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Cleaning work - 111 entries found

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CIS 12-0208 Rosenberg N.
Occupational respiratory diseases among cleaning workers
Affections respiratoires professionnelles chez les personnels de nettoyage [in French]
Cleaning of premises involves a particularly high risk of rhinitis, asthma and asthma-like syndromes and concerns a large number of workers. Respiratory allergens that are present in the dust dispersed into air during cleaning activities may be responsible, as are the wide variety of cleaning agents which may by irritating (ammonia, Javel water, strong acids) and/or sensitizing (isothiazolinones, aldehydes, quaternary ammonium salts, aliphatic amines, surfactants and terpene derivatives). This article on respiratory allergies among cleaners also addresses the following topics: diagnosis; immunological tests; recognition of these diseases as being of occupational nature in France; prevention; limitation of exposure; substitution.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2011, No.128, p.683-694. Illus. 29 ref.
Affections_respiratoires_professionnelles_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0173 Binderup A.T., Holtermann A., Søgaard K., Madeleine P.
Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners
Pressure pain threshold (PPT) mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence within the last 12 months among cleaners. 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper-back within the last seven days correlated negatively with most PPT measurements. The group of cleaners with long-term sickness absence had significantly lower levels of PPT in the neck-shoulder region than the cleaners with no long-term sickness absence. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.647-654. Illus. 28 ref.
Pressure_pain_sensitivity_maps_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0616 Who ensures the safety of domestic help services workers?
Qui assure la sécurité des prestataires de titres-services? [in French]
This article explains the responsibilities of enterprises that supply domestic help workers in Belgium. It presents the policy adopted by a social services supplier and includes a table summarizing the main hazards faced by these workers, mostly women.
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2011, p.14-17. Illus.

CIS 11-0357 Mäkelä R., Kauppi P., Suuronen K., Tuppurainen M., Hannu T.
Occupational asthma in professional cleaning work: A clinical study
Several epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of asthma among professional cleaners. The aim of this study was to describe the cases of occupational asthma (OA) diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) during the period 1994-2004 among workers employed in professional cleaning work. OA was diagnosed according to patient history, lung function examinations and specific challenge tests with measurements of one-second forced expiratory volume and peak expiratory flow values. The series comprised 20 patients, all female, with a mean age of 48.8 years, a mean duration of cleaning work before the onset of the respiratory symptoms of 14.3 years and a mean duration of cleaning work before the FIOH examinations of 18.6 years. OA was triggered by chemicals in 9 cases and by moulds in 11 cases. The chemicals were cleaning chemicals (wax-removing substances containing ethanolamines in five cases and a cleaning agent containing chloramine-T in one case) and chemicals used in the industrial processes at workplaces (three cases). Of the moulds, the most frequently associated with OA was Aspergillus fumigatus (nine cases). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.121-126. 29 ref.

CIS 11-0375 Sastre J., Madero M.F., Fernández-Nieto M., Sastre B., del Pozo V., Potro M.G., Quirce S.
Airway response to chlorine inhalation (bleach) among cleaning workers with and without bronchial hyperresponsiveness
Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaning staff have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. This study included 13 cleaning employees with work-related asthma-like symptoms, three asthmatic controls and three atopic subjects without bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) who had no exposure to cleaning products. The study protocol consisted of a methacholine test, sputum induction and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurement (FENO) both at baseline and 24 hr after a 1-hr inhalation challenge with either placebo or bleach at a concentration of 0.4 ppm of chlorine. The inhalation of the placebo caused no bronchial reactions. Mean maximum fall in FEV1 during challenge testing with bleach was significantly higher than the values obtained during the placebo challenge. Inhalation challenge with bleach elicited two isolated late asthmatic reactions and one dual asthmatic reaction. Of all the patients who underwent challenge testing with bleach, only one had a ≥2-fold decrease in methacholine PC20 24 hr after the challenge. No significant correlation was found between maximum fall in FEV1 and PC20 methacholine. Following challenge testing with bleach, no clinically significant changes in sputum cell counts or FENO were detected. These results suggest that bleach inhalation at a concentration of 0.4 ppm - a concentration below 8-hr permissible occupational exposure level - brings about a substantial decrease in FEV1 in subjects with and without BHR. Some subjects have a positive challenge response to bleach inhalation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.293-299. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 11-0374 Lilley R., LaMontagne A.D., Firth H.
Combined exposures to workplace psychosocial stressors: Relationships with mental health in a sample of NZ cleaners and clerical workers
A combined measure of two common psychosocial stressors, called job pressure has previously been shown to be strongly associated with poor mental health in high status workers. This study tests the generalizability of this association to lower status workers. A national random cross-sectional sample of 596 cleaners and clerical workers was obtained from the New Zealand electoral roll by occupational title. Cross-sectional data on job stressors, demographics, and mental health were collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Combined exposure to low job control, high job demands and job insecurity (high job pressure) was associated with markedly elevated odds (13-fold or higher) of poor mental health after adjustment for age, sex, occupation, and education.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.405-409. 25 ref.

