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Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entries found

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  • Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar)


CIS 03-1664 El-Zein M., Malo J.L., Infante-Rivard C., Gautrin D.
Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence among welders of coexisting symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA). A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, systemic symptoms and occupational history was administered by telephone to a sample of 351 welders from two cities in Quebec, Canada. The co-occurrence of possible MFF together with welding-related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA was 5.8%, these two groups of symptoms being significantly associated. In conclusion, there is a strong association between welding-related MFF and welding-related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding-related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.60, No.9, p.655-661. 28 ref.

CIS 03-1836 NIOSH Alert - Prevention of lung disease in workers who use or make flavorings
This booklet describes health effects that may occur because of workplace exposure to flavourings or their ingredients. It gives examples of workplace settings in which lung disease has occurred, and recommends steps that companies and workers should take to prevent hazardous exposures. An appendix includes a list of flavouring substances with the corresponding OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs).
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Dec. 2003. 15p. 19 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1677 Liss G.M., Tarlo S.M., Doherty J., Purdham J., Greene J., McCaskell L., Kerr M.
Physician diagnosed asthma, respiratory symptoms, and associations with workplace tasks among radiographers in Ontario, Canada
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms among medical radiation technologists (MRTs) and to identify work-related risk factors in the darkroom environment that are associated with these outcomes. Physiotherapists were used as controls. A postal questionnaire was addressed to members of the professional associations of MRTs and physiotherapists in the Province of Ontario, Canada, to ascertain the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and respiratory symptoms in the past 12 months. Information on exposure factors during the past 12 months, such as ventilation conditions, processor leaks, cleanup activities, and use of personal protective equipment was also collected. Analyses were confined to 1110 MRTs and 1523 physiotherapists who never smoked. Findings suggest an increase of work-related asthma and respiratory symptoms among MRTs. The mechanism is not known but appears to be linked with workplace factors and may involve a role for irritant exposures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.60, No.4, p.254-261. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 03-1752 Hnizdo E., Vallyathan V.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to silica dust: A review of epidemiological and pathological evidence
Occupational exposure is an important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiological and pathological studies suggest that silica dust exposure can lead to COPD, even in the absence of radiological signs of silicosis. Recent clinicopathological and experimental studies have contributed further towards explaining the potential mechanism through which silica can cause pathological changes that may lead to the development of COPD. This article reviews recent epidemiological and pathological evidence relevant to the development of COPD in workers exposed to silica dust. The evidence surveyed suggests that chronic levels of silica dust that do not cause disabling silicosis may nonetheless cause chronic bronchitis, emphysema and/or small airways disease, all of which can result in airflow obstruction even in the absence of radiologically-diagnosed silicosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.60, No.4, p.237-243. Illus. 83 ref.

CIS 03-1761 Koksal N., Hasanoglu H.C., Gokirmak M., Yildirim Z., Gultek A.
Apricot sulfurization: An occupation that induces an asthma-like syndrome in agricultural environments
The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure on the airways of the workers involved in apricot sulfurization. SO2 levels in air were measured on 15 apricot farms, while the symptom scores of 69 workers were recorded before, during and after SO2 exposure. Physical examination and pulmonary function tests of the workers were also done prior to and after exposure periods. The measured SO2 concentrations ranged between 106.6 and 721.0ppm. Dyspnoea (80%), cough (78%) and eye and nose irritation (83-70%) were the most commonly observed symptoms. The workers had significant decreases in pulmonary functions after SO2 exposure. Decrements in FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, and FEF25-75% showed that the acute effect of SO2 on pulmonary functions of the workers was mostly of the obstructive kind. It is concluded that acute exposure to SO2 induces "asthma-like syndrome" in apricot sulfurization workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.43, No.4, p.447-453. 39 ref.

