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Cleaning work - 111 entries found

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CIS 99-2009
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical cleaners
Replaces CIS 93-276. This information note describes the health hazards associated with the use of chemical cleaners used for cleaning building facades, statues, etc. and provides safety and health guidance for their use or the supervision of their use. Topics: caustic substances; cleaning; construction industry; data sheet; first aid; harmful substances; limitation of exposure; neighbourhood protection; personal hygiene; personal protective equipment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Sep. 1998. 2p. 6 ref.

CIS 99-1137 Guignard J.P., Gauthier M., Glénat M.C., Manillier P., Riondet G., de Ligt H., Le Cavorzin N., Cariou S., Verjat D.
Practical guide - Decontamination, bio-cleaning, disinfection, sterilisation
Guide pratique - Décontamination, bionettoyage, désinfection, stérilisation [in French]
Replaces CIS 97-83. Topics: air filtration; air purification; biocides; chemical products; cleaning agents; cleaning of workplaces; cleaning; decontamination of equipment; decontamination; detergents; disinfectants; disinfection of air; disinfection of equipment; distillation; glossary; harmful substances; hospitals; legislation; occupational accidents; occupational diseases; occupational hygiene; preventive maintenance; steam cleaning; training manuals; training material; ultrasonic cleaning; water treatment.
Editions Hospitalières, B.P. 136, 94034 Vincennes Cedex, France, 3rd ed., 1998. 319p. Illus.


CIS 00-1046 Beaucousins M., Chischportich J.J., Haëntjens C., Ponroy B., Segalen M., Robé V.
Cleaning personnel
L'agent de propreté [in French]
Topics: cleaning; conditions of work; data sheet; domestic and related helpers, cleaners; France; health hazards; legislation; occupational diseases; occupations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, Vol.37, No.1. 2p. Insert.


CIS 01-1109 Internal audit - Cleaning
Autodiagnostic - Nettoyage [in French]
The internal auditing of hazards allows the preparation of a safety and health plan adapted to the company. A check-list for conducting such an audit within contract cleaning firms is proposed, consisting of the following parts: general company information; company organization; safety and health plan; specific problems related to the different worksite environments; training; action plan.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie (CRAM) des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue du Président Herriot, BP 3405, 44034 Nantes Cedex 1, France, Oct. 1996. 19p. 13 ref.

CIS 98-1016 Pierre-Jerome C., Bekkelund S.I., Mellgren S.I, Torbergsen T.
Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and the electrophysiology of the carpal tunnel region in floor cleaners
Topics: carpal-tunnel syndrome; cleaning; cohort study; diseases of peripheral nervous system; magnetic resonance imaging; median nerve; nervous conduction; nervous function tests; Norway; repetitive work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1996, Vol.22, No.2, p.119-123. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 97-122 Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics Society of Western France - Meetings of 24 and 25 November 1994
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'ouest - Séances des 24 et 25 novembre 1994 [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in papers presented at the 24-25 Nov 1994 meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: lipoatrophy of lower extremities due to repetitive strain injuries; health hazards of cleaning staff: musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, in particular occupational dermatitis, and carpal-tunnel syndrome; asthma due to bisulfites in a laundry; use of pesticides in banana plantations.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.219-231.

CIS 96-1481 Vandevyver B.
Risk of interference. Cleaning trains: Choose the right track
Risque d'interférence. Nettoyage des trains: choisir la bonne voie [in French]
A study in the first half of 1995 analyzed the risks of occupational accidents connected with interference between the cleaning of rolling stock and other railway operations. An important conclusion was that the introduction of a safety plan can be the occasion for changes of attitude on the part of railway operators and external enterprises in favour of closer collaboration.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1996, No.544, p.30-33. Illus.

CIS 96-615 Nielsen J.
The occurrence and course of skin symptoms on the hands among female cleaners
Skin symptoms on the hands were studied in questionnaire-based studies conducted in 1989 and 1991 among female cleaning personnel employed at Danish nursing homes, schools and offices. A total of 1,166 participated in 1989, and 1,011 of them participated in 1991. The average age was 45 years and the average length of seniority was 10 years. One-fifth of the cleaners reported problems with cleaning agents. A total of 81% had wet hands for more than one-quarter of their working hours and 43% reported having at least one out of four skin symptoms during a one-year period. Among them, 70% reported improvement during weekends and holidays. A positive correlation was found between hours per week spent with wet hands and skin symptoms. During the follow up period, the risk of developing skin symptoms was higher among the women who remained cleaners than among those who left their cleaning jobs. Accordingly, the prognosis was better in the group that left their cleaning jobs. Retirement occurred more often among cleaners with skin symptoms than among the others. There is a future need to develop new work organization and cleaning methods to reduce the time spent with wet hands.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.284-291. Illus. 20 ref.


