Waste collection and disposal - 435 entries found
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- Waste collection and disposal
Frings-Dresen M.H.W., Kemper H.C.G., Stassen A.R.A., Crolla I.F.A.M., Markslag A.M.T.
The daily work load of refuse collectors working with three different collecting methods: A field study
Topics: energy expenditure; ergonomic evaluation; field tests; job study; manual handling; Netherlands; oxygen intake; physical workload; pulse rate; refuse collection; work posture; workload assessment.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1995, Vol.38, No.10, p.2045-2055. Illus. 14 ref.
del Carmen Martí Solé M., Alonso Espadalé R.M.
Medical waste treatment
Tratamiento de residuos sanitarios [in Spanish]
This information note discusses the disposal of the different types of medical waste. The classification, collection, transport, storage and elimination of medical waste are addressed. A list of potential infectious diseases in biomedical waste disposal is included. References to European and Spanish legislation are given.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 5p. 4 ref.
Schecter A., Päpke O., Ball M., Lis A., Brandt-Rauf P.
Dioxin concentrations in the blood of workers at municipal waste incinerators
Increased concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) in pooled blood samples from workers at municipal waste incinerators have been reported. With a view to confirming these results, concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs were determined in the blood of 10 workers from an old municipal waste incinerator without adequate pollution controls, 11 workers from a newer incinerator with modern pollution controls and 25 controls from the general population group. PCDD and PCDF concentrations were determined as well in the slag and fly ash from the older incinerator. Significant increases of certain PCDDs and PCDFs were found in the blood of the workers from the older incinerator compared with the controls. The pattern of increased PCDDs and PCDFs in the blood corresponded to the pattern in the incinerator slag and ash. Modern pollution control technology in new incinerators may be able to minimize potential exposure to slag and fly ash and thus the absorption of PCDDs and PCDFs from this source.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.385-387. 7 ref.
Accident prevention manual for business and industry - Environmental management
Part 1 of this manual examines the historical, ethical and economic aspects of global environmental developments along with U.S. and international legislation, basic principles of environmental science, management of environmental resources, and environmental audits and site assessments. Part 2 covers the management of hazardous wastes (storage, disposal, transportation, air and water quality, health and safety training for hazardous waste activities, pollution prevention approaches and technologies). Part 3 covers public health issues, health risk assessment, indoor air quality and global issues. Includes case studies of environmental management activities in different industries.
National Safety Council, P.O. Box 558, Itasca, IL 60143-0558, USA, 1995. xv, 536p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 99.95.
Anden service- og tjensteydelse [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in several branches of the Danish economy not covered by other publications in this series. These branches cover a very diverse range of activities of which defence and civil defence are the most important. (Areas not included are hotels and restaurants (CIS 96-1729), cleaning, laundries and dry cleaning (CIS 96-1718)). The most important problem is noise. Other problems are strain injuries, skin diseases, accidents, respiratory diseases, indoor climate, stress and bad lighting. In defence and civil defence the main problem is noise, followed by strain injuries and skin diseases, cold, heat and vibration. In public sanitation the main problems are accidents, strain injuries, skin diseases and biological agents which cause stomach and intestinal complaints. Sewage treatment has the same main problems as public sanitation plus vibration and indoor climate. In hairdressing the main problems are skin and respiratory diseases caused by cosmetics and strain injuries. The police and judicial system have special problems with accidents and psychological stress.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř, Denmark, 1995. 78p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
HazDat: ATSDR's Hazardous Substance Release / Health Effects Database
This US database on the Internet is a scientific and administrative database developed to provide access to information on the release of hazardous substances from Superfund sites or from emergency events and on the effects of hazardous substances on human populations. The following information is included for each site (approx. 1300 in 1996): site characteristics; activities and site events; contaminants found; contaminant media and maximum concentration levels; impact on the population; community health concerns; ATSDR public health threat categorization; ATSDR recommendations; environmental fate of hazardous substances; exposure groups; physical hazards at the site/event. Substance-specific information (approx. 150 substances in 1996) is provided on: ATSDR Priority List of Hazardous Substances; health effects by route and duration of exposure; metabolites; substance interactions; susceptible populations; exposure and effect biomarkers. There are also data from the database Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) maintained by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sophisticated relational database search techniques may be used to access information in HazDat.
Internet WWW pages, home-page address: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/hazdat.html#A3.1 ###
Guidelines for management of health care wastes in Hungary
Guidelines for the management of health care waste in Hungary are outlined: definition and classification of different waste types; requirements for collection, packaging, marking, storage and transport of wastes; incineration; pretreatment (disinfection); accident prevention and use of personal protective equipment; contents of a waste management plan for hospitals.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.87-99. 19 ref.
Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Vol.B8. Environmental protection and industrial safety II
Continuation of the collection abstracted under CIS 93-953, 95-265, 95-693 and 96-297. Contents of this volume: wastewater treatment; raw materials and energy; products (toxicological properties, classification schemes, risk assessment and management); production-integrated environmental protection; plant and process safety (safety problems, hazardous substances, design and construction of safe plants, safe plant operation, hazard control); occupational health and safety (legal requirements, safety and health organization, occupational medicine); transport, handling and storage (dangerous goods, regulations and standards, packaging, bulk transport, pipelines); waste management.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, P.O. Box 10 11 61, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, rev.ed., 1995. xv, 770p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 625.00.
Health and Safety Executive, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate
Safety of the storage of liquid high-level waste at BNFL Sellafield
This report describes the production and storage of high level waste at the Sellafield Works of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) and discusses potential fault conditions which might give rise to releases of radioactivity: loss of cooling, leakage, failure of the vessel ventilation system, external hazards, fire and explosion. Safety aspects of the vitrification process and the highly active storage tanks are also discussed. The legislative framework for the regulation of operations is outlined. The report concludes that the current storage conditions for high level waste are acceptably safe.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 37p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 10.75.
Heida H., Bartman F., van der Zee S.C.
Occupational exposure and indoor air quality monitoring in a composting facility
Air sampling was carried out in a covered enclosure used for the aerobic composting of organic wastes originating from vegetable, fruit and garden refuse. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide encountered in the exhaust air of the facility were relatively low; the limonene level was elevated, but was still below the Dutch threshold limit value. Air concentrations of microbial agents were extremely high; both total bacteria and gram-negative bacterial counts exceeded the provisional Dutch guideline of 10,000cfu/m3 for indoor working environment air. The number of fungi, especially those known to cause respiratory tract disorders, approached the hazardous exposure level.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1995, Vol.56, No.1, p.39-43. Illus. 13 ref.
Code of practice for the transportation and disposal of petroleum storage tanks and related wastes
Contents of this code of practice: safety of works; authorization, permits and certification; removal of tanks; transport of used underground tanks; tank processing and disposal (precautions against explosion and fire from petroleum products or vapours, asphyxiation from vapours or lack of oxygen, and toxic effects of petroleum products, vapours or wastes); treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes; lead hazards; equipment checklist for tank disposal; supervision by the site contractor. In appendix: sample forms and notices; safe handling of petroleum products; accidents during leaded gasoline tank cleaning.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, May 1995. 56p. 20 ref.
Fontana L., Chamoux A., Albuisson E., Borel A.M., Djeriri K., Catilina M.J., Verjux T., Catilina P.
Determination of occupational stress in refuse collectors by applying work organization analysis to physiological data on heart rate and on posture
Détermination des contraintes liées ŕ l'activité professionnelle du ripeur par l'analyse organisationnelle du travail en relation avec les données physiologiques de fréquence cardiaque et de postures [in French]
A study was conducted on twenty-six refuse collectors (mean age = 33.2yrs ± 9.2yrs) in order to: (1) assess the workload by measuring the heart rate in order to establish the greatest sources of stress; (2) to study the association between working postures and different kinds of refuse; (3) to describe and analyze work organization. The mean heart rate during work was 104.6 ± 16.3 beats per minute. The average relative cardiac cost was 32.9% ± 11.5; this qualifies the job as being "hard" according to the Chamoux method. A number of stress sources were identified: collection organization, the collected tonnage, the type of collected refuse and time constraints. Solutions to improve work organization and to reduce workload and spinal stress are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.351-358. Illus. 13 ref.
Safety first - Protection of workers examining contaminated sites
Sicherheit hat Priorität - Arbeitsschutz bei der Erkundung kontaminierter Standorte [in German]
On the premises and in the vicinity of a chemical plant in Germany the mercury concentrations in ambient air, precipitation, soil and groundwater were measured. In addition, they were determined in the atmosphere inside the plant and on the equipment. The measurements became necessary because the 50-year-old chemical plant had been scheduled to be shut down. Mercury-contaminated sites needed to be cleaned up, for which the extent of the contamination had to be determined. The measurement methods are described. For taking these measurements and for the ensuing cleanup and demolition work personnel were supplied with a disposable overall, protective helmet, rubber boots, protective gloves and an air-purifying respirator when the mercury content in the air was higher than 25µg/m3.