CIS 03-1675 Svendsen K., Sjaastad A.K., Sivertsen I.
Respiratory symptoms in kitchen workers
To study the possible association between cooking fumes and respiratory diseases other than cancer, all employees in 67 restaurant kitchens were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding the presence of dyspnoea, serious dyspnoea, cough and respiratory symptoms in connection with work. The study group consisted of 139 women and 100 men. The prevalence of dyspnoea (relative risk RR=4.1), serious dyspnoea (RR=2.9) and symptoms in connection with work (RR=4.3) were significantly higher for women kitchen workers compared to unexposed controls selected from the general population. Among the men, only dyspnoea (RR=1.8) and symptoms in connection with work (RR=2.1) showed an increased prevalence. An analysis of possible predictors for respiratory symptoms in connection with work gave an odds ratio of 3.2 for "working in a restaurant kitchen."
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.43, No.4, p.436-439. 18 ref.

CIS 03-1616 Coeli Mendonça E.M., Algranti E., Pires de Freitas J.B., Rosa E.A., dos Santos Freire J.A., de Paula Santos U., Pinto J., Bussacos M.A.
Occupational asthma in the city of São Paulo, 1995-2000, with special reference to gender analysis
Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease in the area of São Paulo Municipality (Brazil). From a joint registry of OA from five outpatient public clinics for occupational respiratory diseases, data on occupation, causal agents, exposure and symptom duration, and spirometry were analysed by gender. 394 OA cases were reported with a ratio of men/women of 1.5. Women had significantly shorter exposure durations (5.6±5.2 vs. 8.9±9.0 years), shorter symptoms duration (2.6±3.7 vs. 3.2±3.5 years), and higher prevalence of previous atopy (27.0 vs. 18.4%). The main occupations related to OA cases were cleaning activities, working in plastics manufacturing and in chemical and pharmaceutical plants. Women reported more exposures to cleaning products, biological agents and textile fibres, whereas men reported more exposures to isocyanates, metal dusts and fumes, oil mists, wood dusts and anhydrides. Women presented an increased risk of OA in the service sector (odds ratio 1.77).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2003, Vol.43, No.6, p.611-617. 27 ref.

CIS 03-1666 Dement J.M., Welch L., Bingham E., Cameron B., Rice C., Quinn P., Ringen K.
Surveillance of respiratory diseases among construction and trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites
Medical screening programs were initiated in 1996 at three nuclear weapons facilities to evaluate whether current and former construction workers were at significant risk for occupational illnesses. The focus of this report is pneumoconiosis associated with exposures to asbestos and silica among workers enrolled in the screening programs through 30 September 2001. Workers provided a detailed work and exposure history and underwent a respiratory examination, which included a respiratory symptom questionnaire, a chest radiograph and spirometry. Of the 2,602 workers enrolled in the project, 25.2% showed one or more chest X-ray changes by ILO criteria and 42.7% demonstrated one or more pulmonary function defects. The overall prevalence of parenchymal changes by ILO criteria was 5.4%. In the logistic regression models, the odds ratio for parenchymal disease was 2.6 for workers employed 6 to 20 years and increased to 3.6 for workers employed more than 35 years, with additional incremental risks for workers reporting routine exposures to asbestos or silica.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2003, Vol.43, No.6, p.559-573. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 03-1187 Rammeh H., Ajroudi F., Abdelwaheb R., Annabi F., Hammami H., Daly L., Nouaigui H., Ben Laïba M., Ben Khedher A.
Study of respiratory morbidity among poultry farm workers
Etude de la morbidité respiratoire chez les éleveurs de volailles [in French]
Poultry farm workers are at risk of respiratory allergies as a consequence of their exposure to droppings, feathers and fine epidermal desquamations. This cross- sectional study was carried out at three Tunisian poultry farming enterprises employing a total of 129 exposed workers. Concentrations of respirable dust and harmful chemicals were determined, and workers were subjected to medical examinations. Dust and chemicals were below permissible levels. Chronic cough and/or bronchorrhoea was present among 8.6% of the study population, and asthma among 4%. Taken together, respiratory diseases including cough, dyspnoea and rhinitis were found among 12.5% of the subjects. Finally, radiographic anomalies typical of allergic alveolitis were found in 5.4% of subjects.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 2003, No.27, p.14-17. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 03-1436 Duchaine C., Veillette M., Cormier Y., Lavoie J., Desjardins F., Bouzid H.
Microbiological analysis of metal cutting fluids - Exploratory study
Analyse microbiologique des fluides de coupe de métaux - Etude exploratoire [in French]
The objective of this study was to establish the physical and chemical properties of soluble cutting fluids used in three metalworking enterprises in Quebec, and to evaluate their levels of microbial contamination. The respiratory health of the workers at one of the three enterprises was also determined. Novel analytical methods were employed, including colouring techniques involving fluorescent molecules as well as molecular biology techniques allowing the detection of specifically-targeted mycobacteria. High levels of bacterial contamination were found in these fluids. However, the majority of the strains identified are unlikely to account for the respiratory symptoms observed among the workers (allergic alveolitis).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Aug. 2003. iii, 33p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. [in French]

