Waste collection and disposal - 435 entries found
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Blondet M., Boitel L., Dupery M., Durand C., Pommier J.L., Rat de Cocquard M., Raymond F., Taupin J.P.
Study of the daily level of exposure to noise for workers in four occupations: Plastics processing; woodworking in woodworking shops; selling hi-fi, video and audio equipment; municipal waste collection
Etude du niveau d'exposition sonore quotidienne des salariés dans quatre activités: travaux de plasturgie; travaux sur machines à bois en atelier; vente de matériels Hi Fi, vidéo, son; collecte des ordures ménagères (ripeur-éboueur) [in French]
The objective of this study was to measure, over a one-year period, the daily levels of exposure to noise and the peak acoustic pressures in four types of occupations: plastics processing, working on machines in woodworking shops, selling hi-fi, video and audio equipment and collecting municipal waste. After describing the methodology used, the results obtained for each occupation are presented. Workers in plastics processing and woodworking are exposed to levels higher than regulatory thresholds. Technical prevention measures and audiometric surveillance need to be implemented. The exposure of municipal waste collectors is very close to danger levels, requiring the introduction of prevention policies and compensation for this occupation. As far as hi-fi, video and audio salespersons are concerned, 55% are subjected to levels in excess of peak values (135dB) and are consequently exposed to harmful levels; however, the interpretation of these results is complex, and further work is required.
Centre Interservices de Santé et de Médecine du travail en Entreprise (CISME), 10 rue de la Rosière, 75015 Paris, France, 1999. 143p. Illus. 21 ref.
Haas D.U., Reinthaler F.F., Wüst G., Skofitsch G., Degenkolb T., Marth E.
Emission of moulds and xerophilic fungi in the immediate vicinity of composting plants
Emission von Schimmelpilzen und xerophilen Pilzen im Bereich von Kompostieranlagen [in German]
Between March 1996 and April 1997, the concentrations of moulds and xerophilic fungi in air samples taken inside and in the vicinity of two composting plants in Germany were determined. In plant A, agricultural, garden and food wastes were composted outdoors. In plant B, biological waste from households and industry was composted inside a building. A total of 163 air samples were taken and cultivated on different substrates for the determination of the number of colony-forming units of bacteria, moulds and pathogenic fungi. In plant A, no harmful exposure of workers was found. In plant B, bacterial counts were approximately 170 times higher than the background level. The numbers of xerophilic fungi and moulds were respectively 5 and 12 times the background level. Malfunctioning air purifying filters were identified to be the cause of the higher exposure. Monitoring of Aspergillus fumigatus and thermophylic actinomycete levels in closed composting plants is recommended.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft, Apr. 1999, Vol.59, No.4, p.115-120. 22 ref.
Decommissioning of medical, industrial and research facilities
This safety guide addresses the decommissioning of medical, industrial and research facilities where radioactive materials and sources are produced, received, used and stored. It is intended to provide guidance to national authorities and operating organizations, particularly to those in developing countries, for the planning and safe management of the decommissioning of such facilities. Examples of the contents of a decommissioning plan and of the final radiation survey are given in the appendices.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 1999. 38p. Illus. 18 ref. Author index.
Brehier M., Dupéry M., Djemil K.
Refuse collection with selective sorting: What impact on working conditions? - Ergonomic study (I)
La collecte des ordures en tri sélectif: quel coût pour l'homme au travail? - Etude ergonomique (I) [in French]
Refuse collection involving selective sorting is increasingly practiced for economic reasons. An ergonomic study of the conditions of municipal waste collection with a novel concept truck having a lowered cabin and no rear step, was conducted by observing the activities of waste collectors and the driver, measuring the pulse rate, the distance covered and the sound level. The observation enabled the highlighting of gaps between job descriptions and the tasks effectively carried out, and revealed dysfunctions, in particular with respect to some of the work postures. On the basis of pulse rate measurements, the activity is classified as being "strenuous" or "very strenuous". One of the waste collectors covered a distance of 16.8km while running. Noise dosimetry reveals a high level of noise exposure. The new job descriptions and the numerous dysfunctions caused by the new equipment (in particular without rear steps) increased the strenuousness of the work. The results were taken into account by the waste collection company, which required the manufacturer to modify the trucks and truck cabins.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.3, p.297-306. Illus. 6 ref.
