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Waste collection and disposal - 435 entries found

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CIS 05-465 Heldal K.K., Eduard W.
Associations between acute symptoms and bioaerosol exposure during the collection of household waste
Associations between work-related symptoms and bioaerosol exposure were investigated in 22 household waste workers. Full-shift exposures to bacteria, fungal spores, endotoxins and total dust were measured. Data on symptoms experienced during work were obtained by means of a questionnaire. The median exposure levels of spherical bacteria and fungal spores were 0.4 and 0.1 x 106/m3, respectively, while exposures to rod-shaped bacteria, endotoxins and dust were low. The symptoms most often reported were unusual tiredness (24%), headache (22%), cough (15%), and irritation in eyes and nose (10 and 17%). The results suggest that acute work-related nose irritation is associated with exposure to bacteria. Exposure to rod-shaped bacteria is also associated with nose irritation and unusual tiredness. Finally, it is likely that cough is associated with fungal spores.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.253-260. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 05-231 David C.
Infectious wastes - Disposal of health care sector and similar wastes involving infection hazards
Déchets infectieux - Elimination des DASRI et assimilés [in French]
Many occupational groups are involved with the management of infectious wastes. This guide presents the various regulations concerning the disposal of infectious health care waste and body parts. It describes the sectors of activity that are involved, measures concerning the packing, storage, transport, pre-treatment, incineration or cremation and traceability of the waste, as well as the training and information of persons at risk of exposure.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2004. 50p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: EUR 7.30. Downloadable version free.$FILE/ed918.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-713 Ravallec C.
Health care wastes that present infectious hazards - Waste disposal system
Déchets d'activités de soins à risque infectieux - La filière d'élimination [in French]
Health care wastes that present infectious hazards are an important public health issue. These potentially contaminated wastes are generated during medical or veterinary activities, and may expose persons handling or otherwise coming into contact with them to biological hazards such as HIV, HBV or HCV. Approximately 155,000 tons of these wastes are generated each year in France. Their disposal requires the involvement of specialized waste disposal enterprises, which apply strict traceability controls at each step. Precautions need to be taken starting from the time the wastes are generated. They need to be placed in suitable packaging according to the type of waste and the hazard it involves. Separation should be carried out at the source. Intermediate storage of these packages should be in containers placed in a suitable area that satisfies precise criteria. Waste collection should be carried out by persons specially trained with respect to biological hazards. Important precautionary measures should be taken during the incineration of these wastes. Empty containers should be washed and disinfected before being re-introduced into the collection cycle.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2004, No.642, p.28-39. Illus.$File/TS642page29.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 04-178 Code of practice for hazardous waste management
This standard sets out the procedures and practices for the safe management and handling of hazardous wastes generated from industrial activities. It also sets out the key requirements for collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes. The standard does not apply to bio-hazardous and radioactive wastes.
SPRING Singapore, 2 Bukit Merah Central, Singapore 159835, Republic of Singapore, 2004. 33p. 3 ref. Price: SGD 34.00.

CIS 03-1912 Herr C.E.W., zur Nieden A., Stilianakis N.I., Gieler U., Eikmann T.F.
Health effects associated with indoor storage of organic waste
This cross-sectional study examines health effects associated with the storage of organic waste at home for more than two days. 384 subjects completed a medical questionnaire on prevalence of airway, skin and general health complaints during the past year and home hygiene (storage of garbage, pet contact, indoor mould growth). With logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR) adjusted for sex, age, education level and frequent contact with pets were determined for indoor storage of waste for more than two days. Long indoor storage of organic waste was associated with skin rash (OR 2.05), itching skin rash for more than 2 month in the past 12 month (OR 3.58) or ever (OR 2.77) as well as lifetime diagnoses of skin diseases by a doctor (OR 3.16) or allergies other than hay fever (OR 2.74). Atopic subjects were higher at risk. These skin-related complaints and diseases probably result from microbial contamination, e.g. endotoxins due to waste.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2004, Vol.77, No.2, p.90-96. 22 ref.


CIS 05-441 Kondzielski I., Gworek B., Buczkowski R.
Biological methods of remediation of the environment polluted by radionuclides
Biologiczne metody remediacji środowiska zanieczyszczonego radionuklidami [in Polish]
This monograph is divided into three parts. The first lists the main characteristics of the most common sources of natural ionizing radiation and pollution by radionuclides, and provides a general description of contemporary methods used for the remediation of environments polluted by radionuclides. The second part provides detailed descriptions of microbiological methods of remediation of environments (groundwater, wastewater, soils and sediments) polluted by radionuclides, including biosorption, bioleaching and microbiological precipitation. The third part deals with the phytoremediation of soils and waters polluted by radionuclides, namely the use of green plants to absorb radioisotopes contained in soils.
Instytut Ochrony Środowiska, ul. Krucza 5/11, 00-548 Warszawa, Poland, 2003. 55p. Illus. 158 ref.

CIS 05-407 Żurek J., Sadowski M.
Persistent organic pollutants: Volume 1. National profile - Poland
This report presents the results of the inventory phase of the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants in Poland. The main objective of the inventory phase was to prepare a list of hazards caused by the use of hazardous substances subject to the Stockholm Convention in Poland. The report consists of two parts: inventory of persistent organic pollutants in Poland; the state of preparedness for the implementation of the Stockholm Convention.
Instytut Ochrony Środowiska, Ul. Krucza 5/11, 00-548 Warszawa, Poland, 2003. 194p. Illus.