Entsorgungs-Technik, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.7, No.2, p.38-41. Illus. 1 ref.
Methods of disposing of hazardous chemical substances and wastes. Group: Other poisons, I (letters A-F)
Spôsoby zneškodňovania nebezpečných chemických látok a odpadov. Skupina: Ostatné jedy, I (písmeno A-F) [in Slovak]
Sequel to an article on the elimination of especially toxic substances (Bezpečná Práca 1994, Vol.25, No.5, p.225-228) not yet abstracted. This continuation shows practical ways of rendering harmless 69 other poisons named in Slovak and Czech government decrees in alphabetical order (letters A-F). Summaries in English and German.
Bezpečná práca, Jan.-Feb. 1995, Vol.26, No.1, p.15-18.
Radioactive and mixed waste - Risk as a basis for waste classification
Proceedings of a symposium on Radioactive and Mixed Waste - Risk as a Basis for Waste Classification, held 9 November 1994 in Las Vegas, USA. Papers cover: definition of the problem (regulatory situation regarding mixed waste, terminology, types of radioactive and mixed waste, parameters needed to assess risk, the availability of input needed to use risk to classify mixed waste); biology of risk (genetic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects); assessment of risk; managing the risks of radionuclides and conventional chemicals; social and political considerations; practical applications of a risk-based waste classification system; summary and conclusions.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-3095, USA, June 1995. v, 201p. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 25.00.
Removal of asbestos-containing floor coverings and partitions or walls
Elimination des revętements de sols et de parois ŕ base d'amiante [in French]
Entfernen von asbesthaltigen Boden- und Wandbelägen [in German]
Rimozione di rivestimenti per pavimenti e pareti contenenti amianto [in Italian]
Main contents of this data sheet on the safe removal of asbestos-containing floor coverings and partitions or walls in buildings: legal framework in Switzerland and purpose of this data sheet (CFST rules No. 6503 "flaked asbestos and other lightly agglomerated asbestos-containing materials"; limit values (VME in Switzerland: 250,000 respirable fibres per m3) and notification responsibilities; nature, use and condition of asbestos-containing materials; work planification and preparation; cleaning-up work; removal of asbestos-containing waste; training of floor coverers involved with the disposal of asbestos-containing materials; exceptions.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, May 1995. 8p. Illus.
Cleanup of landfills - The pilot project Vaihingen-Horrheim, Germany
Deponierückbau und Altmüllaufbereitung - Demonstrationsprojekt Vaihingen-Horrheim [in German]
Landfill sites for the disposal of refuse are becoming scarce in Germany. Therefore, in the landfill in Vaihingen-Horrheim in Baden-Württemberg the refuse buried in the past is excavated. Paper, textile materials, plastics and iron are separated and recycled. The remaining refuse is comminuted and sorted to obtain fine, light and heavy fractions. The light fraction is compressed and incinerated in a waste incinerator. The fine and heavy fractions are composted and returned to the landfill. The measures to protect workers in the first such landfill in Germany include aeration of the landfill to reduce odour annoyance and the use of excavators with tightly sealed cabins with a special ventilation system. Personal protective equipment is supplied. Hazardous substances likely to be present at this kind of work are listed. Counts of microorganisms in the air yielded lower levels than in composting plants.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Feb. 1995, Vol.107, No.2, p.81-86. Illus. 2 ref.
Héry M., Béhard G., Goubier R., Mahieu J.C., Gerber J.M., Dieudonné M., Puig H.
Occupational exposure and risk prevention during the cleaning-up of a contaminated industrial site
Exposition professionnelle et prévention lors de la réhabilitation d'un site industriel pollué [in French]
Health and safety conditions of workers were monitored in the course of work to clean up an unmonitored chemical waste site. In organizing the work, stress was placed on separating work areas according to activity, observation of civil engineering safety rules and the use of respirators. Exposure to chemical pollutants was also assessed. This revealed a wide variety of chemical contaminants, generally present in relatively small quantities in the workplace atmosphere, but adding up to a significant total pollution level.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygične et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.158, Note No.1979-158-95, p.5-13. Illus. 10 ref.
Act of 17 June 1994 concerning prevention and waste management [Luxembourg]
Loi du 17 juin 1994 relative ŕ la prévention et ŕ la gestion des déchets [Luxembourg] [in French]
Contents of this law: definition of different kinds of waste coverd by it; preparation of a waste management plan and related responsibilities; system for ministerial authorization of waste-disposal establishments; systems for the disposal of different kinds of waste. In annex: waste categories; waste elimination operations; operations involving the possibility of waste recovery. The Act of 26 June 1980 concerning waste elimination, as modified subsequently, is revoked.