CIS 97-83 Guignard J.P., Glénat M.C., Riondet G., Manillier P., de Ligt H., Le Cavorzin N.
Practical guide - Decontamination, bio-cleaning, disinfection, sterilization
Guide pratique - Décontamination, bio-nettoyage, désinfection, stérilisation [in French]
Main subjects treated in this guide on bio-cleaning procedures in hospitals: definition, objectives, indications, actions, products, material and equipment, methods and evaluation of decontamination, bio-cleaning, disinfection and sterilization procedures; water treatment, including distillation, demineralization, filtration; air treatment, including filtration; procedures and principles of cleaning of premises; toxicity of products, occupational diseases and accidents, hazard evaluation and control; occupational hygiene and training. Also included: relevant addresses and legislation; glossary.
Editions Hospitalières, B.P. 136, 94304 Vincennes Cedex, France, 2nd ed., 1995. 272p. Illus.

CIS 96-1718 Cleaning, laundries and dry cleaning
Rengøringsvirksomheder, vaskerier og renserier [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the cleaning, laundry and dry cleaning sectors in Denmark. This sector can be divided into cleaning, which is the main part, and other areas which include window-cleaning, chimney-sweeping, disinfection and pest control and laundries. Cleaning also includes cleaning carried out in other industrial sectors. The main working environment problems are: strain injuries, skin diseases and psychological stress. Other problems are respiratory diseases and accidents. There also seems to be an excess risk of complications of pregnancy. In smaller areas within this sector there are special problems: in laundries there are more cases of hearing damage, monotonous work and early retirement; in dry cleaning exposure to chemicals is higher and liver cancer and brain injuries are more common; chimney-sweepers are exposed to chemicals and have a higher risk of contracting cancer, non-allergic respiratory diseases and ischaemic heart disease.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 78p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.

CIS 96-1339 Opatowski S., Varaillac P., Richoux C., Sandret N., Peres L., Riffiod D., Iwatsubo Y.
Survey of cleaning workers
Enquête sur les ouvriers nettoyeurs [in French]
The present study responds to the lack of systematic surveys in France of the living and working conditions of workers employed by enterprises that clean commercial premises. A group of 924 workers in the Ile-de-France (Paris) region was followed for a year by the physicians of an inter-enterprise medical service. Social (background, status, living conditions, etc.), occupational (job titles, operations, etc.) and medical data on the individuals were collected. The medical data bore especially on occupational accidents, skin diseases and problems of bones and joints.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.63, p.167-180. 31 ref.

CIS 96-765 Popendorf W., Selim M.
Exposures while applying commercial disinfectants
Exposure to disinfectants was assessed for 40 workers using various methods of application in different occupational settings. Exposure estimates for each type of application are tabulated. The primary route of exposure was by skin deposition; airborne levels were low. Dermal dose rates for aerosol spray, wipe and mop applications were low compared with liquid pour and pump methods, but longer application times for wipe and mop methods resulted in higher total doses. High-pressure sprayers received the highest exposure outside their clothing, but heavy protective clothing reduced dermal dose rates. Low-pressure sprayers with no protective clothing had the highest dose rates.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1111-1120. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 96-256 Muttray A., Lang J., Mayer-Popken O., Konietzko J.
Acute changes in the EEG of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were made of 11 workers before and after exposure to mixtures of organic solvents during the cleaning of printing rolls. Inhalation exposure was quantified by personal air sampling and was considered to be low to moderate. Results indicated that even a relatively short exposure to certain mixtures of organic solvents may cause acute changes in the EEG.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1995, Vol.8, No.2, p.131-137. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 96-228 Tay P., Pinnagoda J., Sam C.T., Ho S.F., Tan K.T., Ong C.N.
Environmental and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane
A study of 50 workers involved in various degreasing and cleaning processes using 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCE) showed that open/manual degreasing processes generated the highest environmental solvent levels, followed by jet-spray cleaning, vapour degreasing and ultrasonic degreasing. Personal exposure levels were well correlated with concentrations of 1,1,1-TCE in end-of-shift expired air and venous blood samples, but only moderately correlated with concentrations of its metabolites in urine. Static (area) samples were poorly correlated with the biological exposure indices studied.
Occupational Medicine, June 1995, Vol.45, No.3, p.147-150. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 95-1709 Foley G.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational health and safety performance overviews, selected industries. Issue No.6 - Cleaning services industry
This report highlights potential safety and health problem areas in the Australian cleaning services industry (cleaning of buildings, windows, chimneys, offices, telephones). The statistics of injury and disease are based on workers' compensation data and are analyzed by occupation, age group, sex, the nature, bodily location, mechanism and agency of the injury or disease and by time of accident. Costs of work-related injury and disease are estimated. Areas of concern are use of hand-tools, appliances and equipment, manual handling practices, and slips and falls related to the work environment.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Apr. 1995. viii, 16p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 95-1357 Hasselmann A., Kölmel F.
Occupational dermatoses among cleaning personnel
Berufsdermatosen des Reinigungspersonals [in German]
In the years between 1977 and 1992 the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital in Göttingen, Germany, recorded 64 cases of skin disease among cleaning personnel in institutions such as schools, old age homes, recreational centres, hospitals, etc. In 40 cases an allergic contact dermatitis and in 21 cases eczema was diagnosed. In patch tests nickel and formaldehyde were identified as the major allergens. Formaldehyde and other aldehydes were found in the cleaning agents and disinfectants used.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Mar. 1995, Vol.30, No.3, p.106, 108-112, 117-118, 120. 30 ref.