CIS 03-1193 Miller B.G., Graham M.K., Creely K.S., Cowie H.A., Soutar C.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Questionnaire predictors of asthma and occupational asthma
This study provides information towards the development of a questionnaire to identify work-related asthma. A previous postal survey of a community in central Scotland provided a complete data set for almost 12,000 subjects of working age, with responses to a range of questions on respiratory symptoms and their relationship to occupation. For those subjects who had recorded the occupation held when symptoms began, the existing data were augmented by an exposure assessment to characterize exposures typical of those occupations. Certain symptoms were associated, tending to occur together, and a number of syndromes were defined in terms of these. Some limited associations between these syndromes and occupational exposures were identified, particularly with irritant and highly reactive chemicals, and exposure to proteins and other organic substances. These data will be useful for the development of a new questionnaire.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2003. viii, 80p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1316 Jones M., Cullinan P., Durham S., Newman Taylor A.
Health and Safety Executive
Cellular aspects of occupational asthma: Immunological studies in isocyanate exposed subjects
The cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce asthma due to expsoure to low molecular weight chemicals are not fully understood. The aim of this project was to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of low molecular weight chemical haptens and in particular isocyanates. The study was carried out among occupational asthma patients in a university hospital, and involved bronchoscopy, specific IgE and T-cell studies. It was found that there was a lack of local IgE and IL-4 production in the lungs following challenge in patients allergic to isocyanates, which parallels the lack of detectable specific IgE in the serum of the majority of patients with isocyanate-induced asthma. There was, however, evidence of local tissue eosinophilia and IL-5 production. These findings suggest that isocyanate induced asthma in humans is a Th2 type response in which IgE does not have an obligatory role.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. ix, 84p. Illus. 44 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1207 Work-related lung disease surveillance report - 2002
This report is a summary of statistical data for various occupational respiratory diseases on work-related lung diseases in the United States. The data are presented in a series of figures and tables and cover asbestosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, byssinosis, unspecified and other pneumoconioses, all pneumoconioses, malignant mesothelioma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory conditions due to toxic agents, tuberculosis, lung cancer, other interstitial pulmonary diseases, various work-related respiratory conditions and smoking prevalence by industry and occupation. Data are given on mortality, morbidity, and exposure by state, industry, occupation and causal agent.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, May 2003. xxxiv, 246p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1290 Elci O.C., Akpinar-Elci M., Blair A., Dosemeci M.
Risk of laryngeal cancer by occupational chemical exposure in Turkey
Laryngeal cancer is the second most common cancer among men in Turkey. In this hospital-based case-control study, the relationship between laryngeal cancer risk and occupational chemical exposures was evaluated. The study population included 940 laryngeal cancer cases and 1519 controls. Occupational history, tobacco and alcohol use and demographic information were obtained by means of a questionnaire. The job and industries were classified by special seven-digit codes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated based on an exposure matrix for chemicals, including diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formaldehyde and solvents. An excess of laryngeal cancer occurred with diesel exhaust (OR 1.5), gasoline exhaust (OR 1.6) and PAHs (OR 1.3). There was a dose-response relationship for these substances with supraglottic cancers. However, the PAH association only occurred among those who also had exposure to diesel exhaust.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.45, No.10, p.1100-1106. 49 ref.