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 5 July 1994, No.57, p.1076-1086.
http://www.itm.etat.lu/legisnat/cd_94_95/0617c/0617c.pdf [in French]
Chiu G., Côté R., Saunders P., VanderZwaag D.
Management of Industrial Chemical and Wastes in CARICOM States Project
Toxic chemicals control in the Caribbean: Towards model legislation
Proceedings of a workshop on legislation for the management of industrial and chemical wastes in the CARICOM States (Caribbean Commonwealth Countries) held in Barbados, 21-23 October 1993. Main topics covered: overview of the chemical problem (air pollution, oil pollution, chemicals management for sustainable development); international and national chemical control legislation; principles and practical problems of chemical control legislation; management of industrial chemicals and wastes in various CARICOM States; recommendations and guidelines for model chemical legislation.
School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Dalhousie University, 1312 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2E2, Canada, 1994. viii, 244p. Bibl.ref.
Gadea Carrera E.
Laboratory safety: Management of small quantities of toxic and dangerous wastes
Seguridad en el laboratorio: gestión de residuos tóxicos y peligrosos en pequeńas cantidades [in Spanish]
Topics: classification; comment on directive; dangerous substances; data sheet; disposal of harmful waste; laboratories; legislation; Spain; toxic substances.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 4p. 13 ref.
Landesamt für Umweltschutz und Gewerbeaufsicht
Guide for collection stations for harmful wastes
Leitfaden für Problemabfall-Annahmestellen [in German]
In Germany, stations to which small amounts of harmful wastes from households can be delivered need a license. The requirements placed by the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate on the site for such buildings, their layout and the measures to protect against fire and explosion are outlined. In addition, the requirements to be met by the personnel accepting and handling the harmful waste and the measures required for their protection are addressed. The rules and regulations which need to be complied with are listed.
Landesamt für Umweltschutz und Gewerbeaufsicht Rheinland-Pfalz, Amtsgerichtplatz 1, 55276 Oppenheim, Germany, 1994. 20p. + 40p. Illus.
Jager E., Rüden H., Zeschmar-Lahl B.
Composting facilities. Second Communication: Airborne microorganisms at different workplaces in composting plants
Kompostierungsanlagen. 2. Mitteilung: Aerogene Keimbelastung an verschiedenen Arbeitsbereichen von Kompostierungsanlagen [in German]
Measurements in Germany of microbial pollution in the air of workplaces in 2 garbage composting plants revealed the following: the highest number concentrations of bacteria and moulds and the largest respirable dust fraction were observed during garbage comminution, turning and mixing. These findings are in agreement with published results of similar measurements in composting plants in other countries. Full enclosure of the garbage shredders and automation of garbage turning and mixing are recommended to avoid harmful levels of bacteria and mould in these workplaces.
Zentralblatt für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, 1994, Vol.196, No.4, p.367-379. Illus. 16 ref.
The complete guide to the hazardous waste regulations
This guide describes requirements for the regulation of hazardous wastes in the USA under three Acts: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (hazardous waste identification, generators of hazardous waste, shipping and transportation, general and technical standards for waste management facilities, permits and interim status, land disposal restrictions, corrective action, enforcement and state authorization); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (Superfund) (reporting requirements, response actions, remedial response, worker safety and health programme); the Toxic Substances Control Act (use, storage and disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PCB spill cleanup requirements; see CIS 89-23).
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 2nd ed., 1994. xix, 488p. Illus. Index. Price: GBP 37.50.
Tomei F., Papaleo B., Leone M., Fantini S., Giuntoli P., Biagi M., Scarselli R., Palmi S., Baccolo T.P.
Study of job-related toxic liver pathology
Studio delle epatopatie tossiche professionali [in Italian]
Workers in industrial waste management may be exposed in a discontinuous and unpredictable way to substances toxic to the liver. Even exposures to low doses can be harmful. 53 workers (mostly males) employed in a toxic industrial waste (including arsenic) treatment plant were studied together with a non-exposed control group of 60 subjects. For all of them a clinical case history questionnaire was filled out, in presence of a doctor, and the following laboratory tests were carried out: complete blood count, GOT, GPT and gamma GT, blood bilirubin (both direct and indirect), alkaline phosphatase, blood proteins, blood creatinine and urine. The obtained results indicate that treatment of industrial wastes may have toxic effects on the liver and that it would be useful to screen workers with procedures like those adopted.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.6, No.1, p.95-115. Illus. 153 ref.