CIS 11-0013 Kriebel D., Jacobs M.M., Markkanen P., Tickner J.
Lessons learned - Solutions for workplace safety and health
This report presents six case studies that illustrate systemic failures to protect workers, communities and the environment such as: immigrant workers killed and severely burned in house fires caused by the chemicals used to refinish wood floors; health care workers, hotel housekeepers, as well as meat and poultry workers disabled by back injuries and other musculoskeletal strain from long hours of awkward postures and repetitive movements; long and avoidable delays in the scientific and legal proceedings used to set health standards protecting workers from cancer-causing chemicals. The report identifies seven high-priority strategies for making workplaces safer. While improved regulations and enforcement are clearly needed, there are many other opportunities to improve workers' health and safety. A key conclusion is that work-related injury and illnesses could be prevented if chemicals, production processes and technologies were designed with worker health in mind. "Prevention through design" initiatives are now being used to design buildings that eliminate hazards and make jobs, products, and materials inherently safer.
Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Ave., Kitson 210, Lowell, MA 01854, USA, 2011. iii, 129p. Illus. Bibl. Ref. Price: USD 40.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Lessons_learned.pdf [in English]


CIS 11-0820 Scandella F., Chulvi Ferriols B., Grégoire D., Heuts P.
Cleaning up: Workers under pressure
Nettoyage: des travailleurs sous haute pression [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the working conditions in the cleaning sector: growing employment across Europe; poor state of health of cleaning workers; findings of a survey on musculoskeletal disease in a region of France; conditions of employment; low social respect for the occupation; growing unionization of cleaning workers.
Hesamag, 2nd half 2010, No.2, p.10-35. Illus.

CIS 11-0207 Ahonen E.Q., López-Jacob M.J., Vázquez M.L., Porthé V., Gil-González D., García A.M., Ruiz-Frutos C., Benach J., Benavides F.G.
Invisible work, unseen hazards: The health of women immigrant household service workers in Spain
This study examines the occupational hazards and health effects identified by immigrant women household service workers. It involved 46 documented and undocumented immigrant women in household services in Spain. Data were collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews. In a second phase of analysis, data on psychosocial hazards were organized using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire as a guide. Participants reported a number of environmental, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards and corresponding health effects. Psychosocial hazards were especially strongly present in data. Data on reported hazards were similar by documentation status and varied by several emerging categories: whether participants were primarily cleaners or household helpers and whether they lived in or outside of the homes of their employers. Documentation status was relevant in terms of empowerment and bargaining, but did not appear to influence work tasks or exposure to hazards directly. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.405-416. 48 ref.

CIS 11-0184 Krause N., Rugulies R., Maslach C.
Effort-rewards imbalance at work and self-rated health of Las Vegas hotel room cleaners
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) at work and self-rated health (SF-36) among 941 Las Vegas hotel room cleaners (99% female, 84% immigrant). Data was subjected to logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, health behaviour, physical workload and other potential confounders. 50% reported ERI and 60% poor or fair general health. Significant associations were found between ERI and all SF-36 health measures. Workers in the upper quartile of the efforts/rewards ratio were 2-5 times more likely to experience poor or fair general health, low physical function, high levels of pain, fatigue, and role limitations due to physical and mental health problems. The cross-sectional design limits causal interpretation of these associations. However, the development of interventions to reduce ERI and to improve general health among room cleaners deserves high priority considering that both high ERI and low self-rated health have predicted chronic diseases and mortality in prospective studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.372-386. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 10-0582 Dorevitch S., Lacey S.E., Abelmann A., Zautcke J.
Occupational needlestick injuries in a US airport
To characterize needlestick injuries (NSIs) among airport workers, and to suggest preventive strategies, a retrospective review (2003-2008) was conducted of workers evaluated at a clinic in a large United States airport that provides occupational health services. Over a period of six years, 14 NSI cases were seen. The majority of injuries occurred while workers cleaned lavatories in the airport or on airplanes. Insulin needles were involved in most cases, and the injuries typically occurred on the hand. No cases of hepatitis B, C, or HIV seroconversion were documented, although follow-up was typically incomplete. The improper disposal of used insulin needles among travellers can result in potential bloodborne pathogen exposure among airport workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.52, No.5, p.551-554. 31 ref.
Occupational_needlestick_injuries.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0412 Lacey S.E., Abelmann. A., Dorevitch S.
Exposure to human waste from spills while servicing aircraft lavatories: Hazards and methods of prevention
Workers service the lavatories of commercial aircraft approximately 11 million times per year in the United States and may have exposure to the spectrum of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites potentially found in human waste. An industrial hygiene inspection of the workplace was conducted by an interdisciplinary occupational safety and health team, during which the tasks carried out by lavatory waste operators and supervisors were observed. Exposure to untreated waste can occur through dermal, ingestion and inhalation in quantities ranging from droplets to large spills. Several engineering and administrative measures were advised to minimize worker exposure, including the effective locking of a critical valve and a mechanism for communicating valve locking problems.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.123-128. Illus. 20 ref.
Exposure_to_human_waste.pdf [in English]


