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Domestic workers - 84 entries found

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CIS 11-0616 Who ensures the safety of domestic help services workers?
Qui assure la sécurité des prestataires de titres-services? [in French]
This article explains the responsibilities of enterprises that supply domestic help workers in Belgium. It presents the policy adopted by a social services supplier and includes a table summarizing the main hazards faced by these workers, mostly women.
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2011, p.14-17. Illus.


CIS 11-0207 Ahonen E.Q., López-Jacob M.J., Vázquez M.L., Porthé V., Gil-González D., García A.M., Ruiz-Frutos C., Benach J., Benavides F.G.
Invisible work, unseen hazards: The health of women immigrant household service workers in Spain
This study examines the occupational hazards and health effects identified by immigrant women household service workers. It involved 46 documented and undocumented immigrant women in household services in Spain. Data were collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews. In a second phase of analysis, data on psychosocial hazards were organized using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire as a guide. Participants reported a number of environmental, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards and corresponding health effects. Psychosocial hazards were especially strongly present in data. Data on reported hazards were similar by documentation status and varied by several emerging categories: whether participants were primarily cleaners or household helpers and whether they lived in or outside of the homes of their employers. Documentation status was relevant in terms of empowerment and bargaining, but did not appear to influence work tasks or exposure to hazards directly. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.405-416. 48 ref.


CIS 11-0638 Özer Sarı F.
Effects of employee trainings on the occupational safety and health in accommodation sector
Organizing employee training and maintaining occupational safety and health (OSH) are among the main functions of enterprise human resources departments. These two functions interact and serve the aim of protecting employees' physical, psychological and social health. This article discusses the effects of employee training on OSH among salaried housekeepers of residential buildings in Turkey.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2009, Vol.1, p.1865-1870. 6 ref.
Effects_of_employee_trainings.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0152 Domestic work - Decent work - A "smart guide" for domestic workers in Thailand
Aimed at migrant workers employed as domestic servants in Thailand, this booklet summarizes their rights and the precautions to be taken to ensure that they work under decent conditions. Also available in Burmese, in Po Karen, Sakaw Karen, Shan and Thai.
ILO Sub-regional Office for East Asia, 10th Floor, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 2009. 24p. Illus.
Domestic_work.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0374 Nielsen K., Albertsen K., Brenner S.O., Smith-Hansen L.
Comparing working conditions and physical and psychological health complaints in four occupational groups working in female-dominated workplaces
This article examines the associations between psychosocial factors and physical and psychological health complaints while at the same time taking into account differences between occupational groups in female-dominated professions. Four female-dominated occupational groups were included: nurses, health care assistants, cleaners and dairy industry workers. The relationships between influence, emotional and quantitative demands, social support, back pain, and behavioural stress were examined using structural equation modelling. The study confirmed the importance of differentiating between female-dominated occupations rather than talking about women's working conditions as such. The study also emphasized the importance of considering psychosocial risk factors when examining physical health, in this case back pain.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2009, Vol.92, No.10, p.1229-1239. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 09-1018 Leigh J.P., Du J.
Hypertension and occupation among seniors
Little is known about associations between occupation and hypertension for persons more than age 65. This study analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Survey for 3645 men and 3644 women. Hypertension was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Logistic regressions controlled for demographic variables and risk factors including education, race, income, smoking, drinking and body mass. Occupations significantly likely to report hypertension among women were professionals, salespersons, private household cleaning service workers and personal service workers. Among men, these included salespersons, personal service workers, mechanics, construction workers, precision production workers and machine operators.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.661-671. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-885 Xu X., Yang R., Wu N, Zhong P., Ke Y., Zhou L., Yuan J., Li G., Huang H, Wu B.
Severe hypersensitivity dermatitis and liver dysfunction induced by occupational exposure to trichloroethylene
This study examines trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced dermatitis in 21 patients and investigates their occupational exposure as well as their clinical features. TCE concentrations in the workplace air were also monitored. Additionally, the symptoms, signs and laboratory test results of patients were collected. TCE concentrations in the cleaning agent used in the industries in which the patients worked varied from 10.2% to 91.4% by gas chromatography-mass chromatography analysis, and TCE levels in the workplace air ranged between 18 and 683 mg/m3. Most patients had symptoms such as headache (90.5%), dizziness (100%), skin itch (100%), fever (61.9%), skin erythema (85.7%) and rashes (90.5%). In addition, liver enlargement occurred in 3 patients; the abnormal rate of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin were 90.5%, 85.7% and 76.2%, respectively. Taken together, the major detrimental effect of trichloroethylene was to induce hypersensitivity dermatitis and liver dysfunction, the occurrence of this disorder being most likely related to the individual hypersensitivity to TCE exposure.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.107-112. Illus. 33 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-614 Decent work for domestic workers
Travail décent pour les travailleurs domestiques [in French]
Trabajo decente para los trabajadores domésticos [in Spanish]
At its 301st Session (March 2008), the ILO Governing Body agreed to place an item on decent work for domestic workers on the agenda of the 99th Session of the International Labour Conference (2010) with a view to the setting of labour standards. This report was prepared to serve as discussion material for the Conference. Topics addressed: specificity of domestic work and decent work challenge; existing ILO standards; definition of domestic work; working conditions; social protection law and practice; combating forced labour in migrant domestic work; enforcement of labour laws; collective organization of domestic workers; ILO and other international initiatives; towards international standards on decent work for domestic workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. vi, 130p. Illus. Price: CHF 20.00. [in Spanish] [in English] [in French]