Stalder K., Verkoyen C.
Health hazards in municipal waste disposal
Gesundheitsrisiken bei der Entsorgung kommunaler Abfälle [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium on the biological hazards of garbage composting (held in Göttingen, Germany, 28-29 June 1993). Subjects covered: composting methods applied today; emission of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli during garbage composting; viruses such as Herpes simplex and Coxsackie-B in the air of garbage composting plants; emission of moulds and thermophilic actinomycetes by garbage composting plants; frequently occurring fungi in garbage composting plants; health hazards such as infection and sensitization by allergens in garbage composting plants.
Verlag Die Werkstatt, Lotzestrasse 24a, 37083 Göttingen, Germany, Apr. 1994. 217p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 30.00.
WT-3 Medical Waste Committee
White paper: Medical waste disposal
This paper on medical waste disposal was prepared by the WT-3 Medical Waste Committee of the Technical Council of the Air & Waste Management Association of the United States. In recent years, techniques have been developed to reduce human exposure to the toxic and infectious components of medical wastes. The most commonly used techniques include internal segregation, containment, and incineration. Other common techniques include grinding, shredding, and disinfection, e.g., autoclaving and chemical treatment followed by landfilling. Of all available technologies for medical waste treatment and disposal, incineration has been found to be the most effective method overall for destroying infectious and toxic material, volume reduction, and weight reduction in the medical waste stream. Incineration destroys the broadest variety of medical waste constituents and can recover energy from the medical waste stream. It is also an appropriate alternative to burial of human pathological remains.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Oct. 1994, Vol.44, p.1176-1179. Illus. 32 ref.
Cole B.L., Shatkin J.P., Delp L., Brown M.P.
A cross-sectional survey of workers and their training needs at 29 hazardous waste sites
To better understand hazardous waste remediation workers and their training needs, interviews were conducted with personnel (n=115) from 29 sites. Personnel included project managers, prime contractors, subcontractors, safety officers, and on-line workers. All of the prime contractors reported having an emergency response plan, 96% reported having a medical surveillance programme, and 89% reported having a site- specific health and safety plan. Reported inconsistencies in responses from respondents at the same site indicate possible gaps in training and communication. Almost all respondents had received the required 40 hours of off-site training, but 20% reported that hands-on field exercises were not included. Participation in the required 3 days of on-site training was reported by 66%. Lack of experience, the sporadic nature of hazardous waste site cleanup work, and high turnover present special challenges to the implementation of an effective health and safety training programme.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.9, p.605-611. Illus. 12 ref.
Länderausschuss für Immissionsschutz LAI
Requirements concerning the use of hydrocarbons as solvents in dry-cleaning establishments
Anforderungen beim Einsatz von Kohlenwasserstofflösemitteln (KWL) in Chemischreinigungen [in German]
Chlorofluorohydrocarbons, the use of which has been banned in Germany since 1 January 1995, have been replaced in dry-cleaning establishments by aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with 10-12 carbon atoms. Fire- and explosion-prevention measures to be taken by establishments using these hydrocarbons as solvents are outlined. In addition, limitations on the emission of solvents and the disposal of the waste products such as contaminated filters are addressed. The regulations which dry cleaning plants in Germany must comply with are outlined.
Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH & Co., Berlin, Germany, 1994. 39p. Illus.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response: Final rule [USA]
This final rule (effective date: 21 Sep. 1994) adds technical amendments to Appendix B and a new non-mandatory Appendix E (Training Curriculum Guidelines) to the final rule on Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (CIS 89-1420) included in 29 CFR 1910 (full version last analyzed as CIS 90-9). The technical amendments concern the addition of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards on chemical protective clothing to the list of recommended protective equipment published in the original final rule. Appendix E contains recommendations for a training curriculum, including: general and core course criteria; programme quality control criteria; training curriculum guidelines (general operations and site-specific training; training for waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities; emergency response training). Parallel changes are also introduced into 29 CFR 1926 (Construction Safety and Health Standards).
Federal Register, 22 Aug. 1994, Vol.59, No.161, p.43268-43280.