CIS 11-0638 Özer Sarı F.
Effects of employee trainings on the occupational safety and health in accommodation sector
Organizing employee training and maintaining occupational safety and health (OSH) are among the main functions of enterprise human resources departments. These two functions interact and serve the aim of protecting employees' physical, psychological and social health. This article discusses the effects of employee training on OSH among salaried housekeepers of residential buildings in Turkey.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2009, Vol.1, p.1865-1870. 6 ref.
Effects_of_employee_trainings.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0791 Algranti A., de Fátima Maçãira E., Medina Coeli Mendoça E.
You, the cleaning worker! Shall we talk?
Você, trabalhador da limpeza! Vamos conversar? [in Portuguese]
The objective of this booklet is to draw attention to the risks arising from exposure to vapours, gases and dust from products used or during the actual activity of daily cleaning, focusing on the onset of symptoms that may precede the development of diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. It makes some recommendations for care while performing tasks that can help prevent unnecessary exposure to these products. It makes also some guidance on workers' rights and procedures for the diagnosis and recognition of asthma and rhinitis as occupational diseases.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, 05409-002 São Paulo SP, Brazil, 2009. 19p. Illus.
Você_trabalhador_da_limpeza.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 10-0686 Preventing harm to cleaning workers
Protéger les nettoyeurs de locaux et de surface [in French]
Prevención de daños a los trabajadores del sector de la limpieza [in Spanish]
Cleaning is carried out in every workplace. Cleaning itself is a growing sector, as it is a service that is increasingly being put out to tender. While there are some very large cleaning contractors, the sector is dominated by small businesses, many of which employ fewer than 10 workers. This fact sheet summarizes the key points of a report which explains that cleaning is an essential task, that when done well can reduce both risks to workers' safety and health and costs to the business, for example by extending the life of workplace equipment and furnishings, and keeping floor surfaces in good condition. In some industries such as the food and catering sectors, poor cleaning can cause a business to fail. This fact sheet is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
Facts_86/EN.pdf [in English]
Facts_86/FR.pdf [in French]
Facts_86/ES.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0075 Tregenza T., Kosk-Bienko J.
Preventing harm to cleaning workers
Cleaning is carried out in every workplace. In some industries, such as the food and catering sectors, poor cleaning can cause a business to fail. Cleaning is an essential task and, when done well, it can reduce both costs to the company and the risks to workers' safety and health. This report considers the challenges to be overcome in improving the safety and health of cleaners, and examines actions taken to achieve this goal. It focuses on challenges associated with cleaning tasks, seeking solutions to these challenges that can reduce the risks to workers' health and safety. Main topics covered: changes and challenges in the cleaning sector; cleaners' safety and health at the European level; actions at Member State level; actions taken by companies and institutions; tackling structural issues in the cleaning sector, improving safety and health at the workplace level; help for SMEs; points to remember for different stakeholders.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 225p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: EUR 15.00 (excluding VAT). Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 09-1324 Meo S.A., Al-Drees A.M., Rasheed S., Meo I.M., Al-Saadi M.M., Ghani H.A., Alkandari J.R.
Health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during oil spillage from a Greek tanker "Tasman Spirit"
This case-control study aimed at investigating health complaints among 50 healthy, non-smoking male workers subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during a spillage from an oil tanker, compared to an age-matched group of unexposed nonsmoking male controls. Participants were evaluated by means of a comprehensive interview. Subjects involved in oil cleanup operations had significantly higher rates than controls of cough, rhinitis, eye irritation, sore throat, headache, nausea and general illness. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.2, p.143-148. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 09-1286 Bondéelle A., Ginibrière G., Larcher C., Ravallec C., Vaudoux D.
Cleaning sector - Brushing-up of work practices
Secteur de la propreté - Faire le ménage dans les pratiques [in French]
Topics addressed in this special feature on the cleaning sector: key statistics of the sector in France; relationship between services providers and their clients; taking into account of cleaning in the design phase of food industry equipment; environmentally sound methods and products; prevention of musculoskeletal diseases among window cleaners; work time schedules.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2009, No.701, p.18-31. Illus. 9 ref.$file/TS701page18.pdf?openelement [in French]