CIS 96-2263
Verband der Sachversicherer e.V., Cologne, Germany
Guideline for clean-up after a fire
Leitlinie zur Brandschadensanierung [in German]
For clean-up after a fire, this recommendation from the German insurance industry defines four hazard classes. Small fires are classified as hazard class 0. Fires in kitchens, offices or workshops belong to hazard class 1. Fires involving larger amounts of plastics such as polyvinyl chloride belong to class 2. Fires in which polychlorinated biphenyls are produced (such as transformer fires) belong to hazard class 3. For fires belonging to hazard classes 2 and 3, clean-up firms with special know how need to be employed. The temperatures and conditions of a fire which lead to the development of harmful substances such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are given.
Tiefbau, Apr. 1994, Vol.106, No.4, p.218-224, 226, 228-229. Illus.

CIS 95-2111
Behörde für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg
Cytostatic substances, shiftwork, anaesthetic gases, cleaning personnel - Occupational safety and health in hospitals
Zytostatika, Schichtarbeit, Narkosegase, Reinigungskraft - Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz im Krankenhaus [in German]
This is a report of a conference on the occupational hazards of hospital work and their prevention. Subjects covered: preparation and use of cytostatic substances; hazards of shiftwork (survey of various kinds of worktime planning); exposure of anaesthesia, operating theatre and nursing staff to anaesthetic gases; protection of cleaning staff (including the main provisions of a new directive on cleaning adopted by the Hamburg Hospital Administration (LBK)).
Edition Temmen, Hohlenstr. 21, 28209 Bremen, Germany, 1994. 143p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 19.90.

CIS 95-1368 Tesch D., Heupel P., Marian B., Schröter W., Schwarz K.H.
Investigation of the health risk involved in cleaning work
Untersuchung tätigkeitsspezifischer Gesundheitsrisiken im Reinigungsgewerbe [in German]
Statistical data on the types of accidents and occupational diseases among cleaning personnel were evaluated to determine the accident and health risks of this trade. In addition, data from periodic medical examinations by industrial physicians and a questionnaire survey of 645 cleaners were used. All cleaners, including bottle washers and metal cleaners, were included in the study. The most frequent causes of accidents were slipping, falls on the level and among glass and window cleaners falls from heights. Among occupational diseases skin diseases, mainly skin allergies and eczema, were most frequent. Infectious diseases, mostly hepatitis B, ranked second in frequency.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaften, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1994. iii, 115p. Illus. 81 ref.


CIS 94-1744 Rüttinger W.
Cleaning and care of floors with respect to reducing slipperiness as well as slipperiness testing
Fussbodenreinigung und Fussbodenpflege unter dem Aspekt der Gleithemmung sowie deren Messung [in German]
Through proper cleaning and care of floors made of stone, linoleum and polyvinylchloride, slipperiness can be avoided. The slipperiness of 17 floors made of either stone, linoleum, or polyvinyl chloride was tested with two commercially available instruments. Results are summarized in tabular form.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Nov. 1993, Vol.24, No.11, p.36-39. Illus.