Ferreira dos Santos T.L.
Ministério do Trabalho
Garbage collectors - The ambiguities of working in the streets
Coletores de lixo - A ambigüidade do trabalho na rua [in Portuguese]
This analysis of the work of garbage collectors is based on their own accounts and impressions of their work. A characteristic of this occupation is that it takes place in the street, a public space where one is seen and recognized, which can either enhance or depreciate the workers' self-image. It consists of teamwork that needs to be carried out at a certain pace. There are many occupational health problems, including skin diseases, hearing loss, diseases of the urinary tract, leptospirosis, tetanus, AIDS, respiratory and lung diseases, and gastro-intestinal diseases. This occupation is also subject to risks of injury (dog bites, falls and trips) and can give rise to emotional or nervous stress, notably anxiety. This category of workers is also subject to acute alcoholism. The book is a thesis for a Master's Degree in Social Psychology at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1999. 222p. 57 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Safe disposal of clinical waste
This booklet provides guidance for managing the safe segregation, handling, transport and disposal of clinical waste. Categories of clinical waste are defined and preventive actions such as training, personal hygiene, immunization, information on accidents and waste treatment, and monitoring of procedures are discussed. The duty of care along the chain dealing with the waste is explained. The essential points of applicable regulations are presented. Replaces CIS 93-624.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1999. iv, 68p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.
Fire detection and fire fighting in municipal solid waste bunkers
Erkennen und Bekämpfen von Bränden in Abfallbunkern [in German]
In Germany, there are no detailed regulations with regard to the detection and fighting of fires in storage bunkers of municipal solid waste incineration plants. A guideline to fill this gap is presently being prepared. Recommendations in this guideline form the basis of the presented practical tips for detecting and fighting of fires in solid waste bunkers. In addition, the special conditions prevailing in storage bunkers of solid waste incinerators were taken into consideration as were various fire detection and fire fighting methods. Fire detection by the crane operator should be preferred over the installation of automatic fire detectors. Infrared detectors are recommended in case the waste stays in the bunker for more than one week and round-the-clock surveillance by crane operators is not feasible. For fire fighting, water canons should be used rather than sprinkler systems. They can be better focussed on the site of a fire and the water jet penetrates deeper into the garbage. The additional fire protection components needed in a solid waste bunker such as smoke vents are discussed.
Zeitschrift Forschung und Technik im Brandschutz, Jan. 1999, Vol.48, No.1, p.3-14. Illus. 8 ref.
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Rejent G.M.
Incident trends for a hazardous waste cleanup company
Incident trends in a relatively large hazardous waste cleanup company were evaluated. The data provided 1848 incident reports with 87% involving injury/illness cases. Over 75% of injury/illness incidents were due to mechanical agents, 10% occurred because of chemical exposure, 5% involved poisonous plants and insect bites, 2% resulted from temperature extremes, 1% were from cumulative injuries/illnesses, and in 7% the agent was not recorded. Almost 31% of injuries were related to the upper extremities, with the fingers most often injured, followed by the hands. Lower back strain cases constituted 11% of injuries, ankle/foot/toe cases 9%, and knee cases 5%. Recovery technicians had the highest frequency of injury/illness incidents (52%), followed by supervisors (15%) and heavy machinery operators (10%). It was concluded that hands-on experience in the field and improvements in the health and safety programme of the company - including expanding its focus to include construction safety-reduced the incidents considerably. Introduction of new regulations has also contributed to this trend.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.60, No.5, p.666-672. Illus. 23 ref.
Cozzani V., Nardini G., Petarca L., Zanelli S.
Accident analysis at a solvent recovery plant
An experimental investigation of an accident in a solvent recovery plant was carried out using calorimetric and thermogravimetric techniques. The immediate cause of the accident was an unforeseen exothermic decomposition reaction. The main underlying cause of the accident was the absence of safety culture in the plant management. A simplified screening procedure based on differential scanning calorimetry was used in order to test the thermal stability of the nonvolatile fraction of the solvent-contaminated wastes present on the plant in order to be processed. More than 75% of the samples examined showed exothermal decomposition phenomena starting at temperatures higher than 100°C. Our analysis of the accident suggested that the safe operation of waste solvent recovery processes requires an accurate characterization of the thermal stability of the process feed. Process safety is also increased by an adequate emergency vent and an accurate control of operating temperature, that may be reduced operating under vacuum. Safety devices may also include a water supply for emergency quench.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 1999, Vol.67, No.2, p.145-161. Illus. 11 ref.