CIS 09-1344 Viau S., Dion C., Perrault G., Dufresne A.
Cleaning and decontamination of workplaces containing beryllium - Techniques and cleaning solutions
Nettoyage et décontamination des lieux de travail où il y a présence de béryllium - Techniques et solutions nettoyantes [in French]
This study evaluated the effectiveness of alternative cleaning methods for surfaces of materials made of copper-beryllium (CuBe) and materials without Be, three surface sampling techniques (wipe sampling with moistened wipes, "micro-vacuuming" and colorimetry using the ChemTest), and various cleaning and decontamination methods used in practice. The results indicate that it is difficult to comply with the threshold value of 0.2µ/100cm2 of Be on surfaces made of copper-beryllium. However, cleaning with a neutral or alkaline product (less aggressive than an acid cleaner) keeps the surface contamination level below 3.0µ/100cm2.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. viii, 62p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in English] [in French]


CIS 09-381 Cleaning sector
Secteur du nettoyage [in French]
Schoonmaaksector [in Dutch]
This folder consists of the guide for the participative identification of hazards (Dépistage participatif des risques, Déparis) adapted to the cleaning sector. It contains the following documents: booklet presenting the SOBANE (screening, observation, analysis and expertise) strategy; leaflet inviting participants to attend a Déparis meeting; Déparis participative guide applied to the cleaning sector containing 17 tables addressing various aspects of the job.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2008. Folder containing several booklets and leaflets. Illus. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 08-1381 Debia M., Bégin D., Gérin M.
Case study of solvent substitution in the cleaning of high-voltage circuit breakers
Etude de cas de substitution de solvant pour le nettoyage de disjoncteurs haute tension [in French]
This article presents a project undertaken in view of the substitution of the solvent currently used for removing silicone grease during the maintenance of high-voltage circuit breakers, namely a mixture of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and saturated hydrocarbons, which has been identified as the cause of mucous membrane irritation in several workers. Furthermore, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene are known carcinogens. A nine-step systematic approach was adopted, consisting of supplier surveys, small-scale testing and more in-depth evaluations, leading to the selection of octamethyltrisiloxane. However, for reasons of cost, the enterprise finally selected the "Skysol" solvent (a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons and 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol).
Travail et santé, Sep. 2008, Vol. 24, No.3, p.30-36. 50 ref.

CIS 08-726 Kumar R., Kumar S.
Musculoskeletal risk factors in cleaning occupation - A literature review
The objective of this literature survey on risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among cleaners was to identify recommended practices, problems, and unresolved issues. The most frequently-cited factors were found to be the high physical and psychosocial workloads. Recommended ergonomic interventions are summarized in a model to present a systematic overview, useful for research and practical applications.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.158-170. Illus. Approx. 100 ref.


CIS 09-327 de Fátima Maçãira E., Algranti E., Coeli Mendonça E.M., Bussacos M. A.
Rhinitis and asthma symptoms in non-domestic cleaners from the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of rhinitis and asthma symptoms among cleaners and to analyse associated risk factors. Questionnaires on respiratory symptoms were administered to 341 cleaners working in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, full occupational histories were obtained, and skin prick tests and spirometry were performed. The timing of their symptoms onset in relation to occupational history allowed estimating the proportion of work-related asthma and rhinitis. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression. Asthma and rhinitis were present in 11% and 35% of the cleaners, respectively. Risk factors of work-related asthma and rhinitis included years of employment and atopy. There was a higher risk of rhinitis among women. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.64, No.7, p.446-453. Illus. 36 ref.