CIS 05-149 Duchet M., Lefebvre J., Jannin B., Hugues J., Fontaine J.B., Terrier C., Fromont E.
Design of waste sorting centres - Domestic and similar waste from selective waste collection
Conception des centres de tri des déchets - Déchets ménagers et assimilés issus de la collecte sélective [in French]
This guide presents advice on the design of sorting centres for domestic waste. It covers both the design of new centres and the modification of existing ones and complements general guidance on the design of work facilities. It underscores the importance of the participation of local authorities, facilities owners, designers, safety and health coordinators and users in the general approach to the prevention of occupational hazards, early in the design process.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., Sep. 2003. 54p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: EUR 7.30. Downloadable version free.$FILE/ed914.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-102 Miglioransa M.H., da Rosa L.C., Perin C., Ramos G.Z., Fossati G.F., Stein A.
Epidemiologic study of garbage sorting workers
Estudo epidemiológico dos coletores de lixo seletivo [in Portuguese]
In this study, the personal and occupational characteristics of workers of two waste disposal enterprises in Brazil (A and B) assigned to garbage sorting were examined, and the main types of accidents and injuries affecting these workers were described. A questionnaire was given to 50 randomly-selected workers in each enterprise. The average age of the workers was 34 years in enterprise A and 22 years in enterprise B. 66% of the workers in enterprise B had less than five years of tenure, whereas in enterprise A, 95% had been employed for more than five years. Injury rates were very high, 90% in enterprise A and 46.6% in enterprise B. The most affected body parts were the lower extremities, followed by the upper extremities and the spinal column. Workers at neither enterprise wore the personal protective equipment required for this activity, which could explain the relatively high injury rates.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.107/108, p.19-28. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 04-714 Fau-Prudhomot P., Fabin C., Montéléon P.Y.
Follow-up study organized by the Association of Medical and Social Centres of the Ile-de-France region on accidents involving exposure to blood (IEBs): Analysis of the initial results
Observatoire ACMS des accidents avec exposition au sang (AES): mise en place des premiers résultats [in French]
Accidents involving exposure to blood (AEBs) have been regularly recorded and analysed for several years in large public hospitals in France. However, this has not always been the case in private health care institutions and in other sectors of activity that present a potential hazard. The objective of this study was to record and describe AEBs occurring in small-to-medium-sized institutions as well as in non-health-care settings in the Ile-de-France region. Between July 2001 and January 2003, 196 cases of AEBs were recorded, of which 15 occurred outside health care settings during waste collection, cleaning or supervision of the premises. In health care settings, the victims were predominantly women (90.4%), persons with less than two years of tenure (60.3%) and persons vaccinated against hepatitis B (95.7%). More than half the cases of AEB occurred during the disposal of contaminated material (58%), in particular because containers were often not easily accessible (40%). Gloves were not worn in 40% of AEB cases.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2003, Vol.43, No.2, p.125-140. 18 ref.

CIS 04-429 Elimination and substitution of dangerous substances
Odstranění a nahrazení nebezpečných látek [in Czech]
Eliminering och ersättning av farliga ämnen [in Swedish]
Vermeidung und Ersatz von Gefahrstoffen [in German]
Katárgēsē kai upokatástasē epikíndunōn ousiṓn [in Greek]
Eliminación y sustitución de sustancias peligrosas [in Spanish]
Ohtlike kemikaalide kõrvaldamine ja asendamine [in Estonian]
Vaarallisten aineiden käytön lopettaminen ja korvaaminen [in Finnish]
Elimination et substitution des substances dangereuses sur le lieu de travail [in French]
A veszélyes anyagok használatának kiküszöbölése, illetve más anyagokkal történő helyettesítése [in Hungarian]
Eliminazione e sostituzione di sostanze pericolose [in Italian]
Pavojingų medžiagų pašalinimas ir pakeitimas [in Lithuanian]
Bīstamo vielu izslēgšana un aizstāšana [in Latvian]
Verwijderen en vervangen van gevaarlijke stoffen [in Dutch]
Eliminowanie i zastępowanie niebezpiecznych substancji [in Polish]
Eliminação e substituição de substâncias perigosas [in Portuguese]
Odstránenie a nahradenie nebezpečných látok [in Slovak]
Prenehanje uporabe nevarnih snovi in zamenjava z manj nevarnimi snovmi [in Slovenian]
Afskaffelse og erstatning (substitution) af farlige stoffer [in Danish]
This fact sheet discusses the process of eliminating or substituting dangerous substances. Topics covered: legislation; elimination and substitution in the European control hierarchy; elimination and substitution in practice; how to proceed; guides for substitution.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2003. 2p. Illus. 11 ref. [in English] [in French] [in Czech] [in Danish] [in German] [in Estonian] [in Greek] [in Italian] [in Latvian] [in Latvian] [in Hungarian] [in Lithuanian] [in Dutch] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Slovak] [in Slovenian] [in Finnish] [in Swedish] [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1813 Hartwig S., Rupp A., Puls E., Kim J.H., Binder F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Cleaning and maintenance of industrial installations: Exposure to substances
Reinigung und Instandhaltung von Industrieanlagen: Stoffbelastungen [in German]
A total of 175 job observations were carried out in 12 companies during cleaning, maintenance and repair work. The average time needed for the tasks was recorded, and the organization workflow related to the tasks was noted. Moreover, respiratory and dermal exposures were assessed for the distinct tasks during non-normal production modes. The provision conditions and the type and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were noted. It was found that in approximately 25% of the cases investigated, hazardous substances were present in concentrations considerably exceeding the recommended threshold values. The PPEs were wrongly used more than 75% of the cases, and were wrongly dimensioned or not correctly provided in 50% of the cases.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. xvii, 168p. Illus. 57 ref. Price: EUR 16.50.