CIS 03-1305 Pałczyński C., Walusiak J., Krakowiak A., Szymczak W., Wittczak T., Ruta U., Górski P.
Nasal lavage fluid examination in diagnostics of occupational allergy to chloramine
Chloramine T is a known sensitizing agent in the occupational environment of health care workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the nasal challenge test in diagnostics of respiratory allergy to chloramine T. The study was conducted in six subjects with chloramine T asthma and rhinitis. Two control groups comprised seven atopic subjects with asthma and rhinitis and six healthy persons. All controls had negative results of prick tests with chloramine T and none displayed any respiratory symptoms under exposure to the agent. A "nasal pool" technique was used to evaluate morphological and biochemical parameters in nasal washings before and 30min, 4h and 24h after the provocation with chloramine T and placebo. A significant increase was found in the total count and percentage of eosinophils and basophils, albumin, tryptase and eosinophil cationic proteins in the nasal lavage fluid from patients with chloramine T respiratory allergy when compared to both control groups. The results indicate the applicability of the "nasal pool" technique as a diagnostic procedure in chloramine T-induced airway allergy.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2003, Vol.16, No.3, p.231-240. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 03-1434 Rogers M.
Lessons learned from SARS
This article presents examples of how the Canadian operations of several multinational enterprises with frequent contact with East Asia reacted to the threat of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among their employees. It outlines the main preventive actions that need to be taken in the event of a new outbreak of SARS. These include hazard evaluation, identification of alternatives such as home work and developing a human resource policy response addressing the issues of absenteeism, safety and health, commuting and travel. Guidance aimed at employers and employees on the main control measures of infectious diseases are also provided, in the form of check lists.
Accident Prevention, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.50, No.5, p.12-17, 36-37. Illus.

CIS 03-1220 Järvholm B., Silverman D.
Lung cancer in heavy equipment operators and truck drivers with diesel exhaust exposure in the construction industry
To study the risk of lung cancer among truck drivers and among drivers of heavy construction vehicles, data from a computerized register of Swedish construction workers participating in health examinations between 1971 and 1992 was used. A total of 6364 male truck drivers and 14,364 drivers of heavy construction vehicles were selected as case groups, while 119,984 carpenters and electricians constituted the reference group. Operators of heavy construction equipment experienced no increased risk of lung cancer compared to controls (61 cases versus 70.1 expected), with even lower rates for equipment with cabins. Truck drivers had increased risks of cancer of the lung (61 cases versus 47.3 expected) and prostate (124 cases versus 99.7 expected), although only mortality for lung cancer was significantly increased. Comparisons with the general population showed similar results. Results are consistent with those of previous studies suggesting that contrary to truck drivers, heavy equipment operators with potential exposure to diesel exhaust may have little or no increased risk of lung cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.60, No.7, p.516-520. 19 ref.