CIS 08-1478 Gamperiene M., Nygård J.F., Sandanger I., Wærsted M., Bruusgaard D.
The impact of psychosocial and organizational working conditions on the mental health of female cleaning personnel in Norway
This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff from seven cleaning organizations in various locations across the country. The response rate was 64%. The questionnaires assessed socio-demographic information, employment history, work organization and psychosocial working conditions. Mental health was assessed using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25). The proportion of cleaning women scoring a HSCL-25 ≥1.75 was 17.5%, which is higher than the prevalence of mental health problems among all working Norwegian women (8.4%). Quality of supervision, collaboration with co-workers and ethnicity were significantly associated with mental health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2006, Vol.1, No.24, 10p. 55 ref.

CIS 06-1478 Woods V., Buckle P.
Musculoskeletal ill health amongst cleaners and recommendations for work organizational change
The findings from an investigation into the musculoskeletal health of cleaners in the United Kingdom are presented. Questionnaire surveys of 1216 cleaners, 130 assessments of cleaning tasks and interviews with 38 cleaners working in various types of premises (hospitals, schools, government agencies, enterprises) were undertaken to identify potential risk factors for musculoskeletal ill health. Based on the findings, recommendations are proposed related to work scheduling, work practices, teamwork, reporting systems for musculoskeletal ill heath, procedures for risk assessment; training programmes, equipment selection and maintenance procedures.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 2006, Vol.36, No.1, p.61-72. 57 ref.


CIS 06-1370 Zock J.P.
World at work: Cleaners
Cleaning workers form an important proportion of the total working population, particularly among women. This paper reviews some of the most common occupational hazards in cleaning work, and discusses possibilities to improve control and prevention. Topics covered: physical workload and strain; accidents; dermal, respiratory and other effects of chemical products; psychosocial problems; measures to protect workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.62, No.8, p.581-584. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 06-978 Kumar R., Chaikumarn M., Kumar S.
Psychological, subjective and postural loads in passenger train wagon cleaning using a conventional and redesigned cleaning tool
A cleaning process for passenger train wagons was studied and analysed using both conventional and ergonomically-redesigned cleaning tools. Results of a study of 13 cleaners performing their normal tasks showed that perceived exertion, oxygen consumption and heart rate were significantly lower when using the new tool and the postural load was also significantly less. It is concluded that the redesigned cleaning tool allowed cleaners to maintain a more upright posture when cleaning, thus reducing biomechanical load.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 2005, Vol.35, No.10, p.931-938. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 06-329 Yeung S.S.M., Yu I.T.S., Hui K.Y.L.
World at work: Aircraft cabin cleaning
This article describes the occupational health aspects of aircraft cabin cleaning at Hong Kong airport, where the total number of workers employed by the three cleaning contractors is around 1200. This occupation involves specific hazards due in particular to poor ergonomics, the lack of space and tight working schedules. Topics addressed: job tasks; occupational hazards (noise, musculoskeletal disorders, cleaning agents, shift work); measures to protect workers (ergonomic tools, maintenance of equipment, medical supervision).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.62, No.1, p.58-60. Illus. 1 ref.


CIS 07-654 Cleantool - European database of good practices
Cleantool - Europäische Datenbank Gute Praxis [in German]
Industrial enterprises in Europe are required to use innocuous substances for the cleaning of metals. Since searching for suitable approaches can be long and costly, a database entitled Cleantool was developed. It documents approximately 130 cleaning procedures used in various industries in five European countries. The processes included in this database were selected according to the following criteria: cleaning technology; cleaning efficiency; cost factors; environmental impact; occupational safety and health implications.
Basi Infoprint, June 2004, No.20, p.9-10. Illus. 1 ref. [in German]

CIS 04-198 Salsi S., Lovat G., Musset O., Boquillon J.P., Oltra R.
Assessment and prevention of ocular risks during the cleaning of buildings using lasers
Evaluation et prévention des risques optiques induits par le nettoyage laser des bâtiments [in French]
Cleaning of buildings using lasers is a technique used since the early 1990s replacing conventional processes, which have often used products that were either excessively abrasive for building materials or were dangerous to the operator and/or the environment. Laser cleaning allows the total or selective elimination of black weathering crusts from stone surfaces without causing any harmful effects. Laser radiation can be partially or even totally reflected by the material being cleaned, and this reflection can cause irreversible eye injury. Wearing protective spectacles is therefore essential. However, absorption saturation effects have been observed in some safety spectacles, making them temporarily transparent to laser radiation and unreliable at high energy levels. Various safety spectacles were tested and found not to comply with the claims of manufacturers with respect to spectral transmission and optical densities. Extreme care should be taken when selecting safety spectacles for use by cleaning operators who use lasers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.196, p.7-19. Illus. 14 ref.