CIS 09-358 Neira M., Ngowi A.V.F., Bello B., Wilson K., Kielkowski D., Vekinis D., Kiwekete H.M., El Tehewy M., Habil I., Samy N., Lehtinen S., Kortum E., Leka S., Dartey E., Bye S.
Women and work
Contents of this full issue on women at work and other occupational safety and health issues of relevance to African countries: women's work in agriculture in Tanzania; reproductive health and work life in South Africa; women and psychological hazards they face at work, and the plight of immigrant female domestic workers of African origin; baseline survey for developing a chemical safety programme in a hospital in Egypt; East African regional programme on occupational safety and health; developing a European framework for psychosocial risk management with a view to global application; extreme exposure to airborne lead in small industrial enterprises in Ghana; implementing the WHO Global Plan of Action on workers' health.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2008, Vol.18, No.3, p.47-63 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 09-381 Cleaning sector
Secteur du nettoyage [in French]
Schoonmaaksector [in Dutch]
This folder consists of the guide for the participative identification of hazards (Dépistage participatif des risques, Déparis) adapted to the cleaning sector. It contains the following documents: booklet presenting the SOBANE (screening, observation, analysis and expertise) strategy; leaflet inviting participants to attend a Déparis meeting; Déparis participative guide applied to the cleaning sector containing 17 tables addressing various aspects of the job.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2008. Folder containing several booklets and leaflets. Illus. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 09-374 Home care
Aide à domicile [in French]
Thuiszorg [in Dutch]
This folder consists of the guide for the participative identification of hazards (Dépistage participatif des risques, Déparis) adapted to the home care sector. It contains the following documents: booklet presenting the SOBANE (screening, observation, analysis and expertise) strategy; leaflet inviting participants to attend a Déparis meeting; Déparis participative guide applied to the home care sector containing 11 tables addressing various aspects of the job; companion checklist to the Déparis guide enabling the identification of specific hazards faced in the homes of persons benefiting from home care; leaflet presenting the PROXIMA project on conditions of work in the home care sector.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2008. Folder containing several booklets and leaflets. Illus. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 09-100 Ide C.
Clean forgotten
Cleaning is generally regarded as a task carried out by women. In the United Kingdom, 84% of the 537,000 employed in cleaning are female and, about 70% work part-time. This article reviews the hazards and risks faced by cleaners, and outlines the need for proper training, maintenance of equipment and appropriate, comfortable clothing.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 2008, Vol.26, No.5, p.55-58. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 09-34 Radon K., Gerhardinger U., Schulze A., Zock J.P., Norback D., Toren K., Jarvis D., Held L., Heinrich J., Leynaert B., Nowak D., Kogevinas M.
Occupation and adult onset of rhinitis in the general population
The objective of this prospective study was to analyse the association between occupational exposure and adult onset of rhinitis. The data of 4994 participants in European Community Respiratory Health Survey who were symptom-free at baseline were analysed. The baseline study took place in 1991-1995 and the follow-up in 1998-2003. Data were collected by means of interviews. Occurrence of rhinitis was based on self-reports of participants, and occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of their job title. The incidence of allergic rhinitis, perennial rhinitis and both conditions was 12%, 11% and 3%, respectively. Compared to office workers, male medical professionals were at increased risk of new onset of allergic rhinitis (odds ratio OR 3.0). Risks were reduced in metal workers not involved in metal making or treating (OR 0.3). For perennial rhinitis ORs were significantly increased in cleaners (OR 1.4). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.65, No.1, p.38-43. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 08-827 Hossain A., McDuffie H.H., Bickis M.G., Pahwa P.
Case-control study on occupational risk factors for soft-tissue sarcoma
The main objective of this study was to investigate potential association between the incidence of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures related to agriculture in Canada. A population-based case-control study of STS was conducted among Canadian men stratified by province of residence and age group. Data were subjected to multivariate statistical evaluation. The following occupations or sectors of activity were positively associated with the incidence of STS: machinist, chicken farming, pulp and paper industry and apartment complex worker. Mixed farming and exposure to chlorine were negatively associated with STS. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.49, No.12, p.1386-1393. 31 ref.