CIS 03-1917 Charbotel B., Forissier M.F., Hours M., Bergeret A.
Review of occupational hazards from waste disposal in the health care sector
Revue sur les risques professionnels liés à l'élimination des déchets d'activité de soins [in French]
This literature survey reports on the current situation with respect to occupational hazards among workers involved in waste disposal in the health care sector. Biological hazards are the most important. In the early stages of waste disposal, blood exposure accidents are associated with the risk of infection with hepatitis or human immunodeficiency viruses. Other infectious diseases such as tuberculosis have been reported among workers involved in medical laboratory waste disposal. In health care establishments, chemical and radioactive wastes need to be managed by specialized and well-identified waste disposal systems. However, it appears that these systems are not always operational. Risks related to handling are important and are not always well controlled. Road transport risks have received little attention, but should not be overlooked given their potential seriousness.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2003, Vol.64, No.2, p.100-105. 32 ref.

CIS 03-1760 Kumagai S., Koda S., Oda H.
Exposure evaluation of dioxins in municipal waste incinerator workers
In Japan, the largest source of dioxin is solid waste incineration plants. Workers employed at these plants handle fly ash and slag contaminated by dioxins and can absorb dioxins into the body during work, with possible adverse health effects. This study examines dioxin exposures, daily dioxin intake and blood dioxin level in workers employed at municipal incineration plants. Estimated dioxin exposures were 0.5 to 7.2pg TEQ/m3 (TEQ=toxicity equivalents) in daily operations and 0.2 to 92,000pg TEQ/m3 in periodic maintenance. It was also found that the daily dioxin intake can exceed the tolerable daily intake limit values in incineration plants with fly ash of high dioxin concentration. The mean blood dioxin concentration was 346pg TEQ/g lipid in the highest exposed worker group of the Toyono-gun incineration plant and 11 to 40pg TEQ/g lipid in the other incineration plants.
Industrial Health, July 2003, Vol.41, No.3, p.167-174. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 03-1880 Radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in the oil and gas industry
This safety report documents the practical radiation protection and radioactive waste safety measures that are taken in the oil and gas industry in order to implement the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and the guidance provided in various safety guides. It also includes detailed information on training and supervision, radiation monitoring, decontamination methods and radioactive waste characterization. It is aimed at regulatory bodies, oil and gas field operators and service companies, workers and their representatives, health, safety and environmental protection professionals, and health and safety training officers.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2003. 130p. Illus. 104 ref. Price of print edition: EUR 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 03-1919 Swan J.R.M., Kelsey A., Crook B., Gilbert E.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational and environmental exposure to bioaerosols from composts and potential health effects - A critical review of published data
The primary objective of this study was to critically review published literature related to airborne microorganisms or their constituent parts (bioaerosols) associated with organic waste composting facilities, and to establish whether there is a risk to worker health from the inhalation of these bioaerosols. The review aimed to identify the personnel at risk on compost sites, identify the circumstances, which increased the risk and indicate suitable control measures to limit the risk. A further aspect consisted of evaluating whether the airborne dispersal of bioaerosols from compost facilities could affect neighbouring facilities or residents, leading to health concerns. The review also looked at evidence of bioaerosol dissemination from sites, potential exposures and reported ill health.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 106p. Illus. 214 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1335
Ministério do Meio Ambiente
Brazilian chemicals management profile 2003
Perfil nacional da gestão de substâncias químicas [in Portuguese]
Perfil nacional de la gestión de substancias químicas [in Spanish]
One of the priorities of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (FISQ) is that each country prepare a national profile for evaluating the capability to manage chemicals at the country level. The Brazilian Commission for chemical safety (CONASQ) has prepared this document which consists of an evaluation of Brazilian infrastructure for the management of chemicals. Contents: the Brazilian information context; production, exports, imports and consumption of products; priority areas of concern with respect to the production, sale and use of chemicals; legal provisions; ministries, commissions and other competent bodies; access to data and databases; technical infrastructure; Brazil in the international chemical safety context; awareness and understanding on the part of workers and the general public. The pack includes a CD-ROM containing various documents in PDF format, in three languages (Portuguese, English and Spanish), in particular the complete profile, as well as two trilingual brochures, one containing the executive summary, the other with information sheets on the institutions that are members of CONASQ.
Comissão Nacional de Segurança Química (CONASQ), Brazil, 2003. English version: 264p. Illus.; Kit containing 1 CD-ROM; 45p. Illus. (Executive summary); 97p. Illus. (Fact sheets). [in Portuguese] [in Spanish] [in English]