CIS 05-147 Beauclair J., Dumait C., Gardia C., Gautier J., Heye P., Metay M., Vandevyver B.
Food industry plants. Integrating cleaning and disinfection considerations when designing the premises
Usines agroalimentaires. Intégrer le nettoyage et la désinfection à la conception des locaux [in French]
Disinfection and cleaning represent key activities in the food industry. In order to make these operations easier and to ensure their effectiveness, their requirements and constraints should be integrated as early as possible into the design of the premises. This information sheet summarizes the principles to be followed for an intelligent design of the premises so as to ensure better safety in relation to occupational hazards and food contamination.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2003. 10p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed106.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1813 Hartwig S., Rupp A., Puls E., Kim J.H., Binder F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Cleaning and maintenance of industrial installations: Exposure to substances
Reinigung und Instandhaltung von Industrieanlagen: Stoffbelastungen [in German]
A total of 175 job observations were carried out in 12 companies during cleaning, maintenance and repair work. The average time needed for the tasks was recorded, and the organization workflow related to the tasks was noted. Moreover, respiratory and dermal exposures were assessed for the distinct tasks during non-normal production modes. The provision conditions and the type and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were noted. It was found that in approximately 25% of the cases investigated, hazardous substances were present in concentrations considerably exceeding the recommended threshold values. The PPEs were wrongly used more than 75% of the cases, and were wrongly dimensioned or not correctly provided in 50% of the cases.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. xvii, 168p. Illus. 57 ref. Price: EUR 16.50.

CIS 03-1347
Health and Safety Executive
Safe maintenance, repair and cleaning procedures - Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 - Approved code of practice and guidance
The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR) (see CIS 03-1035) are concerned with the protection of workers against fires, explosions and similar events arising from the presence of dangerous substances in the workplace. This approved code of practice on safe maintenance, repair and cleaning procedures is part of a series intended to help enterprises in the implementation of DSEAR. Contents: assessment of risks (dangerous substances as a result of work activity); elimination or reduction of risks from dangerous substances (eliminating dangerous substances from plant and work areas, systems of work, permits to work, activities involving hot work).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2003. vi, 18p. 24 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.


CIS 03-932 Wirtanen G., Langsrud S., Salo S., Olofson U., Alnås H., Neuman M., Homleid J.P., Mattila-Sandholm T.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Evaluation of sanitation procedures for use in dairies
This project focused on monitoring sanitation methods of open and closed dairy systems, including fogging, ozonation, footbath hygiene, cleaning of cheese moulds and yoghurt pasteurizers. It also addressed the development of testing procedures for measuring disinfectant efficacy, microbial resistance phenomena against disinfectants and of an evaluation procedure for the functionality of the cleaning operations. Based on the results, new procedures in hygiene have been implemented in dairies.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2002. 96+48p. Illus. 132 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1573 Automobile washing and lubricating workshops
Talleres de lavado y engrase de coches [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in automobile washing and lubricating workshops and the principal applicable prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 47p. Illus. [in Spanish]


CIS 03-353
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical cleaners
This information note describes the health hazards associated with the use of chemical cleaners used, for example, for cleaning building facades, statues and monuments, and provides safety and health guidance for their use or the supervision of their use. Topics covered: health hazards due to skin contact or inhalation of fumes and mist; informed to be obtained on the damages caused by strong acids and alkalis before their use; precautionary measures (preventing or controlling exposure, use of appropriate protective equipment, personal hygiene); protection of the public; cleaning of scaffolds and equipment after use; spillages; first aid. Reprinted with updated references (replaces CIS 99-2009).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 2p. 6 ref. [in English]


CIS 02-1761 Richez J.P.
Avoiding falls from heights - Ballet of robots of the glazing of Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle
Prévention des chutes de hauteur - La danse des robots sur les vitrages de Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle [in French]
In order to limit work at heights, the Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle airport in Paris opted for a remotely-controlled system for the cleaning of glazing in the new passenger terminal. This allows human interventions on the roof to be limited to equipment repair and maintenance. The robotic cleaning system is described in this article.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2000, No.599, p.2-6. Illus.