CIS 08-265
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing contact dermatitis at work
Aimed at workers, this leaflet explains that contact dermatitis can be caused by contact with a wide range of substances including detergents, toiletries, chemicals and even some natural products. While it can concern all parts of the body, the hands are most commonly affected. Contents: definition and description of contact dermatitis; high risk-jobs and workplaces (health care personnel, hairdressers, printers, cleaners, metal workers); prevention (substitution, automation, enclosure, protective gloves); legal aspects (compliance with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023). Replaces CIS 06-6.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2007. 6p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-119 Brasseur G.
Domestic help - An area that needs to become more professional
Aide à domicile - Un monde en quête de professionnalisation [in French]
Contents of this collection of articles on domestic helpers: hour-by-hour account of the tasks carried out during a day's work of a social services domestic helper; key employment statistics of the sector; identification and prevention of occupational hazards (fatigue, lifting of heavy loads, musculoskeletal diseases, skin diseases, commuting accidents); legal aspects; organization of a regional domestic help service which includes a committee for occupational hygiene, safety and working conditions; interview of the head of an agency; prevention of occupational stress.
Travail et sécurité, June 2007, No.674, p.20-31. Illus.$File/TS674page20.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 08-121 Kines P., Hannerz H., Mikkelsen K.L., Tüchsen F.
Industrial sectors with high risk of women's hospital-treated injuries
Women's occupational injury rates are converging with those of men. In this study, the associations between working womens' hospital treated injury rates, industrial sector and injured body area were analyzed to provide better-focused injury prevention of women's hazardous jobs. Women's standardized hospital treatment ratios (SHR) and the excess fraction for five body regions (head/neck, thorax, back, upper and lower extremities) were calculated for 58 industrial sectors in Denmark for 1999-2003. Five industrial sectors had significantly high SHRs for all body regions. These were: cleaning, laundries and dry cleaning; transport of passengers; hotels and restaurants; hospitals; transport of goods.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.50, No.1, p.13-21. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 07-1348 Wu T.C., Liu C.W., Lu M.C.
Safety climate in university and college laboratories: Impact of organizational and individual factors
Various earlier studies have suggested that safety climate surveys may be useful for measuring the effectiveness and improvement direction of safety programs. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of organizational and individual factors on safety climate in university laboratories. Employees exposed to laboratory work (faculty staff, laboratory assistants, janitors) at 100 universities in Taiwan were mailed a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate analysis revealed that the type of university (public or private), presence or otherwise of a safety manager and safety committee, gender, age, title, accident experience and safety training significantly affected the perception of safety climate.
Journal of Safety Research, 2007, Vol.38, No.1, p.91-102. Illus. 44 ref.


CIS 08-1478 Gamperiene M., Nygård J.F., Sandanger I., Wærsted M., Bruusgaard D.
The impact of psychosocial and organizational working conditions on the mental health of female cleaning personnel in Norway
This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff from seven cleaning organizations in various locations across the country. The response rate was 64%. The questionnaires assessed socio-demographic information, employment history, work organization and psychosocial working conditions. Mental health was assessed using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25). The proportion of cleaning women scoring a HSCL-25 ≥1.75 was 17.5%, which is higher than the prevalence of mental health problems among all working Norwegian women (8.4%). Quality of supervision, collaboration with co-workers and ethnicity were significantly associated with mental health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2006, Vol.1, No.24, 10p. 55 ref.

CIS 08-13 Leiva D., Panigadi C., Limonti G.
Guide to safe maintenance and cleaning work
Guía para el trabajo seguro en maestranza [in Spanish]
Aimed at workers carrying out maintenance an cleaning tasks, this guide presents a number of practical occupational safety and health recommendations grouped under three headings: hygiene and safety aspects; health hazards; legislation, procedures for the notification of accidents and labour-management agreements.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2006. 50p. Illus.