CIS 03-1295 Peltier A., Elcabache J.M.
Used battery waste processing: A study in specialized undertakings
Traitement des déchets des piles et accumulateurs usagés - Enquête dans des entreprises spécialisées [in French]
Occupational exposures of 380 workers in fifteen enterprises specialized in the recycling of electrochemical batteries was evaluated. The survey shows that there is a high risk of lead exposure during the shredding and melting of lead batteries, a potential risk of mercury poisoning during pyrometallurgical processing, and that during the treatment of Ni-Cd batteries, air purification is not effective. The constant wearing of air purifying respirators is a measure that must remain temporary. Cadmium smoke and dust emissions need to be captured at the source. Appendices include schedules of occupational diseases caused by lead, mercury, cadmium and their compounds.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.192, p.5-19. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1240 Lavoie J., Guertin S., Verdon C.
Taking occupational safety and health considerations into account in the layout redesign of a recyclable waste separation centre
Intégration de la santé et de la sécurité du travail lors de la conception du réaménagement d'un centre de tri de matières recyclables [in French]
Centres for the separation and recovery of household waste are sources of chemical, physical, biological and ergonomic health hazards, as well as safety hazards for the workers. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors to take into account for the design and layout of new centres, as well as for the diagnosis of the current safety and health hazards in existing centres. The study involved interviews of centre managers, workplace sampling and analysis, and job observations. Recommendations included storing the waste outside the premises, installing closures at each material feed hopper, increasing lighting intensity, installing a mechanical recovery system for plastic films, installing booster cushions at the workplaces and installing deflectors or favouring work face-to-face.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. 34p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. [in French]

CIS 03-1292 Maître A., Collot-Fertey D., Anzivino L., Marques M., Hours M., Stoklov M.
Municipal waste incinerators: Air and biological monitoring of workers for exposure to particles, metals and organic compounds
In order to evaluate occupational exposure to toxic pollutants at municipal waste incinerators (MWIs), 29 male subjects working near the furnaces in two MWIs and 17 subjects not occupationally exposed to combustion-generated pollutants were studied. Individual air samples were taken throughout the shift, and urine samples were collected before and after. Stationary air samples were taken near potential sources of emission. It was found that atmospheric exposure levels to particles and metals were 10-100 times higher in MWls than at the control site. However, occupational exposure did not result in the infringement of any occupational threshold limit value. The main exposure sources were cleaning operations for particles, and residue transfer and disposal operations for metals. MWI workers were not exposed to higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons than workers who are routinely in contact with vehicle exhaust. The air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes were low and did not appear to pose any significant threat to human health.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2003, Vol.60, No.8, p.563-569. 33 ref.

CIS 03-379
Health and Safety Executive
Safe collection of woodwaste: Prevention of fire and explosion
This information note provides practical guidance to manufacturers, suppliers and users of woodwaste collection systems on the reduction of fire and explosion risks. Contents: hazards of wood dust; explosibility of woodwaste; sources of ignition; types of collection systems; design of ductwork; precautions for collection units where a dust explosion risk exists; sizing of explosion relief; design of explosion vents; ducting of vents to the open air; firefighting. Reprinted with updated references (replaces CIS 97-1313).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2003. 4p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1534
Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
Official Mexican Standard - Environmental Protection - Environmental Health - Dangerous Biologically Infectious Residues - Classification and Specifications for Handling [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana - Protección ambiental - Salud ambiental - Residuos peligrosos biológico-infecciosos - Clasificación y especificaciones de manejo [in Spanish]
This standard was emitted in accordance with the provisions of the General law on ecological balance and environmental protection. Contents: definitions and terminology; classification of biologically dangerous infectious residues; classification of establishments generating biologically dangerous infectious residues; handling of such residues. The previous standard on the same subject (NOM-087-ECOL-1995) is repealed.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 17 Feb. 2003, Vol.DXCIII, No.10, p.10-20. Illus. 42 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 03-1294 Garg R.K., Sahu A.K.
Integrated hazardous waste management facility in TTC industrial area
This article describes a common hazardous waste management facility presently under construction in an industrial area near Mumbai, India. The facility is owned by an association of industries formed for this purpose, and is partly funded by several government bodies. It will initially handle approximately 10,000 tons of hazardous waste per year. Some of the general problems concerning hazardous waste disposal in India are discussed.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.XXXIII, No.3, p.96-98.

CIS 03-1293 Raghupathy L.
Hazardous wastes management - Scenario in India
The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989 were promulgated under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 and amended in 2000. The main objective of these regulations was to establish a control mechanism for the generation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and to prevent the import of hazardous waste. This article presents the current situation in India with respect to hazardous waste management. The Indian regulatory framework on recycling and waste disposal is summarized, including rules applicable to bio-medical waste and lead batteries. The Indian perspective concerning the Basel convention on the control of trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal is discussed.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.XXXIII, No.3, p.84-90.

CIS 03-1429 Neumann H.D., Balfanz J., Becker G., Mathys W., Raulf-Heimsoth M.
Risk of exposure to germs among waste collection and waste disposal workers
Gefährdung von Beschäftigten bei der Abfallsammlung und -abfuhr durch Keimexpositionen [in German]
The introduction of waste separation has somewhat modified the working conditions of garbage collectors, in particular with respect to their exposure to bioaerosols. The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of garbage collectors, with a focus on determining whether the level of exposure varied as a function of the type of waste stream, the frequency of removal and seasons, and whether it presented a risk to the workers' health. Exposure to fungi, bacteria and bacterial endotoxins was measured under both real and standardized conditions, and 220 garbage collectors were subjected to medical examinations to determine their state of health. Exposure tests show that garbage collectors are exposed to microbial emissions that are significantly higher than background levels (total moulds 202-204 CFU/m3), but nonetheless lower than the expected values. Driver exposures are much lower than those of workers loading the truck. No correlations were found between the state of health and the exposure to microbial germs, and no significant differences were observed between exposure to organic and inorganic waste.
Ergo-Med, May-June 2002, Vol.26, No.3, p.72-77. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-682
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Recycling - Are we in control?
Recycling - Alles im Griff? [in German]
Proceedings of a conference on safety and health, legal aspects and technologies relating to recycling held at Dortmund, Germany, on 4 and 5 June 2002. Main topics covered: European and German regulations and their implications; design of products with a view to their recyclability; recycling of hazardous materials in automobiles; recycling of automobile textiles; recycling of electronic waste; disassembly of electronic equipment; recycling of bromine in plastics containing brominated flame retardants; analysis of the ecoefficiency of recyclable PET mineral water bottles; plastics recycling; waste composting and fermentation; risks to health from bioaerosols formed in composting units and validity of specific IgGs as exposure markers; particle-counting as an indirect measure of airborne microorganisms in waste treatment plants; exposure to microorganisms in waste collection.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 252p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 20.50.