Gupta J.P., Suresh Babu B.
A new hazardous waste index
Hazardous wastes, once generated, must be stored, transported, treated, disposed of and recycled, depending on the situation. With laws being tightened, attention to safety considerations must be increased. Before any operation is carried out, it is vital to know the hazardous characteristics of the waste to be handled. Because waste, generally, is a mixture instead of a pure compound, its hazardous characteristics are difficult to determine and generalize because of the different hazards of each component. A new Hazardous Waste Index (HWI) is proposed in this paper. The index measures hazards related to flammability, reactivity, toxicity and corrosivity as well as the pH value for a hazardous waste. Two examples are given for its use. The index can be modified to include radioactive or mixed waste.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1999, Vol.67, No.1, p.1-7. 7 ref.
Act No.VIII-1190 of 20 May 1999 on Treatment of Radioactive Waste [Lithuania]
Zakon Litovskoj Respubliki ot 20 maja 1999 g. No.VIII-1190 - Ob obraščenii s radioaktivnymi othodami [in Russian]
This law regulates the relationships between legal entities and individuals involved in radioactive waste processing, and contains the legal basis for the processing. It defines the scope of responsibility of the State institutions in this area and specifies the tasks, status and activities of the Agency responsible for radioactive waste processing.
Vedomosti Litovskoj Respubliki, 10 July 1999, No.19, p.2-13.
Microorganic emissions from composting and digestion plants
Keimemissionen aus Kompostierungs- und Vergärungsanlagen [in German]
Concentrations of moulds and bacteria were determined in air samples taken in and near 3 aerobic garbage composting plants and 2 anaerobic sewage digestion plants. In 2 of the plants composting occurred in wind rows. One of the composting plants used drums. The measured concentrations of moulds and bacteria ranged from about 100 to 10,000 colony forming units per m3. No increased concentrations of moulds and bacteria were measured at distances of 100 to 200m from covered plants equipped with a ventilation system with air purifying filters. Open-air plants were found to create higher concentrations up to 500m distance. Recommendations for studying the influence of garbage composting and anaerobic sewage digestion plants on the environment are presented.
M. & D. Gräbner, Gotenstrasse 3, 96146 Altendorf bei Bamberg, Germany, Jan. 1999. 499p. Illus. 173 ref.
Leigh J.P., Hoskin A.
Hazards for nearby residents and cleanup workers of waste sites
This study weighs the risks to workers of cleaning up Superfund sites in the US against the risks to residents if the sites were not cleaned up. Risks are measured by the number of deaths and disabilities due to injuries and diseases, as well as by the costs of these deaths and disabilities. Three methods are proposed for the cleaning up of sites: one that is labour-intensive and two that are not. Twenty-four are posited hypothetical sites, with varying numbers of residents and levels of cancer death and cancer disability rates. Depending on the cleanup method, the number of residents and the rates, it was found that the risks to workers frequently outweighed the risks to residents. It is concluded that risks to workers should be accounted for in Environmental Protection Agency judgements regarding which and how Superfund sites should be cleaned up.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.41, No.5, p.331-348. 42 ref.
Blondet M., Boitel L., Dupéry M., Durand C., Pommier J.L., Rat de Coquard M., Raymond F., Taupin J.P.
Study of the daily level of exposure of workers to noise in four occupations
Etude du niveau d'exposition sonore quotidienne des salariés dans quatre activités [in French]
The objective of the study was to measure daily sound exposure levels and peak sound pressures over randomly selected days during a full year in four different occupational environments, and to compare the results. Measurements were made with class II sound dosimeters having a level of precision of ±1dB. Two groups of six workplaces in each occupation were measured over a full working day. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. The occupations included two that are subject to the requirements of Form No. 42 of occupational diseases in France (plastics processing, woodworking) and two that are not (sales of hi-fi and video equipment, municipal waste collection). Findings show that workers in plastics processing and woodworking are often exposed to sound levels higher than those of the auditory damage threshold. The exposure of waste collectors is close to dangerous levels, while in the case of hi-fi and video equipment salespersons, the results are mixed and will require further investigation.