CIS 08-135 Working as a home care worker
Travailler comme aide familiale à domicile [in French]
Werken in de gezinszorg [in Dutch]
This booklet presents the main findings of a comprehensive survey aimed at understanding the home care sector in Belgium from the standpoint of working conditions, the general policies of home care services and their organization. Some fifteen home care workers were observed during their work. Round tables and workshops were subsequently held on the daily problems faced by these workers and the possible solutions to be adopted. These efforts led to an inventory of useful tools, a risk management method allowing the implementation of improved occupational safety and health measures, and proposed training programmes for the prevention of backache.
Service public fédéral Emploi, travail et concertation sociale, rue Ernest- Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 2006. 32p. Illus. 5 ref. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 07-1357 Working as a domestic helper
Travailler comme aide familiale à domicile [in French]
Werken in de gezinszorg [in Dutch]
This booklet summarizes the main findings of a detailed survey on domestic help services in Belgium, addressing the issues of the conditions of work, the general policies of these services and their organization. Data obtained by means of questionnaires were completed through interviews of some fifteen domestic helpers. Workshops were also held on daily problems faced by these workers and measures worth implementing. This work enabled the identification of useful tools, the development of a hazard evaluation method allowing the implementation of improved occupational safety and health measures and the designing of training programmes aimed at preventing backache.
Service public fédéral Emploi, travail et concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blériot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 2006. 32p. Illus. 5 ref. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 07-597 Brasseur G.
Chambermaids - Safety and health in hotels
Femmes de chambre - La prévention s'invite dans les hôtels [in French]
This article describes the occupation of hotel chambermaid and examines the efforts undertaken by three Paris hotels to improve the ergonomics and working conditions of these workers. Measures involved the participation of the workers themselves and support from the occupational accident and disease insurance fund for the Ile-de-France region and the French National Occupational Safety and Health Institute (INRS). Improvements include ergonomic layouts of rooms, beds that can be raised by using a pedal, lighter bedding, lighter service carts and vacuum cleaners and the supply of ergonomically-designed cleaning accessories.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2006, No.665, p.18-26. Illus.$File/TS665page19.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 07-482 Arnaudo B., Hamon-Cholet S., Waltisperger D.
Postural and osteoarticular constraints at work
Les contraintes posturales et articulaires au travail [in French]
This article summarizes the main findings concerning postural constraints drawn from the SUMER 2002-2003 survey of all occupational exposures in France. According to the survey, 32% of workers are exposed to physically tiring situations, including frequent walking, prolonged standing postures and repetitive movements carried out at a rapid pace. Twenty-one percent are required to adopt strenuous postures, either kneeling, with arms stretched upwards or with a twisted torso, and 10% are exposed to cervical constraints. In all, one worker in two is subjected to at least one postural constraint that can be considered high. Strenuous postures concern primarily craftsmen and trades workers, but also women employed in retail or in domestic housekeeping. Physically tiring postures concern primarily male workers in industry, while women working in industry are particularly exposed to repetitive movements, and women office workers and managers suffer cervical constraints.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.107, p.329-336. Illus. 7 ref.$File/TF152.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-139 Occupational safety and health in action: Home care workers
La prévention en action. Les aides à domicile [in French]
The purpose of this booklet is to offer guidance for the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards among home care workers. It is aimed at employers as well as at workers and their representatives. It addresses the five steps of the prevention approach: preparation; hazard evaluation; definition of the action plan; implementation of the action plan; evaluation of the approach. Appendices include the main French laws and regulations, together with examples of a hazard evaluation checklist and a preventive action programme.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Sep. 2006. 36p. Illus. [in French]

CIS 06-1478 Woods V., Buckle P.
Musculoskeletal ill health amongst cleaners and recommendations for work organizational change
The findings from an investigation into the musculoskeletal health of cleaners in the United Kingdom are presented. Questionnaire surveys of 1216 cleaners, 130 assessments of cleaning tasks and interviews with 38 cleaners working in various types of premises (hospitals, schools, government agencies, enterprises) were undertaken to identify potential risk factors for musculoskeletal ill health. Based on the findings, recommendations are proposed related to work scheduling, work practices, teamwork, reporting systems for musculoskeletal ill heath, procedures for risk assessment; training programmes, equipment selection and maintenance procedures.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 2006, Vol.36, No.1, p.61-72. 57 ref.

CIS 06-1087 Workplace accident report (Period: January - June 2006)
Analysis of accident reports in 15 daily newspapers revealed that a total of 350 workers were killed in occupational accidents in Bangladesh between January and June 2006. A further 2559 workers were injured. The rate of fatal accidents was highest in the construction industry (97 fatalities), followed by the garment industry (83), domestic work (31) and day labourers (20).
Bangladesh Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Foundation (OSHE), Road 3, House 7 (2nd floor), Dhanmondi, R/A, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh, July 2006. 2p. Illus.