CIS 03-84
Health and Safety Executive
Waste industry safety and health - Reducing the risk
This booklet produced by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) with the help of the Waste Industry Safety and Health forum is aimed at supervisory staff and provides a checklist of standards to aim at. Contents: prevention of accidents due to vehicle movements (safe site, safe vehicle, safe way of working, safe worker, audible warning); sheeting (automatic sheeting systems, working platforms and gantry/harness systems); machinery guarding; prevention of slips and trips; hygiene measures (personal hygiene, avoiding causing dusts, air extraction, vaccination, medical examination); welfare facilities; manual handling; raising competence to reduce accidents (training programmes for managerial and supervisory staff and employees); personal protective equipment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2002. 23p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-436 Krajewski J.A., Tarkowski S., Cyprowski M., Szarapińska-Kwaszewska J., Dudkewicz B.
Occupational exposure to organic dust associated with municipal waste collection and management
Questionnaire responses showed that workers employed in municipal waste collection regarded noise, dustiness, odour, physical effort and changeable atmospheric conditions as the most strenuous factors. In order to evaluate exposure to organic dust, endotoxins, bacteria and fungi, air samples were collected in the workers' breathing zone. The highest dust concentrations were observed on waste collection and composting sites. Samples collected on the composting site contained the largest amount of endotoxins, followed by sorting facility and waste collection area. Gram-negative rods (primarily intestinal) were found in all samples collected at the different workposts, which justified the adoption of the air concentrations of endotoxins as a criterion for assessing their hygienic conditions. It is concluded that waste collectors and composting site workers are working in poor hygienic conditions.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.3, p.289-301. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 03-332 Sweetman A., Lee R., Jones K.
Health and Safety Executive
Dioxin exposure from work related activities
As part of a study on occupational exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), this report covers air monitoring and personal air sampling using portable equipment. Occupational exposure via inhalation was quantified for a variety of industries including aluminium and copper recycling, waste incineration and landfill operation, and these estimates were compared to dietary intake and the Committee on Toxicity Tolerable (COT) daily intake values. Results show that some workers may be exposed to PCDDs and PCDFs in excess of the COT recommended tolerable daily intake via inhalation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. ii, 7p. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1748 Lavoie J., Guertin S.
Study of biological agents and ergonomic constraints when using trucks with side-lift arms for collecting household waste
Etude des agents biologiques et des contraintes ergonomiques lors de l'utilisation des camions avec bras assisté pour la collecte des ordures domestiques [in French]
One of the ways of limiting the exposure of garbage collectors to bioaerosols consists of using trucks with side-lift arms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the exposure to bioaerosols with this form of garbage collection and to identify the potential ergonomic constraints when using this type of equipment. Personal exposure of garbage collectors to bioaerosols was measured for five different types of collection and under the most extreme conditions, those prevailing in summer. The exposure of workers to airborne bacteria and endotoxins was significantly reduced by using trucks with side-lift arms. The recommended 8h exposure limit of 104CFU/m3 was reached only in the case of mixed wastes. However, even when using trucks with side-lift arms, strict personal hygiene remains one of the most effective means of prevention. In the ergonomic study, the following parameters were taken into consideration: quantities collected; distances driven; number of collection points; incident records and the density of the wastes. It is concluded that certain changes are necessary in the way garbage is collected in order to benefit fully from the advantages offered by trucks with side-lift arms.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. 52p. Illus. 27 ref. [in French]

CIS 02-1403 Keck G.
Toxicity associated with municipal waste and its different treatment methods
Toxicité associée aux déchets ménagers et à leurs filières de traitement [in French]
This article discusses the main aspects of hazards and public health risks due to chemicals associated with various municipal waste treatment methods. Following an overview of incineration, landfill and composting, the main metallic and organic pollutants are discussed, with emphasis on their possible toxicological implications and their concentrations in the various gaseous, liquid or solid waste streams of the waste treatment process. Basic notions of the accumulation of certain pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and cadmium in living organisms and in the food chain, as well as their toxicological consequences, are highlighted.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2rd Quarter 2002, No.135, 13p. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 02-1283 Brasseur G.
Waste treatment - A changing industry
Traitement des déchets - Une industrie en mutation [in French]
According to the provisions of French regulations concerning waste recycling, only inert waste will be accepted in landfills from July 2002 onwards. This will have significant effects on the waste management industry, since it will require the development of whole new recycling and energy recovery processes. Contents of this special feature on the waste management industry: regulatory aspects; figures concerning the volumes of waste generated in France; definition of waste; safety and health in the waste management industry; design of new waste processing plants; description of a new hospital waste treatment unit.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2002, No.617, p.16-27. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 02-517 Law No.72 of 5 April 2002 on waste [Uzbekistan]
Zakon ob othodah [in Russian]
This law provides for safety during waste treatment, and it defines the responsibilities of people and legal entities in connection with waste disposal, storage and transport.
Üzbekiston Respublikasi Olij Mažlisining Ahborotnomasi - Vedomosti Olij Mažlisa Respubliki Uzbekistan, Apr.-May 2002, No.4-5, p.227-237. [in Russian]