CIS 94-1092 Toivanen H., Helin P., Hänninen O.
Impact of regular relaxation training and psychosocial working factors on neck-shoulder tension and absenteeism in hospital cleaners
Occupational stress in hospital cleaners and the effect of relaxation training were studied by recording the electrical activity of the upper trapezius muscle at rest and during working conditions, at the beginning, middle, and end of a six-month follow-up period. Intercorrelations were found between the neck-shoulder tension, psychosocial factors, depression, and the absenteeism rate. Relaxation training diminished tension in the neck-shoulder region efficiently; nevertheless, the decrease in absenteeism might have been related mainly to the social support offered by the research project itself.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.11, p.1123-1130. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 94-926 Cleaning, laundries and dry cleaning sector
Rengøringsvirksomheder, vaskerier, renserier [in Danish]
Volume No.15 of a series of monographs covering the occupational safety and health in all sectors of Danish economy. It covers the sectors that deal with cleaning, with laundry and dry cleaning. The occupational safety and health problems in the cleaning sector are skin diseases, psychological stress and musculoskeletal diseases. In laundries noise, the thermal environment, heavy workload and monotonous work are the principal OSH problems. In the dry cleaning sector chemical hazards are important.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 68p. 30 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.


CIS 95-1096 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 2. Particular requirements for floor treatment and floor cleaning machines, for industrial and commercial use
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues - Partie 2. Règles particulières pour les machines de traitement et de nettoyage des sols, à usage industriel et commercial [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., Jan. 1992. 27p. ###

CIS 95-1095 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 2. Particular requirements for spray extraction appliances, for industrial and commercial use
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues - Partie 2. Règles particulières pour les appareils de nettoyage par pulvérisation et aspiration, à usage industriel et commercial [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., Jan. 1992. 35p. ###

CIS 94-894 Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of the Provence-Côte d'Azur and Corsica regions - Meetings of 29 May, 26 June and 23 Oct. 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de la région Provence-Côte d'Azur et de la région Corse - Séances du 29 mai, du 26 juin et du 23 octobre 1991 [in French]
Papers presented at the meetings of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of the Provence-Côte d'Azur and Corsica Regions (France, 29 May, 26 June and 23 Oct. 1991): caretakers in the Alpes-Maritimes; infectious hepatitis in specialized occupational environments; role of the industrial physician in the prophylaxis of tuberculosis; prospective survey of the employment status of construction workers declared as permanently disabled (France); vaccination against hepatitis B of non-medical personnel in a large French hospital; rehabilitation of workers with transplants and of cardiac patients after their operation; osteolysis of ungual phalanges in an automobile body-repair worker; hands of automobile body-repair workers in small and medium-size enterprises (48 cases); medical surveillance in the group-catering sector: complementary check-ups on an "as needed" basis; activity plan undertaken by several physicians (example: hygiene and ergonomics in the group-catering sector).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.296-310.

CIS 94-891 French Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene - Meetings of 14 Jan., 11 Feb., 10 Mar. and 14 Apr. 1992
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail - Séances du 14 janvier, 11 février, 10 mars et 14 avril 1992 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of the French Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene (France, 14 Jan., 11 Feb., 10 Mar., 14 Apr. 1992): ligament hyperlaxity and work aptitude; respiratory diseases among jewellers; the industrial physician and the employment of handicapped workers in France (preliminary results of a survey); rhinitis and asthma due to latex are compensable occupational diseases in France; assistance provided to the industrial physician in France to promote the employment of handicapped workers; two cases of occupational asthma due to Chloramine T; an accident due to carelessness and caused by the crushing of a worker between two trucks in a garage; alertness in relation to work among interns on call; risk assessment of a new activity: the removal of graffiti; feasibility study of an olfactometry test in occupational medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.645-664.