Evaluation of the health risks to compost workers due to emission of microbes and development of protective measures
Abschätzung von Gesundheitsrisiken für Müllwerker durch Keimemissionen und Entwicklung von Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen [in German]
The total and suspended particulate matter of 4 different composting plants was analyzed to determine the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Total values of pathogens ranged between 100 and 100,000cfu/m3. Viruses were detected in 49 of 165 samples. In all composting plants mesophilic and thermophilic actinomycetes were found in numbers above 100,000cfu/m3. Moulds mostly amounted to more than 10,000cfu/m3 with peaks of 1,000,000cfu/m3. Tests of sensitization to actinomycetes and moulds in 30 workers from the composting plants showed significantly higher antibody titres against actinomycetes than in a control group. There were no signs of illness in the workers. Health protection of workers can be achieved through blood monitoring for antibodies, enclosing conveyor belts, exhaust ventilation, confining the use of work clothing to the composting plant and prohibition of any food intake in the workplace. Summary in English.
Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Technologie, 53170 Bonn, Germany, Apr. 1994. 55p. Illus. 68 ref.
Martin W.F., Levine S.P.
Protecting personnel at hazardous waste sites
Contents of this manual: overview of current issues and regulatory requirements; federal government programmes and information gathering; health and safety programmes for hazardous waste workers; toxicology overview; air monitoring at hazardous waste sites; compatibility testing; medical surveillance for hazardous waste workers; site layout and engineered controls; personal protective equipment; heat stress in industrial protective encapsulating garments; decontamination; training; contingency plans; radiation safety; ordnance, explosive waste and unexploded ordnance; site health and safety plans. (See CIS 86-2000 for first edition).
Butterworth Heinnemann, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1994. xviii, 570p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 60.00.
Council Directive 94/74/EC of 16 Dec. 1994 on the incineration of hazardous waste [European Communities]
Directive 94/67/CE du Conseil du 16 décembre 1994 concernant l'incinération de déchets dangereux [Communautés européennes] [in French]
Hazardous waste is defined according to Directive 91/689/EEC (CIS 95-20), other definitions apply to incineration plant, emission limit value and to the operator of the plant. The permits to be granted by the competent authorities are listed. The Directive lays down the necessary safety measures to be taken and specifies how the plants shall be operated, designed and equipped, what emission limit values should not be exceeded, including emissions of dioxins and furans. Provisions deal with the discharge of waste into water, the transport and storage of residues and measurement and monitoring techniques.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 Dec. 1994, Vol.37, No.L 365, p.34-45.
Melenk K., Breunig P.
Ventilation system for workplaces with sorting table conveyors
Raumlufttechnik an Sortierbandarbeitsplätzen [in German]
The sorting-table conveyor in a garbage composting plant in Germany was entirely enclosed for the installation of a ventilation system. All air polluted by smelly substances and pathogens in the breathing zone of workers who sort garbage into compostable and non-compostable components manually is removed by exhaust ventilation. Fresh air is supplied to each of the workplaces at the rate of 300m3/h. In addition, high thermal comfort is provided by the ventilation system. Tracer experiments revealed that unpolluted, fresh air is pushed deep down into the cabin so that even workers who have to bend over the sorting table conveyor are still within the unpolluted zone.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, Dec. 1994, Vol.45, No.12, p.609-612. Illus. 2 ref.
Wastes and their treatment - Information sources
This directory lists organizational sources of information on wastes and their treatment. Organizations are listed by geographical area and include the following details: contact name and address; brief description of activities; working language; geographical coverage; type of organization; terms of access. A subject index is included. Also provided is an international annotated bibliography on industrial wastes classified into 12 major themes with an author and subject index. An introductory chapter outlines the problems of hazardous waste management and the activities of UNEP and INFOTERRA.
INFOTERRA Programme Activity Centre, The Global Environmental Information Exchange Network, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya, 1994. xvi, 1152p. Index.
Waste site cleanup - Safety and health protection for work on contaminated sites
Altlastensanierung - Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei Arbeiten in kontaminierten Bereichen [in German]
By the end of 1990, the number of waste sites which needed clean-up in the Federal Republic of Germany had risen to roughly 78,000. Waste site clean-up is seen as a major new market for the construction industry. There are a number of regulations which concern the safety and health protection of the workers who carry out the clean-up work. They require for example that the harmful or dangerous substances present in the waste site be identified first. A safety and health plan that is commensurate with the hazards present in the particular case is then to be worked out.
Hochbau, Feb. 1994, Vol.82, No.1, p.14-18, 20. Illus. 6 ref.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Revised RCRA inspection manual
This manual provides procedural and technical guidance for performing inspections of facilities regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The procedures relate mainly to performance of Compliance Evaluation Inspections of hazardous waste generators, transporters and treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs). The five sections cover: background information (enforcement overview and priorities, role of inspectors, health and safety considerations, work ethics); preparing for an inspection; procedure for developing permit-specific TSDF inspection; conducting an inspection; inspection follow-up. A number of inspection checklists are included.