CIS 02-592 Six steps for facing minor spills
6 pasos para enfrentar derrames menores [in Spanish]
When faced with a minor spill or leakage, one should proceed in the following sequence: evaluate the hazard; notify the supervisor; take immediate actions (evacuate the area, cut-off the supply of product to the leaking equipment, use personal protective equipment); take further control measures; clean-up the area; take decontamination measures. The booklet includes a check list for hazard evaluation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 11p. Illus.

CIS 01-1439 De Vito G., Molteni G., Camerino D., Bordini L., Molinari M, Capodaglio P.
Ageing and work: Health aspects in cleaners
Invecchiamento e lavoro: aspetti sanitari nelle attività di pulizia [in Italian]
Since negative outcomes for health are possible when an age-related imbalance appears between physical workload and work capacity, cleaning is considered to be a suitable activity for the studying of the relationship between ageing and physically demanding jobs. Workers in this profession, mostly women, generally have low social status and are poorly educated with low levels of income and social support. The actual study involved 49 cleaners, all female, in the Italian cities of Milan and Pavia (average age: 37.8 and 34.8, respectively). The pathologies found were, mostly, musculoskeletal diseases. An increased prevalence of disorders of the elbow, the wrist, the hand and the cervical spine was revealed. These conditions seemed to be caused by poor work organization and non-ergonomic tools. This paper was presented at an International Seminar on Ageing and Work, held in Verona (Italy) on 7 Apr. 2000.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.91, No.4, p.387-402. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 01-575
Health and Safety Executive
Safe systems of work for cleaning flexographic, rotary letterpress and gravure printing presses
This information sheet was produced by the Printing Industry Advisory Committee in response to concerns about the large number of accidents occurring during operation and maintenance of flexographic, rotary letterpress and gravure printing presses. It provides guidance for employees and supervisors on safe working methods. Main topics covered: accident trends, 1991/1992 to 1995/96; causes of accidents; examples of incidents involving flexographic, rotary letterpress and gravure printing presses; description of a step-by-step approach to the choice of an appropriate method of work (assessing safeguarding standards; deciding on the appropriate safe system for cleaning; training and instruction of employees; monitoring and review by managers). A safeguard checklist is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 4p.

CIS 01-574
Health and Safety Executive
Safe systems of work for cleaning web-fed offset lithographic printing presses
This information sheet was produced by the Printing Industry Advisory Committee in response to concerns about the large number of accidents occurring during operation and maintenance of web-fed printing presses. It provides guidance for employees and supervisors on safe working methods. Main topics covered: accident trends, 1991/1992 to 1995/96; causes of accidents; examples of incidents involving web-fed offset presses; description of a step-by-step approach to the choice of an appropriate method of work (assessing safeguarding standards; deciding on the appropriate safe system for cleaning; training and instruction of employees; monitoring and review by managers). A safeguard checklist is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 4p.

CIS 01-573
Health and Safety Executive
Safe systems of work for cleaning sheet-fed offset lithographic printing presses
This information sheet was produced by the Printing Industry Advisory Committee in response to concerns about the large number of accidents occurring during operation and maintenance of sheet-fed printing presses. It provides guidance for employees and supervisors on safe working methods. Main topics covered: accident trends, 1991/1992 to 1995/96; causes of accidents; examples of incidents involving shed-fed offset presses; step-by-step approach to the choice of an appropriate method of work (assessing safeguarding standards; deciding on the appropriate safe system for cleaning; training and instruction of employees; monitoring and review by managers). A safeguard checklist is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 4p.

CIS 00-1375
Health and Safety Executive
Safety during emptying and cleaning of fryers
Accidents during the emptying and cleaning of fryers are a major cause of burns suffered by employees in the restaurant industry. This information sheet provides guidance on how to empty and clean fryers safely. Contents include: list of main hazards; when to empty and clean; proper sequence for oil draining; cleaning procedures; training of employees.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2000. 2p. 4 ref.


CIS 02-302 Besser G., Werner W.
Modern methods of mask maintenance - A new cost-effective process for cleaning and disinfecting of protective masks
Moderne Maskenwartung - Ein neues kostengünstiges Verfahren für die Reinigung und Desinfektion von Atemschutzmasken [in German]
Masks used by firefighters or rescue workers need to be regularly cleaned and disinfected. A new process for the maintenance of these masks is described. After an initial cursory wash, the masks are placed in protective bags, and washed and disinfected in a single operation in a programmable industrial machine. Besides being economical, this process avoids in most cases the need to dismantle the mask before washing.
Drägerheft, Dec. 1999, No.370, p.26-34. Illus.