CIS 94-291 Wendt N.C., Mosovsky J.A., Varadi L.
High-efficiency particulate air/charcoal filtered vacuum cleaner challenge tests with semiconductor gases and vapors
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners have been used for years to clean up toxic particles. Equipped with activated impregnated charcoal, vacuum cleaners have also been used to adsorb toxic vapours such as mercury. The purpose of the tests was to determine a number of parameters relating to the use of special impregnated activated charcoal for removing semi-conductor gases and vapours from the air discharge of a modified off-the-shelf HEPA-filtered vacuum cleaner. Test results were used to determine collection efficiencies as well as studying off-gassing and vapour desorption of challenge materials thought to be present during routine maintenance and servicing of semi-conductor process equipment. Such a modified vacuum cleaner can be effective in scrubbing certain semi-conductor process emissions and can enhance safety during equipment cleaning and servicing.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 1992, Vol.7, No.7, p.425-433. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 93-1267 Courthiat M.C.
A chart of exposure to organic solvents in small and medium sized firms
Cartographie de l'exposition aux solvants organiques dans les P.M.E. [in French]
In order to assess the occupational hazards resulting from exposure to solvents and to adapt medical surveillance, nine occupational physicians developed a comprehensive chart containing information on the solvents used in 20 companies (4,772 employees). The methodology included a detailed inventory of the chemicals, and an assessment of the exposure according to a rough classification scale taking into account the frequency of the exposure and the degree of protection. It was possible to analyse the exposure of 827 employees (including 802 multi-exposed persons) in terms of degree of exposure and the average number of the chemicals used. Occupations where workers were least aware of the risks and were least protected were those involving gluing, cleaning and maintenance. The risk to the skin is the least known and the most neglected. Based on these data, an information sheet was drawn up for employees.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.5, p.349-353. 7 ref.

CIS 93-544 Lillienberg L., Högstedt B., Järvholm B., Nilson L.
Health effects of tank cleaners
The objective of the cross-sectional study was to investigate exposure, occurrence of acute intoxication, and other health effects caused by the complex environment of tank cleaning, particularly in tanks containing different petroleum fractions. A total of 29 tank cleaners and 31 controls participated in the study. Addition of light fuel oil to facilitate the cleaning of tanks containing viscous, heavy fuel oils resulted in total airborne hydrocarbon (HC) levels of 1000-1500mg/m3. High levels of HC were measured in tanks with low-boiling petroleum fractions (naphtha and light fuel oils) of 1000-2600mg/m3 (maximum). The study reports patterns of respirator and protective equipment use. Measurements of heart rate showed that tank cleaning is, at times, a highly strenuous job. No differences between tank cleaners and controls were found with respect to spirometry, liver enzymes, or frequency of micronuclei. Acute intoxications were not frequently reported.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.375-380. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 93-276
Construction Industry Advisory Committee
Chemical cleaners
This information sheet describes the health hazards associated with the use of chemical cleaners used for cleaning building facades, statues, etc. and provides health and safety guidance for their use or the supervision of their use. Contents: health effects; preventing and controlling exposure; personal protection; hygiene; protecting the public; spillages; first aid.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. 5 ref.

CIS 93-161 Cordier S., Ha M.C., Ayme S., Goujard J.
Maternal occupational exposure and congenital malformations
A case-referent study was conducted to assess the risk of congenital malformations in relation to maternal occupational exposure before and during pregnancy. 325 cases of major malformations and 325 normal referents identified in 15 maternity hospitals were included in the study. The results suggested that mothers of the case children with oral clefts were more often exposed to solvents during pregnancy (odds ratio, OR 7,9, 90% confidence internal, CI, 1,8-44,9) and worked more often as cleaners. Digestive anomalies (OR 11,9; 90% CI 2,0-14,9) and multiple anomalies (OR 4,5; 90% CI 1,4-16,9) were also associated with occupational exposure to solvents at work. These results were not modified when differences in maternal age, area of residence, and socioeconomic status were taken into account.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1992, Vol.18, No.1, p.11-17. 16 ref.


CIS 93-1254 Beaulieu H.J.
Asbestos contamination of abatement equipment surfaces
This article describes a study of the levels of asbestos fibre contamination of asbestos abatement equipment (including respirators, ladders, and hoses) found throughout the course of abatement projects. A total of 244 samples were collected from the equipment of 13 different work crews. Through surface (strip tape) sampling methods, 10 of 13 (77%) work crews arriving for work were found to have friable asbestos contamination on their equipment and/or did not maintain their equipment or load-out properly during the project. An innovative, practical method is presented to measure the effectiveness of the work crew's procedures for cleaning friable asbestos materials from equipment after the previous abatement job and the effectiveness of their load-out procedures during the current project.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 1991, Vol.6, no.7, p.583-587. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 92-1541 Pistelli R., Pupp N., Forastiere F., Agabiti N., Corbo G.M., Tidei F., Perucci C.A.
Increase in non-specific bronchial responsiveness following occupational exposure to vanadium
Aumento della reattività bronchiale aspecifica dopo esposizione professionale a vanadio [in Italian]
A study was conducted to evaluate the level of bronchial responsiveness among workers recently exposed to vanadium pentoxide during periodical removal of ashes and clinker from the boilers of an oil-fired power station. A total of 11 male workers and 14 controls were examined 40-60h after the last exposure. None of the subjects in the 2 groups had symptoms of bronchial inflammation or significant airway obstruction. However, bronchial responsiveness, investigated using a methacholine challenge test, was significantly higher in the exposed group. It is suggested that exposure to vanadium increases bronchial responsiveness even without clinical appearance of bronchial symptoms. The possible role of such an increased level of airway responsiveness in the development of chronic obstructive lung disease is discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1991, Vol.82, No.3, p.270-275. 15 ref.