CIS 03-814 Armstrong B., Hutchinson E., Fletcher T.
Health and Safety Executive
Cancer risk following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): A meta-analysis
Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been known to cause cancer in animals and are classified as human carcinogens. A meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies that include assessments of occupational exposure to PAHs was carried out, in order to identify the determinants of lung and bladder cancer risk. Relevant reports published up to early 2001 were identified systematically using bibliographic databases. From each study that met the inclusion criteria, unit relative risk was estimated by Poisson regression from published tables of risk against estimated cumulative exposure. Distribution and determinants of unit relative risks (URRs) were investigated using standard meta-analytic methods. On average, the URR for lung cancer was 1.20 with significant variation across industries, while for bladder cancer, the average URR was 1.33, with little variation across industries.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 61p. Illus. 64 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 03-644 Criteria for the compensation of occupational asthma and proposal for a scale
Critères de réparation de l'asthme professionnel et proposition d'un barème [in French]
This article discusses reliable criteria for evaluating the degree of functional disabilty due to occupational asthma (FEV1, bronchial hyperreactivity, need for antagonistic β2- and corticoid-based medication). It also proposes a scale of permanent disability as a function of the degree of asthma. Appendices include: protocol for carrying out staged spirometry; protocol for carrying out longitudinal flow-rate measurements; international classification of asthma severity; list of main substances causing occupational asthma and their mode of action; tables for the compensation of occupational asthma in Tunisia; list of Tunisian laboratories capable of carrying out specific tests for the diagnosis of occupational asthma. See also CIS 03-643.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2003, No.24, p.9-18. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 03-643 Diagnosis of occupational asthma
Diagnostic de l'asthme professionnel [in French]
Prepared on the basis of discussions during a consensus conference, this guide enables physicians to recognize, diagnose and treat patients suffering from occupational asthma (OA). Contents: definitions of OA; identification and diagnosis of OA; establishing the occupational nature (identification of the causal agent, spirometric testing, immunological investigations, measuring of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity, specific bronchial provocation testing); evolution and prognosis; compensation. A table summarizes the approach for the diagnosis of OA. See also CIS 03-644.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2003, No.24, p.3-8. Illus.

CIS 03-862 Rice G.M., Vacchiano C.A., Moore J.L., Anderson D.W.
Incidence of decompression sickness in hypoxia training with and without 30-min O2 prebreathe
Naval aircrew are required to participate in hypoxia familiarization training. This training is considered high-risk due to the potential for barotrauma and decompression sickness (DCS). Prior analysis of the DCS in U.S. Navy hypobaric chambers revealed a significantly higher incidence among inside observers (IOs) than among students. In response to these reports, all IOs are required to de-nitrogenate by breathing 100% oxygen for 30min prior to altitude exposure. However, there have been no reports validating the efficacy of this measure. This study examined the incidence of altitude DCS during exposures to simulated altitudes of 25,000ft (25k) and 35,000ft (35k) in IOs and students, some who pre-breathed oxygen and some who did not. Results indicate that a 30-min pre-breathe prior to altitude exposure reduces the risk of DCS.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.74, No.1, p.56-61. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 03-756 Rosenberg N.
Occupational asthma from colophony
Asthme professionnel à la colophane [in French]
Colophony is a natural resin extracted from certain coniferous trees. It is present in a wide variety of products, in particular in paper coatings, printed circuit board insulation, soldering flux, paints, lacquers and surface coatings. There have been many reports of asthma due to colophony. Contents of this feature article on occupational asthma due to colophony: list of the main products containing colophony and main sectors of use; physiopathology; diagnosis in occupational settings; confirmation of diagnosis in specialized institutions; evolution; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2003, No.94, p.195-200. 32 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-631 Segura O., Burdorf A., Looman C.
Update of predictions of mortality from pleural mesothelioma in the Netherlands
The objective of this study was to predict the number of pleural mesothelioma deaths in the Netherlands from 2000 to 2028 and to study the effect of main uncertainties in the modelling technique. Age-specific mortality rates and cohort relative risks by year of birth were calculated from the mortality from pleural mesothelioma in 1969-98. Numbers of death for both sexes were predicted for 2000 to 2028, taking into account the most likely demographic development. Applied to men, the model showed the highest age specific death rates in the oldest age group (79 per 100,000 person-years in the age group 80-84 years) and the highest relative risks for the birth cohorts of 1938-42 and 1943-47. The most plausible scenario predicts an increase in pleural mesothelioma mortality up to 490 cases per year in men, with a total death toll close to 12,400 cases during 2000-28. Mortality among women remains low, with a total death toll of about 800 cases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.50-55. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 03-752 Luo S., Liu X., Mu S., Tsai S.P., Wen C.P.
Asbestos related diseases from environmental exposure to crocidolite in Da-yao, China. I. Review of exposure and epidemiological data
Scattered patches of crocidolite were found in the surface soil in a rural county of south-western China. In 1983, it was discovered that residents of two villages in the county had hyperendemic pleural plaques and excessive numbers of pleural mesothelioma. This report is based on a review of several clinical and epidemiological studies conducted since 1984, which included a cross sectional medical examination, a clinical and pathological analysis of 46 cases of mesothelioma, and three retrospective cohort mortality studies. Additional information was acquired during interviews of medical specialists from the county hospital. The prevalence of pleural plaque was 20% among farmers over 40 years of age in the cross sectional survey. The average number of mesothelioma cases was 6.6 per year in the 1984-95 period and 22 per year in the 1996-99 period, in a population of 68,000. The annual mortality rate for mesothelioma was 85 per million, 178 per million, and 365 per million for the three cohort studies, respectively.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.35-42. 39 ref.