Centre Interservices de Santé et de Médecine du travail en Entreprise, 10 rue de la Rosière, 75015 Paris, France, 1999. 143p. Illus. 21 ref.
Ivens U.I., Breum N.O., Ebbehøj N., Nielsen B.H., Poulsen O.M., Würtz H.
Exposure-response relationship between gastrointestinal problems among waste collectors and bioaerosol exposure
The relationship between gastrointestinal problems and exposure to bioaerosols among waste collectors was investigated using a job-exposure matrix constructed from a combination of questionnaire data (concerning 1,747 waste collectors and 1,111 controls), and field measurements (189 personal samples measuring viable fungi, total count of of fungal spores, microorganisms and endotoxins). Results show that high exposure to endotoxins was associated with nausea, and the risk of reporting nausea decreased with decreasing exposure. High exposure to endotoxins was also associated with reports of diarrhoea, and the risk of reporting diarrhoea decreased with decreasing exposure. The same pattern existed for exposure to fungi, and reported diarrhoea.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.238-245. 40 ref.
Acharya D.B., Singh M.
Occupational safety and health issues of biomedical waste treatment systems
This article presents a brief overview of occupational safety and health issues facing workers in biomedical waste treatment systems. Some systems such as incinerators and autoclaves have been used to treat biomedical waste for many years, while others are relatively new and unfamiliar to persons responsible for occupational health. Contents: overview; blood-borne pathogens; hazard communication; air contaminants; heat and fire hazards; eye injury hazards; noise; lock-out and tag-out during maintenance and repair on equipment that poses electrocution or mechanical injury hazards; confined spaces; hand protection; foot protection; physical exertion.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 1998, Vol.XXIX, No.3, p.71-74.
Fischer G., Schwalbe R., Möller M., Ostrowski R., Hollender J., Dott W.
Airborne moulds and their metabolites at workplaces in composting plants
Luftverbreitete Schimmelpilze und deren Stoffwechselmetabolite an Arbeitsplätzen in Kompostieranlagen [in German]
In air samples taken in the months of January, April and August in highly polluted workplaces in a composting plant, total mould counts ranging from 1 to 10 million cfu/m3 air were obtained. The moulds most commonly found were of the Aspergillus and Penicillium type. They were present in concentrations from 1000 to 100,000cfu/m3. Some nonvolatile metabolites and mycotoxins were identified. The volatile organic compounds identified belong primarily to the terpene class of chemicals. Camphene and 2-ethylfurane were found among the terpenes. In laboratory experiments, it could be shown that they were produced by Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium crustosum. The moulds present pathological and allergological exposure hazards as well as a potential toxigenic exposure hazard to workers in composting plants.
Mycoses, 1998, Vol.41, Suppl. No.1, p.51-55. Illus. 9 ref.
Claret J.L., Brett Y.B., Darmendrail D., Bonte L., Fernandez J.
Accidents: Major source of soil pollution
Accidents: les grandes pollutions des sols [in French]
Hazardous product transport agriculture, petrol station and chemical industry activities are the most likely to cause accidents resulting in soil pollution. The prefects of French départements are required to submit reports to the French Ministry of the Environment, whose objectives are to identify risks and prioritize them. Two types of appraisals - initial or comprehensive - can be used to evaluate risks on potentially polluted sites. Successfully implemented innovative technology makes it possible to expedite soil rehabilitation by using industrial cleaning solvents.
Face au risque, Oct. 1998, No.346, p.7-34. Illus.
Miled S., Tigui M., Ammar H., Nouaigui H., Ben Laïba M.
Sero-epidemiologic study of hepatitis B among refuse collection workers of a Tunisian municipality
Etude séro-épidémiologique de l'hépatite virale B chez les agents de la propreté d'une municipalité tunisienne [in French]
Topics: antigens; biological hazards; cross-sectional study; immunity; infection control; infectious hepatitis; needle-stick injuries; questionnaire survey; refuse collection; risk awareness; serological reactions; Tunisia; vaccination.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 1998, No.7, p.28-32. Illus. 16 ref.
Clavero Subías J.M., Ysern Comas P., Gállego Peiré B., Traversa Aijón F., Gadea Carrera E., Guardino Solá X.