CIS 08-625 Yun G., Poisson V.
Trafficking and exploitation of Chinese immigrants in France
Le trafic et l'exploitation des immigrants chinois en France [in French]
This report presents the findings of a study on human trafficking and forced labour conducted in France, based on the accounts of Chinese migrant workers, institutions and charities. It first describes the research framework, and then examines the migration journey of Chinese migrants (causes for leaving, terms of the passage, migration route, living conditions in the host country). Means of fighting against human trafficking and forced labour are next analyzed. Finally, a collection of observations arte presented. The qualitative approach based on case descriptions allows the taking into account of the human and psychological aspects of migration, which are necessary conditions for approaching the concepts of vulnerability and victimization.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xviii, 142p. Illus. 131 ref. Price: CHF 27.50. [in French]

CIS 06-1351 Rossignol M., Leclerc A., Allaert F.A., Rozenberg S., Valat J.P., Avouac B., Coste P., Litvak E., Hilliquin P.
Primary osteoarthritis of hip, knee, and hand in relation to occupational exposure
A nationwide survey on osteoarthritis of the knee, hip, or hand was conducted in France with the participation of 1394 physicians, who collected data on patients' occupational history. Severity was assessed by means of physician-administered questionnaires. The distribution of osteoarthritis patients by occupation was compared with the distribution of occupations in all workers in France to obtain prevalence rate ratios. Occupations with the greatest prevalence rate ratio were female cleaners (6.2) and clothing industry workers (5.0), male masons and other construction workers (2.9) and all agricultural workers, male and female (2.8). A twofold greater prevalence rate was observed within certain occupations between self-employed and salaried workers. Early onset of osteoarthritis was seen in heavy labour jobs with almost 40% of patients reporting their first symptoms before the age of 50.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2005, Vol.62, No.11, p.772-777. 27 ref.

CIS 06-1370 Zock J.P.
World at work: Cleaners
Cleaning workers form an important proportion of the total working population, particularly among women. This paper reviews some of the most common occupational hazards in cleaning work, and discusses possibilities to improve control and prevention. Topics covered: physical workload and strain; accidents; dermal, respiratory and other effects of chemical products; psychosocial problems; measures to protect workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.62, No.8, p.581-584. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 06-664 Medina-Ramón M., Zock J.P., Kogevinas M., Sunyer J., Torralba Y., Borrell A., Burgos F., Antó J.M.
Asthma, chronic bronchitis, and exposure to irritant agents in occupational domestic cleaning: A nested case-control study
This case-control investigated the relationship between common tasks and products used in domestic cleaning and respiratory morbidity. Subjects included 160 cleaning women with symptoms of asthma and/or chronic bronchitis and 386 without a history of respiratory symptoms. Data on exposures and symptoms were obtained by interview. Lung function, methacholine challenge and serum IgE testing were performed and personal exposure measurements of airborne chlorine and ammonia were performed in a subsample. Results indicated that workers with respiratory symptoms used bleach more frequently than controls. Other independent associations included accidental inhalation of vapours and gases from cleaning agents and washing dishes. It was concluded that asthma symptoms in domestic cleaners are related to the regular use of bleach and possibly other irritant products.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.62, No.9, p.598-606. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 06-606 Safety, health and working conditions of female migrant workers
This CD-Rom provides papers and Powerpoint presentations from the symposium on safety, health and working conditions of female migrant workers, held in New Delhi, India, 27-30 November 2005 as a side event to the IVth International Congress on Women, Work and Health. Topics covered include: issues and needs of foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong; health services, social security, labour protection and empowerment of migrant workers in Sri Lanka; and safety and health of women in the building and construction industry.
International Labour Organization, Subregional Office for Asia, India Habitat Centre, 3rd Floor, Core 4B, Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India, Nov. 2005. CD-ROM.

CIS 06-631 Fransman W., Vermeulen R., Kromhout H.
Dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide in hospitals during preparation, nursing and cleaning activities
This study investigated potential and actual levels of dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP) used in oncology treatment in hospitals. Exposure was assessed during various tasks by the collection of samples from protective gloves and protective clothing and from hand, forearm and forehead skin. Results demonstrated that actual dermal exposure to CP is common among oncology nurses working with patients treated with this drug. Pharmacy technicians and cleaning personnel, on the other hand, are only potentially exposed to CP, and protection provided by gloves appears to be sufficient.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.403-412. Illus. 23 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-329 Yeung S.S.M., Yu I.T.S., Hui K.Y.L.
World at work: Aircraft cabin cleaning
This article describes the occupational health aspects of aircraft cabin cleaning at Hong Kong airport, where the total number of workers employed by the three cleaning contractors is around 1200. This occupation involves specific hazards due in particular to poor ergonomics, the lack of space and tight working schedules. Topics addressed: job tasks; occupational hazards (noise, musculoskeletal disorders, cleaning agents, shift work); measures to protect workers (ergonomic tools, maintenance of equipment, medical supervision).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.62, No.1, p.58-60. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 06-362 Exposures to carcinogens
Les expositions aux produits cancérogènes [in French]
This article summarizes the results of the Sumer 2003 survey of exposure to carcinogenic substances in France. The survey identified 28 carcinogens. Over two million workers were exposed to these substances, primarily male blue-collar workers who were four times more exposed than women. Among women, a large number of exposed workers were employed in health care and in the cleaning and domestic services sectors. During the last ten years, exposures to carcinogens rose slightly, but collective protection measures improved; however, they still remain unavailable to one third of the exposed workers. Eight substances were identified as the most common carcinogens responsible for over two-thirds of exposures.
Premières Informations et Premières Synthèses, July 2005, No.28.1, 10p. Illus. 3 ref. [in French]