CIS 04-676 Solans Lampurlanés X., Alonso Espaladé R.M., Gadea Carrera E.
Composting plants for waste treatment: Hygiene hazards
Plantas de compostaje para el tratamiento de residuos: riesgos higiénicos [in Spanish]
The generation of increasing quantities of municipal solid waste requires suitable waste management approaches. This information note covers the area of composting. It describes the characteristics of composting, together with the health hazards related to exposure to the biological and chemical agents formed during the composting process, and proposes prevention measures aimed at limiting these exposures. Contents: general considerations on composting; various composting systems (open or closed); description of the composting process and the main parameters that need to be considered (temperature, humidity, pH, oxygen, balance of nutrients); effects on health (organic dust toxic syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic alveolitis, invasive aspergillosis); evaluation of exposures to chemicals and biological agents; preventive measures (collective and individual protection, work organization, hygiene measures).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 6p. 13 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1972 Schibye B., Hansen A.F., Søgaard K., Christensen H.
Aerobic power and muscle strength among young and elderly workers with and without physically demanding work tasks
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of waste collection on the physical capacity of the workers. A total of 19 young and 28 elderly waste collectors and two age-matched control groups participated. Aerobic power was lower among the elderly workers compared with the young workers of both groups. No differences were found between waste collectors and control groups. A general tendency to larger muscle strength was found for both young and elderly waste collectors compared with the control groups, which is an indication of an early selection of the young waste collectors. With respect to the elderly waste collectors, the job seems to have a training effect especially for the shoulder muscles. No training effect is found for the aerobic power, and a discrepancy between work demand and individual aerobic capacity may occur among elderly workers resulting in a negative health effect unless the work task is evaluated according to age-dependent criteria.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2001, Vol.32, No.5, p.425-431. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1740 Slatin C.
Health and safety organizing: OCAW's worker-to-worker health and safety training program
The Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW) developed a hazardous waste worker and hazardous materials emergency responder health and safety training programme that was specific to its members in the represented industries. The objective of the programme is to develop worker-trainers to conduct the training using the Small-Group Activity Method, to participate in curriculum development, and ultimately to use health and safety training as a vehicle for identifying, developing, and mobilizing health and safety activists among the membership.
New Solutions, 2001, Vol.11, No.4, p.349-374. 32 ref.

CIS 02-1042 Hazardous Substances (Disposal) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]
These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe the requirements for the safe disposal of particular dangerous substances and for the provision of information in connection with such disposal.
Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.956-969. [in English]

CIS 02-1345 Priha E., Ahonen I., Oksa P.
Control of chemical risks during the treatment of soil contaminated with chlorophenol, creosote and copper-chrome-arsenic-wood preservatives
Exposure to chemicals was studied during the remediation of four polluted sites: a sawmill contaminated with chlorophenols, polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), a wood impregnating plant contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), an old gas works area contaminated with PAH, and a wood impregnation plant contaminated with copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) preservative. Air monitoring showed that the exposure levels were generally well below the current occupational exposure limits. However, the recommended daily intake value for PCDD/F was exceeded. Chlorophenol exposure was generally low. Exposure to volatile PAH was 0.038-0.884mg/m3 and that to particulate PAH was 0.004-0.183mg/m3. The biomonitoring results (urinary 1-pyrenol) suggested that some exposure occurs, probably through the contamination of hands or skin absorption. Exposure limits were not exceeded at the site contaminated with CCA. More attention should be given to skin protection.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.402-409. 30 ref.

CIS 02-1358 Héry M., Mouton C., Maison A., Falcy M.
Remediation of polluted sites: Prevention of occupational hazards
Réhabilitation des sites pollués: prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
During polluted site remediation, workers may be faced with many different hazards. Construction work, in particular involving earthmoving equipment, can give rise to collapse and burying accidents. The presence of chemicals can result in poisonings, fires and explosions. Machinery may emit noise and vibrations. This article describes a methodological approach for a systematic organization of polluted site remediation, based on a meticulous analysis of hazards. An appendix includes examples of preventive measures adopted for the removal of drums stored in a disused manufacturing plant, the demolition of a caustic-chlorine electrolysis plant and the remediation of solvent-polluted soil.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.87, p.291-320. 7 ref.

CIS 02-1457 Neumann H.D., Mathys W., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Becker G., Balfanz J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Risks of microbial exposure to employees during the collection and transport of garbage
Gefährdung von Beschäftigten bei der Abfallsammlung und -abfuhr durch Keimexpositionen [in German]
The objective of this project was to assess the impact of separate garbage collection and handling on garbage collectors. The exposure to fungal spores, bacteria and endotoxins was determined during waste collection. The state of health of garbage collectors exposed and unexposed to organic waste was assessed by occupational health physicians. It was found that garbage collectors are generally exposed to relatively high levels of microbial emissions. However, only a small number of cases of ill health was found, and a relation between exposure and health status could not be established. Furthermore, there was no indication that the collection of organic waste involved higher health risks for garbage collectors. Several recommendations are made for reducing exposure. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 243p. Illus. 77 ref. Price: EUR 22.50.