Hazardous waste management in university and research laboratories
La gestión de los residuos peligrosos en los laboratorios universitarios y de investigación [in Spanish]
Topics: carcinogens; classification; dangerous substances; data sheet; disposal of harmful waste; handling and storage; harmful substances; labelling; laboratories; legislation; radioactive substances; Spain; toxic substances.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 6p. 14 ref.
Environmental Response Video News Magazine No.11, Fall 1998
This videotape contains two feature stories, one dealing with management of badly corroded chlorine and ammonia gas cylinders in American Samoa, the other with bioremediation of an abandoned petroleum refinery and petroleum waste dump. There are also shorter news items on PCB-contaminated oil and water and on cleanup of a feed and grain warehouse contaminated with agricultural chemical dusts. Topics: agricultural chemicals; computer applications; dangerous substances; disposal of harmful waste; environmental pollution; hazard identification; neighbourhood protection; petroleum refining; polychlorinated biphenyls; safety films; USA; videotape.
EPA/ERT MS 101, GSA Raritan Depot 2890, Woodbridge Avenue, Edison, NJ 08837, USA, 1998. 1 videotape (NTSC) (length: 34min).
Environmental response video News Magazine No.10, Winter 1998
Topics: asbestos; dangerous substances; disposal of harmful waste; flooding; neighbourhood protection; petroleum products; pollution control; safety films; USA.
EPA/ERT, 2890 Woodbridge Avenue, Edison, NJ 08837, USA, 1998. 1 videotape (NTSC) (length: 31.5min).
Winterberg R., Schies U.
Investigations on germ emission during biological soil remediation
Untersuchungen zur Keimemission bei der biologischen Bodensanierung [in German]
Topics: determination in air; exposure evaluation; microorganisms; moulds; pathogenic bacteria; sanitation services; thermophilic actinomycetes; waste site cleanup.
Tiefbau, Aug. 1998, Vol.110, No.8, p.562-569. Illus. 17 ref.
Ernst C., Hornig B., Neumann H.D.
Exposure to moulds in communal garbage collection
Schimmelpilzbelastung in der kommunalen Hausmüllabfuhr [in German]
Topics: allergic respiratory disorders; Aspergillus moulds; compensation of occupational diseases; compliance with exposure limits; determination in air; exposure evaluation; moulds; refuse collection; sanitation services.
Gesundheitsschutz aktuell, 1998, Vol.30, No.1, p.14-19. Illus. 3 ref.
Thorn J., Beijer L., Rylander R.
Airways inflammation and glucan exposure among household waste collectors
Topics: bacterial toxins; blood count; determination in air; dose-response relationship; epidemiologic study; expectoration; garbage collectors; glucans; inflammations; refuse collection; respirable dust; spirometry; upper respiratory diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1998, Vol.33, No.5, p.463-470. Illus. 27 ref.
Ivens U.I., Lassen J.H., Kaltoft B.S., Skov T.
Injuries among domestic waste collectors
Topics: age-linked differences; Denmark; epidemiologic study; frequency rates; injuries; length of service; location of injury; notification of occupational accidents; occupational accidents; refuse collection; severity rates; speed of work; time of accident; types of accident.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1998, Vol.33, No.2, p.182-189. Illus. 11 ref.
Selecting, evaluating and using sharps disposal containers
Topics: biological hazards; design of equipment; disposal of harmful waste; health services; hospitals; injection injuries; manuals; selection of equipment; USA.
Publications Dissemination, EID, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA. viii, 21p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
Ivens U.I., Ebbehøj N., Poulsen O.M., Skov T.
Season, equipment and job function related to gastrointestinal problems in waste collectors
In a questionnaire-based study, waste collectors reported more gastrointestinal symptoms than did a control group of municipal workers. Workers collecting organic, residual and mixed household waste fractions reported more nausea than the non-exposed waste collectors. Loaders reported most nausea. The prevalence of nausea was highest in the summer followed by autumn and winter. Diarrhoea occurred most among workers collecting mixed household waste or working either as front runner or loader. The prevalence of diarrhoea was highest in the summer among those exposed to organic, residual and mixed household waste. Workers stated that the gastrointestinal symptoms were related to the smell of rotten waste. This may support the hypothesis that microbial compounds were the causal agents. Topics: diarrhoea; gastric disorders; job-exposure relation; microorganisms; questionnaire survey; refuse collection; seasonal variation; subjective assessment; summer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.54, No.12, p.861-867. 26 ref.