CIS 05-564 Abécassis P., Beaumont N., Gomis C., Incorvaïa A.M., Lafon D., Metin P., Michel A., Pitol-Belin E., Revillet S., Seneque B., Bediot G., Ferry P., Gaillard A., Giroud C.
Evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards among home care workers
Evaluation et prévention des risques chez les aides à domicile [in French]
This special feature on the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards among home care workers covers the following topics: profile of the occupation, characteristics of workers and work organization; tasks involved in home care work; potential hazards (mental workload, physical hazards, risk of infection); recommendations for risk reduction. Appendices include two guides for occupational physicians.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.102, p.161-189. 20 ref.$FILE/tc102.pdf [in French]


CIS 06-97 Gallego C., Marciano E.
Prevalence of occupational lung diseases among workers exposed to respiratory risk factors
Prevalencia de enfermedades pulmonares ocupacionales en trabajadores expuestos a riesgo respiratorio [in Spanish]
This study evaluates the prevalence of occupational respiratory diseases in a group of 4529 workers of 241 enterprises based in an industrial suburb of Buenos Aires. 369 workers for whom the medical file indicated lung anomalies were subjected to further examinations. Two control groups were also established. The most frequent exposures involved sensitizers (53%), irritants (35%) and dust or smoke (13%). Among the workers that were subjected to further examinations, it was possible to establish 27 cases of occupational respiratory disease and 125 cases of respiratory disease unrelated to work. The most frequent occupational disease was asthma (9,15%), mainly due to exposures to flour, isocyanates and animals, as well as to cleaning tasks. Smoking and obesity were associated with respiratory diseases. Exposure to respirable substances was associated with respiratory pathway obstruction (determined by spirometry), both among smokers and non-smokers.
Salud Ocupacional, Oct.-Dec. 2004, Vol.XXII, No.91, p.19-23. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 05-341 Crestois M., Muqa M.F.
Advice to women housekeepers
Conseils aux femmes de chambre [in French]
This information note describes the main tasks of women housekeepers, the occupational hazards to which they are exposed and the corresponding preventive measures grouped under the following headings: back and joints; legs and feet; hands and skin; mental strain and nervous fatigue; accidents and incidents (falls, back pain, shoulder and elbow tendinitis, splashes of substances in the eyes, pricks and cuts); vaccinations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.4, p.473-475.


CIS 06-207 Denis M.A., Ecochard R., Bernadet A., Forissier M.F., Porst J.M., Robert O., Volckmann C., Bergeret A.
Risk of occupational blood exposure in a cohort of 24,000 hospital healthcare workers: Position and environment analysis over three years
Early and efficient prevention of occupational blood exposure at hospitals requires knowledge of exposures and risks according to staff characteristics, as well as calculation of annual exposure rates and relative rates. For this purpose, a three-year cohort study involving 24,000 healthcare workers was carried out in a group of 21 health centres in Lyon, France. The overall annual incidence of blood exposure was 3.5 per 100 workers per year, with a maximum for nurses and midwives (6.5) and a minimum for cleaners and paramedics (0.6). Exposures affected mainly nurses (57.81% of accidents, 12.12% of the cohort) and occurred mostly in the surgical and the medical departments (26.34% and 25.20% of accidents respectively). Emergency and intensive care staff had the highest relative rates (4.27 and 3.05 respectively) compared with maintenance staff. Nurses and laboratory staff were more exposed than physicians (relative rates of 3.76 and 2.30 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.45, No.3, p.283-288. 13 ref.

CIS 04-35 Good ergonomic work practices for the hotel industry
Many jobs in the hotel industry present risks of strain on the back or other parts of the body. Poor work postures may arise due to ignorance or to poorly-designed workstations. Besides awkward postures, risk factors include manual handling, prolonged standing and repetitive movements. This booklet contains illustrations that show good and bad ergonomics or postures for bellmen, front desk staff, room attendants, waiters, kitchen staff and laundry workers.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, Feb. 2003. 27p. Illus.