Government Institutes Inc., 4 Research Place, Suite 200, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA, Mar. 1994. vii, 668p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 125.00 plus shipping (USD 4.00 USA, USD 6.00 elsewhere).
Plastics recycling - New hazards for the fire brigade?
Kunststoffrecycling - Neue Gefahren für die Feuerwehr? [in German]
Recent fires in Germany in plants where plastics were stored for recycling are used to illustrate the hazards to fire fighters. Burning polyvinyl chloride released high amounts of hydrochloric acid which affected the respiratory system of the fire fighters. Carcinogenic dioxins and furans were detected in the soot. For the prevention or spread of fires it is recommended to store the plastic waste material in small units which are accessible from two sides and to install an adequately dimensioned water extinguishing systems. Fire fighters need to wear respirators and protective clothing.
Brandschutz, Feb. 1994, Vol.48, No.2, p.80-92. Illus. 37 ref.
Mobile wood-splitting machines
Ortsbewegliche Holzhackmaschinen [in German]
The causes of accidents connected with the collection and chaffing of branches with diameters of up to 25cm were determined. Garbage collectors were interviewed and accident records studied. Work on the mobile wood-chaffing machines was observed and the machines were examined. Following causes of accidents were identified: road traffic next to the workers, falling or ejected branches or parts of branches, being pricked by branches with thorns, stumbling, slipping and stepping on thorny branches.
Sicherheitsbeauftragter, Oct. 1994, Vol.29, No.10, p.14-18. Illus.
Council Decision of 22 December 1994 establishing a list of hazardous waste pursuant to Article 1 (4) of Council Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste [European Communities]
Décision du Conseil du 22 décembre 1994 établissant une liste de déchets dangereux en application de l'article 1er paragraphe 4 de la directive 91/689/CEE relative aux déchets dangereux [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Council Decision establishes a coded, though not exclusive, list of hazardous wastes (approx. 250 products). "Hazardous waste" is defined in the annexes of Directive 91-689/EEC (see CIS 95-20), with further specifications as having one or more of the following properties (all percentages in terms of total concentration): flash point ≤ 55°C; very toxic ≥ 0.1%; toxic ≥ 3%; harmful ≥ 25%; corrosive (R35) ≥ 1%; corrosive (R34) ≥ 5%; irritant (R41) ≥ 10%; irritant (R36-38) ≥ 20%; carcinogenic (1 or 2) ≥ 0.1%. The wastes are sorted by type and are accompanied by a six-digit code, the first two of which represent major classification groups and the second two represent lower-level classification groups.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 Dec. 1994, Vol.37, No.L 356, p.14-22.
Not an unknown problem - Fire protection and fire fighting in sanitary landfills
Kein unbekanntes Problem - Brandschutz und Brandbekämpfung bei Deponien [in German]
Fire prevention in sanitary landfills can be improved by studying the causes of actual fires. Prevention measures include: compaction of the waste after a layer of waste 30cm thick is reached, covering each layer with inert material, comminution of bulky waste, limitation of the size of the sanitary landfill to 2000m2 and prevention of air access. Recommendations for extinguishing fires in landfills address small and large open fires as well as fires smoldering inside the landfill. Protective measures for fire fighters are addressed.
Entsorgungs-Technik, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.6, No.5, p.16-18, 20-22. Illus. 5 ref.
Hazardous waste annual refresher
This document contains material presented at an annual refresher training course on hazardous waste management. Topics covered: legislation and hazardous waste site operations; the OSHA Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Rule (1910.120); estimates of hazardous waste operations and populations covered by the OSHA Rule; contents of material safety data sheets; levels of protection; use and fit-testing of air-purifying respirators; forms of heat stress; decontamination procedures. Problem-solving exercises are included.
Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, SC-34 Seattle, Washington 98195, USA, 1994. 126p. Bibl.ref.
Waste management international. Yearbook of products and services 1994
This directory provides a listing of companies providing products and services for waste management. Entries are arranged by country and include (where available) details of the company name and address, contact name, parent and associate companies, company notes, a description of the products and services provided and names of distributors. A foreword reviews waste management policies and legislation in various countries.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, United Kingdom, 1994. xxiv, 186p. Illus. Index. Price: GBP 75.00.