CIS 90-1525
Ergonomics and cleaning
Ergonomi og rengøring [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on good ergonomic practices for cleaning operations: floor cleaning, cleaning of low and high places, use of cleaning machines, welfare facilities, and initiation and planning of the work. A list of relevant Danish directives is appended.
Arbejdsmiljøfondet, Vermundsgade 38, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1989. 15p. Illus.

CIS 90-604 Pentenrieder R.
Reliability of repaired electronic units and systems
Zuverlässigkeit elektronischer Geräte und Anlagen nach einer Sanierung [in German]
Description of procedures to restore electronic equipment after fires or after longer exposure to air pollutants, including: (1) removal of deposits such as soot, dust and corrosive gases; (2) selection of suitable cleaning agents such as solvents or water. Available know-how enables restoration of damaged electronic equipment to reliable operation.
Qualität und Zuverlässigkeit, 1989, Vol.34, No.5, p.249-254. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 89-883 Le Bot J.Y.
Control of filter clogging in a ventilation system: The case of vehicle spray paint booths
Contrôle pratique de l'encrassement des filtres d'un système de ventilation: cas des cabines de peinture fermées [in French]
In a ventilated enclosure, it is necessary to remove the airborne solid contaminants. Filters of variable efficiency are installed for this purpose. The user then has to clean or replace these filters at regular intervals. This paper considers at what time these operations should be carried out and proposes a solution. It covers the following points: theoretical approach to fan working, filters replacement, theoretical control methods, methods proposed by manufacturers, theoretical working of a ventilation circuit, suggested solution.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1988, No.132, Note No.1684-132-88, p.409-413. Illus.

CIS 89-204 Hitcho P., Tipton D., Fracassi F.
Mobile boot wash for hazardous waste sites
A detailed drawing provides all the information necessary to construct this washing station.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1988, Vol.49, No.8, p.A 504-A 505. Illus.


CIS 89-1371 Cleaning with hot water and steam
This data sheet covers: hazards; job analysis; types of cleaning equipment; recommended protective equipment; general precautions; high pressure in generating equipment; high pressure in hose; uncontrolled hose; electrical hazards; slippery surfaces; poor visibility; detergent and alkali hazards; static electricity; ventilation.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1987. Illus. 3 ref.


CIS 87-1380 Gawkrodger D.J., Lloyd M.H., Hunter J.A.A.
Occupational skin disease in hospital cleaning and kitchen workers
Skin disorders were reported in 33% of catering staff and 35% of women cleaners who returned a questionnaire, and were employed in a large hospital. Hand dermatitis occurred in 15% of the caterers and 12% of the cleaners. In the majority, the dermatitis was irritant in origin and related to their wet work occupations. Cleaners had a high prevalence of jewellery dermatitis. Limited patch testing revealed a majority positive to nickel, but a third were negative, indicating that jewellery reactions often but not invariably predict nickel sensitivity. Few subjects were atopic, but some psoriatic patients with hand problems were encountered. Most workers were able to carry on in their occupations despite having hand dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1986, Vol.15, No.3, p.132-135. 14 ref.