Koseki H., Hasegawa K., Komamiya K.
Dust explosive fire in an incineration facility
Gomishori shisetsu deno funjin bakuhatsu kasai [in Japanese]
An investigation into the cause of an explosion and fire at a garbage processing facility in Japan showed that paper dust had formed a flammable atmosphere in the conveyor room as a result of the vibration of the garbage conveyor. The source of ignition of the dust was the back fire from the incinerator. Safety measures are proposed. Topics: accident investigation; conveyors; dust explosions; explosion hazards; garbage incineration; paper; sources of ignition.
Journal of the Japan Society for Safety Engineering - Anzen kōgaku, 15 Apr. 1997, Vol.36, No.2, p.115-121. Illus. 10 ref.
Nielsen E.M., Breum N.O., Nielsen B.H., Würtz H., Poulsen O.M., Midtgaard U.
Bioaerosol exposure in waste collection: A comparative study on the significance of collection equipment, type of waste and seasonal variation
Recent Danish studies on waste collectors' bioaerosol exposure are summarized in terms of median exposure levels of total microorganisms, culturable fungi and culturable bacteria. Factors affecting exposure include type of waste and type of collection vehicle: vehicles loaded from the top caused lower exposure to fungi than vehicles loaded at the level of the breathing zone of the workers. Exposure was also affected by season of the year. Exposure to total microorganisms counted by microscopy had a fairly high validity as an indicator of exposure to culturable fungi or culturable bacteria. Likewise, dust may also be used as an indicator of exposure to total microorganisms. Topics: bacteria; bacterial toxins; conditions of exposure; dust measurement; exposure evaluation; fungi; garbage collecting trucks; microorganisms; personal sampling; refuse collection; refuse; seasonal variation.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 1997, Vol.41, No.3, p.325-344. Illus. 36 ref.
Diaz L.F., Savage G.M., Eggerth L.L.
Management of solid wastes in developing countries
Topics: developing countries; environment; refuse collection; storage; transport; waste disposal.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 1997, Vol.28, No.3, p.10-15. 8 ref.
Zaki A.N., Campbell J.R.
Infectious waste management and laboratory design criteria
Topics: air conditioning; biological hazards; biosafety cabinets; disinfection of equipment; disposal of harmful waste; Egypt; infection control; laboratory work; microorganisms; safety by design; ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1997, Vol.58, No.11, p.800-808. Illus. 17 ref.
Jost M., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Jost J., Iten A., Francioli P.
Prevention of blood-borne infections
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen [in German]
Topics: biological hazards; blood; domestic and related helpers, cleaners; hepatitis; infection control; infectious diseases; injection injuries; police forces; prison services; protective gloves; refuse collection; safety guides; Switzerland; vaccination.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Dec. 1997. 34p. Illus. 18 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Emergency dumping of large hydrocarbon oil inventories
Topics: disposal of harmful waste; hazard evaluation; hydrocarbons; mineral oils; offshore oil extraction; petroleum and natural gas industry; report; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1997. ix, 77p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 45.00.
Occupational risk management in the waste disposal industry
A sample occupational health and safety plan for a waste disposal site is described. Australian legal requirements are outlined and activities involved in occupational risk management are discussed: planning, management and communication; hazard identification (special hazards associated with landfill gas, leachate, incinerator emissions and residues); risk assessment and characterization; risk control programme based on a hierarchy of control measures; site monitoring.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 1997, Vol.13, No.2, p.145-156. Illus. 35 ref.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Safe collection of woodwaste: Prevention of fire and explosion
This data sheet provides practical guidance to manufacturers, suppliers and users of woodwaste collection systems on the reduction of fire and explosion risks. Contents: hazards of wood dust; explosibility of woodwaste; sources of ignition; types of collection systems; design of ductwork; precautions for collection units where a dust explosion risk exists; sizing of explosion relief; design of explosion vents; ducting of vents to the open air; firefighting.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
Decree No.96-1009 of 18 Nov. 1996 concerning plans for the elimination of special industrial waste [France]
Décret n°96-1009 du 18 nov. 1996 relatif aux plans d'élimination de déchets industriels spéciaux [France] [in French]
This Decree sets up the procedures for the elimination of special industrial waste, defined by Decree No.95-1027 of 18 Sep.1995 (see CIS 01-626).
