public transportation
Mischarbeit mit dem Ziel der Verringerung von Belastungen und Beanspruchungen: Überlegungen am Beispiel Fahrtätigkeiten im öffentlichen Personennahverkehr [in German]
In Germany only one in ten bus drivers working for a local public transport system reaches the legal retirement age as driver. The majority of drivers have to quit driving after about 20 years because they are no longer fit enough for driving. They have to perform unskilled work until retirement. The alternation of bus driving with inspection and office tasks is recommended to reduce the time spent driving. Various models of work organization are presented. Summary in English.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 3rd Quarter 1994, Vol.38, No.3, p.126-130. Illus. 9 ref.
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