CIS 87-680 Ahlström R., Berglund B., Berglund U., Lindvall T., Wennberg A.
Impaired odor perception in tank cleaners
The olfactory perception of 20 tank cleaners exposed to petroleum products was estimated. Office workers and watchmen were used as referents (N = 20 + 20). Odour detection thresholds and the perceived odour intensity of 4 odorous stimuli, pyridine, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), n-butanol, and heating oil vapour (gas phase of heating oil heated to + 40°C) were determined. The tank cleaners had higher absolute odour thresholds for n-butanol and oil vapour than the referents. The psychophysical function of the tank cleaners and referents differed for all the tested substances in respect to odour intensity. The tank cleaners displayed normal perception of strong stimuli but impaired perception of weak stimuli. This odour deficit was therefore named "odour intensity recruitment" and seems, in tank cleners, to be associated with exposure to oil vapour.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.12, No.6, p.574-581. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 86-738 Singgih S.I.R., Lantinga H., Nater J.P., Woest T.E., Kruyt-Gaspersz J.A.
Occupational hand dermatoses in hospital cleaning personnel
Hospital cleaning personnel were examined for occupational dermatoses; 356 persons were included in the study. Their ages were 20-63 years with a mean of 40.1 years. The period prevalence rate of moderate and severe eczema was 12% (10% in men and 19% in women). In 88%, the eczema was of a duration longer than 2 years. Positive patch tests were found in 10% of men and 53% of women with eczema. The main allergens were nickel, cobalt, chromate and rubber chemicals. Positive tests to cleaning agents were rare. One case of contact allergy to sodium dichloroisocyanurate and one to Lysol were diagnosed. Irritant factors played a major role in most cases (92%). Fungus infection as a cause or complication in hand eczema should not be left out of consideration: in 2 persons, a mycosis of hands and/or fingernails was diagnosed.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1986, Vol.14, No.1, p.14-19. 11 ref.


CIS 88-1326
Health and Safety Executive
The cleaning and gas freeing of tanks containing flammable residues
This guidance note, aimed at all those who are responsible for the gas-freeing or cleaning for repair work of tanks and vessels which have contained flammable gases or liquids, discusses the fire and explosion hazards which may arise in this type of activity. It gives guidance on the preparation for gas-freeing and cleaning, gas-freeing and cleaning methods, methods of making the tank atmosphere inert, gas and vapour detectors and the relevant legal requirements.
HMSO Sales, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Sep. 1985. 12p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 86-733 Nilsson E.
Contact sensitivity and urticaria in "wet" work
A group of 142 hospital workers with current hand eczema was identified among 2452 recently employed persons surveyed; 91% were female. Atopy, metal dermatitis and a prior history of hand eczema were more common in the smaller group than in the larger one. Trivial irritant factors were claimed to have elicited the current episodes of eczema in 92.3% of the cases. In 35%, much of the exposure to irritant factors took place at home or during leisure time. Nickel and/or cobalt allergy were found in 1/2 of the patients with allergies. Positive prick tests for contact urticaria were found in 22 patients, and were obtained most often with foods or rubber gloves. Contact sensitivity and contact urticaria thus seem to be much less important causes of hand eczema in this group than are endogenous factors and trivial irritants (water, disinfectants and cleansers, gloves).
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1985, Vol.13, No.5, p.321-328. 38 ref.

CIS 86-477 Nilsson E., Mikaelsson B., Andersson S.
Atopy, occupation and domestic work as risk factors for hand eczema in hospital workers
Questionnaire and interview study of 2452 newly employed hospital workers, with follow-up over 20 months. Atopic dermatitis increased the odds of developing hand eczema by 3 times, and was correlated with greater severity of the eczema. "Wet" hospital work increased the odds by a factor of 2 compared with office ("dry") work. Two domestic factors (care of children under 4 years of age and absence of a dish-washing machine) also increased the risk of eczema; in combination with wet jobs at work, the factors increased the odds by a factor of 4. Although eczema was more common in women than in men, this is probably due to differences in the tasks performed by the 2 sexes.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1985, Vol.13, No.4, p.216-223. 19 ref.

CIS 86-142 Baadsgaard O., Jørgensen J.
Contact dermatitis to Butin-2-diol 1,4
A 41-year-old female cleaner developped dermatitis on the face, hands and forearms after having used a new cleaning agent for a few months. The dermatitis appeared about 12h after contact with the agent and settled when she was not using it. Patch testing with the components of the cleaning agent produced a strong reaction to 2-butyne-1,4-diol ("Butin-2-diol 1,4"). The compound was present in the cleaning agent at low concentration (0.7%) as a corrosion inhibitor.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1985, Vol.13, No.1, p.34. 1 ref.


CIS 85-632 Cleaning small containers that have held combustibles
This data sheet describes the procedures for the safe removal of hazardous solids, liquids and gases from small containers such as drums, fuel tanks of cars and trucks and other containers too small to be entered for cleaning.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1984. 3p. Illus. Bibl.