Journal officiel de la République française, 24 Nov. 1996, p.17140-17141.
http://www.droit.org/jo/19961124/ENVP9640051D.html [in French]
Cole B.L., Brown M.P.
Action on worksite health and safety problems: A follow-up survey of workers participating in a hazardous waste worker training program
Topics: disposal of harmful waste; language interpretation; questionnaire survey; risk awareness; role of management; safety and health training; safety training in industry; USA; waste disposal; workers participation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.30, No.6, p.730-743. 56 ref.
Explosion - Shredding aerosol containers
Explosion - Broyage de bombes aérosol [in French]
Topics: aerosol containers; bulk solids storage; Canada; data sheet; explosion prevention; refuse comminution; sources of ignition.
Professional and Specialized Services, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, May 1996. 2p.
Act No.96-766 of 3 Oct. 1996 containing the Environmental Code [Côte d'Ivoire]
Loi n°96-766 du 3 oct. 1996 portant Code de l'Environnement [Côte d'Ivoire] [in French]
This Law defines the environment as the totality of all physical, chemical, biological, socio-economic, ethical and intellectual factors that may have a direct or indirect effect on the development of the environment, of living organisms and of human activities. Contents: definitions; aims and scope of the Law (principally, it applies to industrial plants, mines and storage facilities, and to all sources of potentially harmful emissions or waste); protection of the environment (natural or human); responsibilities of the state and local government for environmental protection; preventive measures (including prohibition of the discharge of harmful waste and other pollution into water or the atmosphere).
Journal officiel de la République de Côte d'Ivoire, 6 Feb. 1997, Year 39, No.6, p.114-123.
Studies on the atmospheric concentrations of fungi in waste treatment plants
Untersuchungen zur Pilzbelastung der Luft an Arbeitsplätzen in Betrieben zur Abfallbehandlung [in German]
In this study the atmospheric concentration of colony forming units (CFU) of fungi was determined at 5 garbage composting plants, 2 garbage incineration plants and 3 sanitary landfills in Germany. Both personal and stationary air samples were collected and evaluated. Concentrations ranging from 500 to 10,000,000 CFU/m3 air were obtained. Aspergillus and Penicillium moulds as well as fungus spores were found in most plants. Aspergillus fumigatus occurred in concentrations ranging from 1000 to 50,000 CFU/m3 air. Most of the fungi (80%) were found on respirable dust particles.
Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH & Co., Genthiner Str.30 G, 10785 Berlin, Germany, 1996. 244p. Illus. 243 ref. Price: DEM 58.00.
Manser A.G.R., Keeling A.A.
Practical handbook of processing and recycling municipal waste
This manual describes techniques for the processing and recycling of municipal waste and identifies health and safety hazards. Contents: nature of waste and potential health hazards (Weil's disease); mechanical handling systems (health and safety in relation to the use of cranes, grabs and conveyors); composting systems (hazards of microorganisms, emission of methane, mechanical hazards of heavy plant); biological aspects of compost production and utilization; materials recovery facilities (design of the working environment, operational procedures and equipment); refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processes; combined RDF/compost/recycling plants; markets for recycled products. In appendices: precautions against Weil's disease; national standards legislation.
CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA, 1996. xiv, 557p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 55.00.
The management of radioactive waste in laboratories
Contents of this handbook: organization of radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom; forms of waste and categorization according to activity; legislation; requirements under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993; waste minimization; management of solid, liquid, gaseous, and clinical radioactive wastes; storage; measurement of activity; records of waste management and disposal; transport of wastes. In appendices: units used in radiation protection; current and possible future dose limits; examples of measurements of radionuclides in waste.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd, P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1996. viii, 108p. 50 ref. Index. Price: GBP 27.00 (overseas GBP 35.00, USD 75.00, CAD 90.00).