CIS 02-1456 Becker G., Lohmeyer M., Mathys W., Neumann H.D.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Methods for reducing the release of microorganisms during lifting processes by refuse collection vehicles
Methoden zur Minderung der Keimfreisetzung bei Schüttvorgängen an Abfallsammelfahrzeugen [in German]
The objective of this study was to evaluate garbage truck designs and methods of work aimed at reducing the exposure of garbage collectors to microorganisms. Breathing air was analysed for bioaerosols. Vehicle design parameters studied included the type of compaction system (packer plates or rotating drums), rave rail height, intake hopper depth, body design and closure system (curtain or hinged lid). A prototype suction-type aerosol interceptor was evaluated with inconclusive results, requiring further development work. Several truck design factors and lifting device types resulted in reduced levels of microbial emission. The importance of regular high-pressure water-jet cleaning of the lifting device at fortnightly intervals in stressed. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 131p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.

CIS 01-1730
Mine Health and Safety Inspectorate
Guideline for the compilation of a mandatory code of practice on mine residue deposits
Mine residue deposits (MRDs) constitute a potential pollution and flow failure hazard, with possible health hazards, injury or loss of life. The South African Mines Health and Safety Act (MHSA) requires employers to prepare and implement a code of practice (COP) on any matter affecting the safety and health of employees. These COPs must comply with official guidelines. This document has been compiled to assist employers in the mining industry prepare a COP covering site selection, design, construction, operation, maintenance, modification and decommissioning of MRDs.
Department of Minerals and Energy, Private Bag X 59, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 2001. 23p. 9 ref.


CIS 05-698 Rasilainen K., Suolanen V., Vuori S.
Disposal of nuclear fuel - Basic risk evaluation
Käytetyn ydinpolttoaineen huolto: Turvallisuuden arvioinnin perusteet [in Finnish]
The Finnish experience in the transporting and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear reactors.
Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus (VTT), Vuorimiehentie 5, PL 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2000. 57p. Illus. 52 ref. Price: EUR 35.00. [in Finnish]

CIS 02-1723 Betsinger G., Brosseau L.M., Golden J.
Occupational health and safety in household hazardous waste management facilities
The purpose of this study was to evaluate chemical and physical hazards at a representative group of hazardous waste management facilities. Sampling results suggest that chemical exposures are generally not a problem when chemical bulking is performed outside the facility. For facilities operating year-round, however, proper ventilation is necessary to ensure adequate control of chemical exposures when bulking is done inside the building. The most significant chemical exposures occurred when handling paint (benzene) and broken fluorescent light bulbs (mercury). Guidelines for appropriate personal protective equipment and handling of broken fluorescent light bulbs were developed as a result of this study. Materials handling was the most significant physical hazard, resulting in wrist, elbow, and back injuries. The suspected reasons for these injuries are awkward postures and repetitive motions, and should be further investigated.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.575-583. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 02-430 Benbirk E., Tiberguent A., Dômont A.
Comparative study of the HAV seroprevalence among water purification station workers, sewage workers and administration workers
Enquête comparative de séro-prévalence de l'hépatite A entre les professionnels d'une station d'épuration, de l'assainissement et administratifs [in French]
An HAV seroprevalence study was conducted among 390 water-purification station workers, 201 sewage workers, and 643 non-occupationally exposed administrative workers. All workers were male, with similar age and socio-educational characteristics. After correcting for age, the rate of hepatitis A seroconversion for all populations was about 69%. Occupational exposure to sludge and sewage were the most important transmission risk factors for hepatitis A. Water-purification station workers exposed to soiled earth polluted with sludge were subject to major risk of hepatitis A transmission with an odds ratio of 1.85. For sewage workers, contact with floating corpses appeared to be an increasing occupational risk for hepatitis A, with an odds ratio of 1.59. A multivariate analysis was also performed to determine the characteristics of the exposed groups and evidence certain patterns of hepatitis A exposure. Vaccination against hepatitis A appears to be the best way to fight against this biological risk, although hygiene and safety measures must not be overlooked.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.7-28. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 02-276 Leoni V., Petyx M., Rossini A., Urso M., Materazzo F., Ensabella F., Vitali M., Fabiani L., Giuliani A.R., Testa A., Ranaldi R., De Marco A., Owczarek M., De Simone L., Guidotti M., Serva M.
Occupational and environmental risks related to activities of diagnostic laboratories and their prevention. Cytogenetic and environmental mutagenicity tests
Rischio e prevenzione occupazionale e ambientale correlato [sic] alle attività dei laboratori diagnostici. Test citogenetici e di mutagenesi ambientale [in Italian]
A report on a survey to gather information on types, numbers and techniques of diagnostic analysis and on the collection of waste products in two Italian hospitals. Cytogenetic tests were carried out on 50 exposed workers in the laboratories of these hospitals and on 50 controls. Altogether approximately 150 diagnostic techniques were recorded, together with about 300 reagents used in these procedures and classified according their toxicity and risk potential. Mutagenicity and cytogenicity tests were also carried out for the same substances. Of the reagents recorded, 40% can produce burns, 28% are toxic by inhalation or ingestion, 12% are flammable and 4% are carcinogenic. Among the waste products, the most harmful were those coming from microbiological and enzyme tests. Cytogenetic tests proved their usefulness as aspecific indicators of increased risk of harmful exposures. As useful outcomes of the study, the preparation of two questionnaires should also be noted: one on the analytical methods and substances used and the wastes produced by laboratories, the other on the identification of exposed and non-exposed subjects for epidemiological surveys.
Prevenzione oggi, 2000, Vol.12, No.4, p.35-112. Illus. Bibl. ref.