CIS 03-1636 McCurdy S.A., Sunyer J., Zock J.P., Antó J.M., Kogevinas M.
Smoking and occupation from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey
To examine smoking prevalence among occupational groups in the European Union, the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was conducted in 1992-93. The survey involved 14,565 subjects from 14 participating countries. Among the findings, there was an approximately twofold range in smoking prevalence by occupation. For occupational groups with at least 50 subjects, the highest smoking prevalence was seen in metal-making and treating for men (54.3%) and cleaners for women (50.7%). Smoking prevalence by occupation persisted even when adjusted for age, country, and age at completion of education. Smoking was also increased among occupations with high exposure to mineral dust and gas or fumes. In conclusion, smoking rates vary significantly by occupation, and prevention efforts in the workplace should focus on occupations with high smoking prevalence and large employment bases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.60, No.9, p.643-648. 21 ref.

CIS 03-264
Health and Safety Executive
Caring for cleaners - Guidance and case studies on how to prevent musculoskeletal disorders
Aimed at all persons involved with the management of health and safety in the cleaning services sector, this document provides guidance on recognizing and controlling the manual handling and upper limb risks faced by cleaners at work. 16 case studies and useful tips are presented, showing how certain organizations have reached a simple and ergonomic solution. In appendices: checklists (required equipment, maintenance of equipment, work postures, worker's workplace and environment assessment, work and organization assessment); questionnaire for the assessment of cleaner's musculoskeletal symptoms.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2003. vi, 66p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.


CIS 03-249 Pranski G., Moshenberg D., Benjamin K., Portillo S., Thackrey J.L., Hill-Fotouhi C.
Occupational risks and injuries in non-agricultural immigrant Latino workers
To investigate occupational health in urban immigrant Latino workers, a survey was conducted through door-to-door interviews. The response rate was 80% (n=427). The average time of residence in the United States was 7.6 years, and the average job tenure was 2.8 years. 27% of the respondents reported exposures to over 10 different hazards, and 18% believed these hazards had harmed their health. Only 31% had received job safety training. 55% had no workers' compensation coverage. Among the 11% with a work injury in the past three years, 27% reported difficulty obtaining treatment, 91% lost time from work (median=13 days) and 29% had to change jobs because of the injury. The annual occupational injury rate was 12.2/100 full-time workers, compared to an expected rate of 7.1.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.42, No.2, p.117-123. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1223 Chia S.E., Shi L.M.
Review of recent epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects
Epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects were reviewed for the period from 1989 to 1999. Several common paternal occupations were repeatedly reported to be associated with birth defects, including janitors, painters, printers, and occupations exposed to solvents; fire fighters or firemen; and occupations related to agriculture. The common weaknesses in most of these studies are inaccurate assessment of exposures, different classification systems, different inclusion criteria of birth defects, and low statistical power. Future studies could be focused on these specific occupational groups so that causative agents may be confirmed enabling appropriate preventive measures to be taken.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.59, No.3, p.149-155. 56 ref.

CIS 02-739 Hannerz H., Tüchsen F.
Hospitalizations among female home-helpers in Denmark, 1981-1997
The objective of this study was to elucidate the disease pattern among female home-helpers in Denmark. Cohorts of all 20-59-year-old Danish female home-helpers in the years 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1994 were formed, to calculate age-standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) and time trends (1981-1997) for a large variety of diagnostic aggregations. Significantly high SHRs were found for injuries, infectious and parasitic diseases, and for diseases of the nervous system, circulatory system, the respiratory organs, digestive system, and the musculoskeletal system. When adjusting for social group, the SHRs for varicose veins, ischaemic heart diseases (IHD), and musculoskeletal disorders were still significantly high while the SHR for malignant neoplasm of respiratory organs became significantly low. The time trends revealed increased relative risks for IHD and asthma, and a decreasing relative risk for duodenal ulcer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.41, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 02-604 Carrivick P.J.W., Lee A.H., Yau K.K.W.
Effectiveness of a workplace risk assessment team in reducing the rate, cost, and duration of occupational injury
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a consultative workplace risk assessment team in reducing the rate and severity of injury among cleaners in a 600-bed hospital. Cohorts of cleaning services and orderly services staff ever employed within both a 4 year pre-intervention and a three-year post-intervention period were assigned to the intervention and comparison groups, respectively. The date, compensation claims cost, and hours lost from work were obtained for each injury during the study period. Age, sex, work experience and hours worked were ascertained for every subject whether injured or not. Reductions of two thirds in injury rate, 73% in cost, and 43% in duration were evident in the intervention group. The success of the workplace risk assessment team intervention supports the adoption of a participatory approach to reducing the rate and consequence of workplace injury.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.155-159. 15 ref.