CIS 01-1090 Crestois M., Lambert S.
Guidance aimed at building caretakers
Conseils aux gardiens et gardiennes d'immeuble [in French]
This guidance is aimed at building caretakers. Topics include: protective gloves; clothing for interior and exterior use; cleaning equipment; cleaning of sanitary facilities; handling of refuse containers; maintenance of gardens and exterior surfaces; cleaning of garbage chutes; cleaning underground and parking surfaces; problems of hypodermic needles; assault; splashes of cleaning products on eyes or skin; recommended vaccinations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.3, p.327-329.

CIS 01-452 Greco R.M., Machado de Queiros V., da Rocha Gomes J.
Workload on technical services staff at the USP nursing school
Cargas de trabalho dos técnicos operacionais da escola de enfermagem da USP [in Portuguese]
This study was undertaken at the São Paulo University Nursing School (EEUSP), in order to identify the working hazards of general services staff at EEUSP. It is based on the perception of their actual work processes. Considering the elements of the work process, physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, and psychological loads were analysed. It is concluded that the most frequent and relevant loads are psychological and mechanical in nature, due to the way the work is organized, as well as to the equipment and instruments used by the operational technicians at EEUSP.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 1999, Vol.25, No.95/96, p.59-75. 26 ref.

CIS 00-1167 Haslam R.A., Williams H.J.
Ergonomic considerations in the design and use of single disc floor cleaning machines
This study investigated ergonomics issues connected with the use of single-disc floor cleaning machines (buffers/polishers). Methods included interview/questionnaire surveys of users and other groups (maintenance personnel, purchasing managers, manufacturer representatives), along with video analysis. A notable proportion of users (56%) reported discomfort from machine use, mostly musculoskeletal in origin. Main locations were hand (39%), shoulder (19%), wrist (7%), lower back (7%) and arm (6%). Deficiencies were identified with the design and configuration of the handle/operating-switch. Problems were also found arising from the trailing power cable, along with manual handling implications due to machine size and weight. It is concluded that there is scope to improve on current designs.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.30, No.5, p.391-399. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 00-749 Schulz T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Management systems in building cleaning services: Integration of safety, health and environmental protection measures
Managementsystem im Gebäudereiniger-Handwerk: Eingliederung von Sicherheits-, Gesundheits- und Umweltschutzmassnahmen [in German]
Processes existing in a selected company of the cleaning contracting sector were examined in the light of applicable laws and regulations, customer needs and profitability requirements to define a generic management system for the sector. This report describes the setting up of an ISO 9001 quality management system integrating safety and health as well as environmental protection. It presents the quality manual and describes how employees participate in the implementation of the system. The preventive approach of the company which integrates safety, health and environmental aspects in the quality management system has also beneficial effects on the national economy.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Bürgermeister-Smidt-Str. 74-76, Postfach 10 11 10, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 71p. Illus. 54 ref.


CIS 00-1778 Henry S.C., Estryn-Behar M., Personne de Chalex M., Guenane L., Fatmi S.
Ergonomic evaluation of three floor cleaning techniques
Observation ergonomique du lavage des sols selon trois techniques [in French]
Topics: cleaning; domestic and related helpers, cleaners; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; evaluation of equipment; evaluation of technique; flooring; France; heavy work; questionnaire survey; work posture.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.74, p.125-130. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 99-1812 Cleaning services - Control of occupational hazards
Les entreprises de propreté - Prévention des risques [in French]
Topics: check lists; cleaning of workplaces; cleaning; commuting accidents; cost of accidents; dangerous substances; electricity; first aid; France; information of personnel; machine tools; manual handling; personal protective equipment; plant safety organization; responsibilities; safety and health committees; safety and health training; safety guides; subcontractors; toxic substances; training material; waste disposal; work at height; work organization; work posture.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 1998. 71p. Illus. Index.

CIS 99-2009
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical cleaners
Replaces CIS 93-276. This information note describes the health hazards associated with the use of chemical cleaners used for cleaning building facades, statues, etc. and provides safety and health guidance for their use or the supervision of their use. Topics: caustic substances; cleaning; construction industry; data sheet; first aid; harmful substances; limitation of exposure; neighbourhood protection; personal hygiene; personal protective equipment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Sep. 1998. 2p. 6 ref.

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