RCRA Hazardous Waste SourceDisk - Laws, regulations, and contacts [USA]
This CD-ROM contains all the legal and administrative information necessary for compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of the US (1976). Included are: complete texts of the RCRA and other relevant laws; complete texts of relevant federal regulations (40 CFR, Parts 240-299; 49 CFR, Parts 171-199 and 350-399; newly revised HM-181 Table for the transportation of hazardous materials); addresses and phone numbers of relevant government offices, professional and trade organizations, periodicals and research centres; databases.
Government Institutes, 4 Research Place, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, 1996. CD-ROM (for Windows or Macintosh). Price: USD 199.00 (single user), USD 597.00 (network license). ###
Estimated dose to a flood clean-up worker
A case is discussed of a waste station worker accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation from 10 radium needles. She worked nearby for 2.5 days until the material was identified as a radioactive source. Her external exposure was reconstructed and estimated to be 1.25-1.75mSv (125-175mrem), but no medical concern or follow-up was indicated from this dose. If she were pregnant during this incident, since the regulatory dose limit for a pregnant radiation worker is 5mSv (500mrem) the dose to the foetus would also be within safe limits.
Health Physics, Jan. 1996, Vol.70, No.1, p.109-110. 1 ref.
Saint-Vulbas T., Gout D.
Disposal of pyralene - Combining environment and safety
Elimination du pyralène - Marier environnement et sécurité [in French]
Description of the measures taken by a factory where transformers are dismantled, to protect workers and the environment from the chlorinated biphenyls in the "pyralenes" that serve as insulating and heat-transfer fluids. The variety of transformers to be processed prevents automation of the operations. In addition to the wearing of personal protective equipment, safety is provided by: emptying of the transformers by pumping rather than drainage; cutting up of metallic parts for recycling by the use of a hydraulic shear rather than a saw (which generates dust and heat); decontamination of parts in autoclaves.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1996, No.544, p.24-29. Illus.
The management of solid radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg
This report describes the results of an audit carried out at two nuclear fuel processing plants in the United Kingdom to establish the current state of radioactive waste management in relation to regulatory requirements. Volume 1 describes the audit methodology, findings, recommendations made and a response by the operators of the sites. Volume 2 presents reports on the waste management arrangements observed in individual buildings. Although none of the waste was considered to pose an immediate risk to workers or the public, the standard of radioactive waste management at both sites was variable.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 2 vols. (iv, 36p. and iv, 93p.). Illus. 13 ref. Price: GBP 10.00 and GBP 25.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Safe disposal of vented reacting fluids
This report concerns the design of equipment placed downstream of chemical reactors for the safe disposal of chemicals following emergency relief of runaway reactions. The objective of the disposal units is to eliminate the release of toxic and/or flammable chemicals into the environment. The procedure for selecting a disposal unit is presented along with the basic equations governing the design, and the methodology for experimentally obtaining the data needed. Four different exothermic chemical reactions are presented as examples to illustrate the procedures involved.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iv, 98p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 30.00.
Decree No.95-1027 of 18 Sep. 1995 concerning the tax on the treatment and storage of waste [France]
Décret n°95-1027 du 18 sept. 1995 relatif à la taxe sur le traitement et le stockage de déchets [France] [in French]
This Decree specifies the obligations of various people involved in the operation of waste treatment facilities that treat either household waste or special industrial waste: payment of a special tax, recording of received waste, preparation of a site description. In annex: list of substances that characterize "special industrial waste" within the meaning of this Decree.
Journal officiel de la République française, 19 Sep. 1995, p.13761-13762.
http://www.droit.org/jo/19950919/ENVP9530035D.html [in French]
Wrbitzky R., Göen T., Letzel S., Frank F., Angerer J.
Internal exposure of waste incineration workers to organic and inorganic substances
Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; 1-hydroxypyrene; chlorinated organic compounds; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure tests; harmful substances; incinerators; industrial waste; job-exposure relation; metals; urinary metabolites; waste disposal.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1995, Vol.68, p.13-21. Illus. 20 ref.
Frings-Dresen M.H.W., Kemper H.C.G., Stassen A.R.A., Crolla I.F.A.M., Markslag A.M.T.
The daily work load of refuse collectors working with three different collecting methods: A field study
Topics: energy expenditure; ergonomic evaluation; field tests; job study; manual handling; Netherlands; oxygen intake; physical workload; pulse rate; refuse collection; work posture; workload assessment.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1995, Vol.38, No.10, p.2045-2055. Illus. 14 ref.
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