Health and safety guidelines on the cleanup of contaminated sites
This document provides guidelines on procedures and methods for the protection of workers involved in the decontamination of sites formerly used for manufacturing or processing products where hazardous substances were used. Contents: hazards of contaminated sites; planning and organization of site decontamination procedures; site hazard assessment; workplace air monitoring and health surveillance monitoring; information, training and supervision; personal protection; site control. A model site health and safety plan is included.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, PO Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Mar. 1994. 25p. 11 ref.
Mogg C.S., Breen B.J.
Underground disposal of radioactive waste
The development of a facility for the safe deep disposal of intermediate level (ILW) and some low level (LLW) radioactive waste at Sellafield in the United Kingdom is described. The site investigation programme is described along with the rock characterization facility and repository design. The future programme of work is also outlined. Results to date continue to support the decision to concentrate on Sellafield as the preferred site for a national deep repository.
Mining Engineer, Apr. 1994, Vol.153, No.391, p.277-283. Illus. 5 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, Study Group on the Accumulation of Radioactive Waste
Report on the accumulation of radioactive waste arising from sites operated by AEA Technology and from plant decommissioning
This report reviews the management and storage of radioactive waste arising during normal operation of AEA Technology sites and during the decommissioning process. It is concluded that the problem areas in waste handling and storage are associated with those plants constructed in the early years of the nuclear industry and principally with the products of reprocessing of highly irradiated fuel. The main concerns of the Study Group are problems at the Windscale and Dounreay plants and the delay in the Nirex repository programme and the agreement on packaging specifications which is preventing the more secure storage of waste.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. viii, 12p. 1 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Environmental Response Video News Magazine No.4, Winter 1994.
This videotape contains two feature stories dealing with harmful-waste disposal sites (mapping of subsurface geology; identification and characterization of contaminant-filled drums). There are also shorter news items on immunoassay kits and on computer programmes dealing with harmful waste identification.
EPA/ERT MS 101, GSA Raritan Depot 2890, Woodbridge Avenue, Edison, NJ 08837, USA, 1994. 1 videotape (NTSC) (length: 28.5min).
Commission Decision of 20 December 1993 establishing a list of wastes pursuant to Article 1 of Council Directive 75/442/EEC on waste [European Communities]
Décision de la Commission, du 20 décembre 1993, établissant une liste de déchets en application de l'article 1er de la Directive 75/442/CEE du Conseil relative aux déchets [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Commission decision is about adaptation of the European Waste Catalogue (EWC). The aim of the EWC is to harmonize nomenclature and categorize waste within the Community. Waste is divided into 20 main groups (e.g. waste from mining, agriculture, wood processing). Each group is again subdivided. This list does not prejudge the list of hazardous waste. The EWC will be reviewed periodically.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 7 Jan. 1994, Vol.37, No.L.5, p.15-33.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Technical rules on hazardous substances TRGS 520 - Building and operating sites for the collection of hazardous substances from households, commercial and public institutions
Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoff TRGS 520 - Errichtung und Betrieb von Sammelstellen für gefährliche Abfälle aus Haushalten, gewerblichen und öffentlichen Einrichtungen [in German]
This publication in the series "Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances" deals with the construction and operation of stationary and mobile collection stations for harmful waste, in particular safe layout and design of such installations and of related equipment. Special regard is given to fire protection and fire fighting. Required qualifications of personnel operating the collection stations and protective measures for the personnel are outlined. For example, the required protective measures for personnel include: monitoring compliance with maximum allowable workplace concentrations and the supply of personal protective equipment.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 27p.
Collins C.H., Kennedy D.A.
The treatment and disposal of clinical waste
Contents of this handbook: clinical waste as a public health concern; perceived and actual hazards (microbial content of clinical waste, the potential for infection, the problem of sharps, release of dioxins and furans); definitions and classification of clinical waste; segregation, collection, storage and transport; waste minimization; final disposal of clinical waste (incineration, landfill, steam sterilization, novel methods); clinical laboratory waste; supervision, education and training. In appendices: United Kingdom legislation; European Community Directives.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd, P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1993. ix, 114p. Illus. 179 réf. Index. Price: GBP 22.00.
Reyes Soto M.
Prevention of hazards encountered in the collection of solid waste
Prevención de riesgos en el proceso de recolección de residuos sólidos [in Spanish]
Contents of this training guide: description of the process of waste collection and disposal; statistical analysis of occupational accidents in waste collecting enterprises; hazard control (waste collection from homes and the street, waste transportation, final disposal of waste, personal protection, vehicle maintenance, hygienic conditions); programme of accident hazard prevention; list of responsibilities for hazard control. Glossary. In annex: special legal provisions for waste collection and removal.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Casilla 14565, Correo Central, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 1993. 48p. Illus.
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