CIS 01-1550 Kuijer P., Frings-Dresen M., de Looze M., Visser B., van der Beek A.
Work situation and physical workload of refuse collectors in three different time periods
Working conditions and health effects of garbage collectors in the city of Haarlem, The Netherlands, were studied at work, through a laboratory simulation experiment and with the help of a questionnaire. The findings were compared to those of an earlier study conducted in Haarlem in 1985, and to a national study conducted in The Netherlands in 1993. On several important parameters, such as the time carrying garbage bags or pushing containers, the amount of refuse collected and the physical workload during a working day, the results did not differ from those of earlier studies. However, the working postures and the perceived exertion of the refuse collectors in Haarlem in 1997 were more favourable than those of the refuse collectors in the national study. Proposed measures to improve working conditions and to reduce physical workload include task rotation, effective work-rest schedules and the redesign of two-wheeled containers.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 2000, Vol.26, No.5, p.509-519. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 01-1534 Douwes J., Wouters I., Dubbeld H., van Zwieten L., Steerenberg P., Doekes G., Heederik D.
Upper airway inflammation assessed by nasal lavage in compost workers: A relation with bio-aerosol exposure
Exposure to microbial agents in the composting industry may cause work-related airway inflammation. Nasal lavage (NAL) has been proposed as a noninvasive method to assess such effects in population studies. Pre- and post-shift NAL were performed in the workers of a compost plant and in controls. Total cells, cytokines and other inflammation markers were measured in NAL fluid, and pre-shift levels and post/pre concentration ratios were compared with NAL results obtained in the controls. Job-title specific exposure levels ranged from 29 to 527EU/m3 for endotoxin and from 0.36 to 4.85µg/m3 for β(1,3)-glucan. Pre-shift NAL concentrations of total cells, myeloperoxydase, interleukin-8, NO and albumin and post/pre ratios for various markers were significantly higher in compost workers than in controls. NAL cells were mainly neutrophils. It is concluded that occupational exposure of compost workers may cause acute or chronic reactions in the upper airways induced by inflamatory agents such as endotoxins and β(1,3)-glucan.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2000, Vol.37, No.5, p.459-468. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 01-1237 Johnson K.R., Braden C.R., Cairns K.L., Field K.W., Colombel A.C., Yang Z., Woodley C.L., Morlock G.P., Weber A.M., Boudreau A.Y., Bell T.A., Onorato I.M., Valway S.E., Stehr-Green P.A., Sepkowitz K.A.
Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from medical waste; Further adventures of the tubercle bacillus
Three cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were reported among workers at a medical waste treatment facility in 1997. The facility accepted contaminated medical waste where it was shredded, blown, compacted and finally deactivated. There was no previous documentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission as a result of processing medical waste. The three patient-workers' isolates had different DNA fingerprints. One worker had a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Equipment failures, insufficient employee training and respiratory protective equipment inadequacies were identified at the facility. It is concluded that the processing of contaminated medical waste resulted in transmission of M. tuberculosis to at least one medical waste treatment facility worker. The issue of the journal also contains an editorial article (by Sepkowitz K.A.) on the worldwide resurgence of TB.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct. 2000, Vol.284, No.13, p.1683-1688; p.1701-1702. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 00-495 Stirba U., Kowalski U., Schlottmann U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
National profile - Chemicals management in Germany
This publication provides an overview of chemicals management in Germany. Contents: basic background information; production, export, import and use of chemicals; special environmental problems; statutory regulations and voluntary agreements; procedures for chemical management and ministries and authorities involved; NGOs; cooperation between federal and regional authorities; data warehouses and databases; technical infrastructure (GLP, good professional practice); international cooperation.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Bürgermeister-Smidt-Str. 74-46, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2000. 105p. Illus. 16 ref. + Diskette.


CIS 01-1806 Blondet M., Boitel L., Dupery M., Durand C., Pommier J.L., Rat de Cocquard M., Raymond F., Taupin J.P.
Study of the daily level of exposure to noise for workers in four occupations: Plastics processing; woodworking in woodworking shops; selling hi-fi, video and audio equipment; municipal waste collection
Etude du niveau d'exposition sonore quotidienne des salariés dans quatre activités: travaux de plasturgie; travaux sur machines à bois en atelier; vente de matériels Hi Fi, vidéo, son; collecte des ordures ménagères (ripeur-éboueur) [in French]
The objective of this study was to measure, over a one-year period, the daily levels of exposure to noise and the peak acoustic pressures in four types of occupations: plastics processing, working on machines in woodworking shops, selling hi-fi, video and audio equipment and collecting municipal waste. After describing the methodology used, the results obtained for each occupation are presented. Workers in plastics processing and woodworking are exposed to levels higher than regulatory thresholds. Technical prevention measures and audiometric surveillance need to be implemented. The exposure of municipal waste collectors is very close to danger levels, requiring the introduction of prevention policies and compensation for this occupation. As far as hi-fi, video and audio salespersons are concerned, 55% are subjected to levels in excess of peak values (135dB) and are consequently exposed to harmful levels; however, the interpretation of these results is complex, and further work is required.
Centre Interservices de Santé et de Médecine du travail en Entreprise (CISME), 10 rue de la Rosière, 75015 Paris, France, 1999. 143p. Illus. 21 ref.

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