CIS 03-1453 Jansen J.P., Burdorf A., Steyerberg E.
A novel approach for evaluating level, frequency and duration of lumbar posture simultaneously during work
In this study, statistical models are proposed for determining the essential characteristics of postural loads. A direct registration of lumbar posture was made over a workday with an inclinometer for 64 nurses, 16 housekeepers and 27 office workers. An exposure variation analysis was used to summarize information on the angle of trunk flexion, the time period of maintained postures, and the percentage of work time. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The occupational groups did not differ in either frequency or duration of trunk flexion >30°. Nurses were exposed to longer work times than the office workers with trunk flexions of 30-70° maintained for less than five seconds, whereas office workers experienced longer work times at angles of <30° for longer periods. Comparable differences were found between housekeepers and office workers. This method offers an alternative to conventional ergonomic analysis in which the dynamics of exposure are often ignored.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 2001, Vol.27, No.6, p.373-380. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 02-1467 Carrivick PJ.W., Lee A.H., Yau K.K.W.
Consultative team to assess manual handling and reduce the risk of occupational injury
The objective of the study was to describe the formation of a consultative team to assess the risk of manual handling within the cleaning services department of a hospital in Western Australia, and to evaluate the effectiveness of its recommendations in reducing the rate and severity of workers' compensation injury. Statistical analysis showed that implementation of the recommendations significantly reduced numbers and rates of injury, but not the severity of injury, in the cleaning services study group. There was no difference in numbers or severity of injuries for the comparison groups before and after implementation of the recommendations. The recommendation of the consultative team can produce a meaningful and sustained reduction in rates of injury within a risk population. The results support a consultative approach to reducing workplace injuries from manual handling. The team process has potential for application to occupational groups at risk of exposure to other types of hazards.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.58, No.5, p.339-344. 19 ref.

CIS 02-328 Langworth S., Anundi H., Friis L., Johanson G., Lind M.L., Södermman E., Åkesson B.A.
Acute health effects common during graffiti removal
To identify possible health effects caused by cleaning agents used in graffiti removal, the exposure to organic solvents was assessed in 38 graffiti removers working 8-h shifts in the Stockholm underground system by active air sampling, biological monitoring, interviews and a questionnaire. Health effects were registered by physical examinations, portable spirometers and self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of symptoms was compared with 49 controls working at the underground depots and 177 population controls. The 8-h time-weighted average exposures (TWA) were less than 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents. However, the graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of fatigue, headache and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. To prevent adverse health effects, workers should be informed about the health risks, use of the most hazardous chemicals should be restricted, good working practices should be used and the use of personal protective equipment should be encouraged.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.74, No.3, p.213-218. 17 ref.

CIS 01-777 Reinisch F., Harrison R.J., Cussler S., Athanasoulis M., Balmes J., Blanc P., Cone J.
Physician reports of work-related asthma in California, 1993-1996
Work-related asthma was studied in California over a 36-month period. Cases were identified from Doctor's First Reports (DFRs), a mandated physician reporting system. Structured follow-up telephone interviews of DFR asthma cases were conducted to collect work history, exposure, and medical information. Statewide employment data was used to calculate disease rates among industry groups. Based on 945 cases of work-related asthma, the average annual reporting rate for work-related asthma in California was 25/million workers. It is believed that the real rate is considerably higher after adjustment for underreporting. Janitors and cleaners (625/million) and firefighters (300/million) had the highest reporting rates of work-related asthma. Half of all work-related asthma cases were associated with agents not known to be allergens. A greater proportion of work-related asthma associated with irritant exposures was identified than has previously been reported.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.72-83. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 02-243 Burel A., Gonzales F., Baron R., Dewitte J.D.
Housekeeping assistance: A little-known occupation
Une profession méconnue: aide-ménagère [in French]
Whereas publications have already been devoted to the occupation of nursing auxiliary, far less attention has been paid to that of domestic helpers. A study was undertaken to describe the working conditions, and the prevalence of bone and joint disorders and/or psychological problems among domestic helpers. The survey was conducted within the framework of a domestic helpers' association in the area around the French city of Brest. It also focussed on persons benefitting from domestic help. From the results of the survey, some preventive approaches are proposed in order to avoid difficult situations arising from the sometimes very close bonds between the women who work as domestic helpers and the persons in their care.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.379-388. Illus. 4 ref.

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