CIS 84-468 Hansen K.S.
Occupational dermatoses in hospital cleaning women
In an investigation of 541 members of a hospital cleaning department, a prevalence rate of occupational disease of 15.3% was found. 39.1% of those surveyed had a skin disease at one time or another during their hospital employment. An observed higher prevalence in the younger age groups can be explained by the selection of those with skin diseases for work away from the cleaning department. Many persons developed their disease shortly after employment began, which indicated that most conditions were irritant diseases. This was confirmed by diagnosis: 75% of the conditions were irritant dermatitis (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, chloramine, nickel, rubber), 21% were allergic contact dermatitis (detergents, alkaline substances, acids, sodium perborate, hypochlorite and hypobromite compounds), and 4% were monilia of the finger webs. Causes of irritant dermatitis were detergents, alkaline substances, acids, sodium perborate, and hypochlorite-hypobromite combinations. The problems can be alleviated by prophylactic measures.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1983, Vol.9, No.5, p.343-351. 53 ref.

CIS 84-450 Ross D.S.
Case study. Exposure to vanadium pentoxide
8 men who had been maintaining a very large oil-fired boiler for a few weeks suffered acute respiratory and other symptoms. The crude oil used contained a small amount of vanadium as an impurity. Work was done inside the boiler and in the deadspace at the top. The workers inside the boiler were in close contact with scale contaminated by condensed vanadium pentoxide. Samples of scale from 3 areas inside the boiler contained 14.2, 10, and 5.8% vanadium pentoxide. There were no residual health effects. Protective clothing had not been worn. Recommendations are made concerning: pre-employment and other medical examinations; selection of breathing and eye protection; general protective clothing; biological monitoring of urine samples; dust measurement. The literature is reviewed.
Occupational Health, Feb. 1983, Vol.35, No.2, p.67-71. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 84-254 Germanò D., Barbaro M., Abbate C., Morichetti A., Giacomini C., Magelli L.
Workers employed in cleaning and disinfecting: environmental risk factors, pathology, prevention
Addetti a lavori di pulizia e disinfezione: fattori di rischio ambientale, patologia, note di prevenzione [in Italian]
Among the risks affecting cleaners are: high humidity, extremes of temperature; use of hazardous substances (natural soaps, synthetic detergents, acids, waxes, disinfectants); bent-over work posture; repetitive and high-stress work. The resulting health problems are: skin problems (dermatitis, skin allergies); mucous membrane irritations; back and joint pain; nervous problems (chronic fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches); accidents (slips, falls from heights, electric shocks). Preventive measures suggested: careful selection of chemical products; accurate labelling; avoidance of small/badly ventilated rooms after the use of hazardous substances; forbidding of dangerous practices (e.g. use of certain cleaning substances at high concentrations); avoidance of skin contact with the substances used (wearing of gloves); regular medical examinations and vaccination against tetanus and typhoid fever.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1981, Vol.5, .65-79. 13 ref.

CIS 84-162 Minoia C., Catenacci G., Cammarano G., Pozzoli L., Romano P.
Vanadium exposure in cleaners of oil burning boilers: possibility of biological monitoring
Esposizione a vanadio nei pulitori di caldaie per olio combustibile: possibilità di monitoraggio biologico [in Italian]
Vanadium exposure is related to vanadium concentration in the urine and hair of workers. Vanadium levels in the combustion residues were 2-12%, in the urine of heavily exposed workers 57±16µg/l, in the urine of lightly exposed workers 7.8±6.2µg/l, in the urine of controls 1.8±0.2µg/l. Measurements in hair, though statistically significant, could not be related to different urine concentrations, or to length of exposure.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, July-Sep. 1981, Vol.5, p.257-263. 16 ref.

CIS 83-170 Clemmensen O.J., Meuné T., Kaaber K., Solgaard P.
Exposure of nickel and the relevance of nickel sensitivity among hospital cleaners
Review of reports on nickel sensitivity and nickel hand eczema in hospital cleaning workers and report of studies on cleaning water in 5 hospital in-patient units to determine whether this water contained the nickel sensitising agent. Analysis of the fresh water and of the water after various hospital appliances and installations had been washed. Statistically significant increases of the nickel concentrations were found at each step of the cleaning, eventually exceeding the theoretical sensitising safety limit. It is thought that a significant amount of this nickel is released during the cleaning of stainless steel appliances and installations. Nickel penetrates rubber gloves and therefore the wearing of vinyl gloves is recommended.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.14-18. 15 ref.

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