CIS 03-232 Bergdahl I.A., Järvholm B.
Cancer morbidity in Swedish asphalt workers
Some studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. This study investigates the risk of lung cancer in Swedish asphalt workers. A cohort of 6,150 Swedish asphalt workers, mainly employed in road construction, was compared to the general population, and to a reference group of construction workers not exposed to asphalt fumes. The exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons at paving in Sweden during the 1980s and 1990s were estimated to be in the order of one or a few micrograms per cubic meter, but was probably higher in earlier years. 32 lung cancer cases were observed among asphalt workers, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.98. The corresponding RR as compared to the construction workers' group and adjusted for smoking habits, was 1.03. No increased risk was found for other cancers or death from other lung diseases. It is concluded that asphalt workers do not have any increased lung cancer risk from exposure to asphalt fumes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.43, No.1, p.104-108. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1463
World Health Organization (WHO)
Hospital Infection Control Guidance for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Conseils en matière de lutte contre l'infection nosocomiale [in French]
Guidance document designed to prevent the spreading of SARS infection to health care workers involved in the treatment of patients with the disease, whether in an outpatient/triage or an inpatient setting. Measures include the wearing of protective clothing and personal protective equipment, disinfection and attention to sharps.
Internet document, 2003. 2p. [in English] [in French]

CIS 02-1462 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Health information and advisories
Collection of information sheets on the prevention of infection SARS in various occupational settings, such as: workplaces with foreign workers (particularly from countries with many diagnosed cases of SARS); management of commercial buildings and apartment complexes; hotels and serviced apartments; commercial aircraft; airports. Illustrated 1-page factsheets on SARS are included in English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil.
Internet document, Ministry of Health, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 22p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 02-1461 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Isolation and infection control
A set of interim guidelines published with the aim of reducing the risk if infection by SARS for people occupationally exposed to the disease, in particular in a health care and air travel setting. Individual fact sheets are devoted to the protection of workers in the following areas: health care workers in close contact with SARS patients; cleaners of commercial aircraft following a flight with a passenger with suspected SARS; workers exposed to SARS patients in healthcare and other institutional settings; workers exposed to human remains (bodies) of SARS patients; specific guidelines devoted to aerosol-generating procedures on patients with suspected SARS; laboratory biosafety guidelines for handling and processing specimens associated with SARS.
Internet document, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, 2003. 16p. [in English]

CIS 02-1460
Health Canada
Infection control guidance for health care workers in health care facilities and other institutional settings - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Guide de prévention des infections pour les travailleurs de la santé dans les établissements de soins et autres établissements: Syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS) [in French]
This fact sheet was developed to assist health care workers in the prevention of the transmission of SARS in institutions where patients suspected of having or diagnosed with the disease are being cared for. Contents: patient triage; hand washing; wearing of masks for eye and face protection; wearing of gloves and gowns; guidelines for patient accommodation; patient transport within the facility and between institutions; disinfection of patient care equipment; environmental control; avoidance of aerosol-generating procedures; post-mortem care.
Internet document, 2003. 6p. [in English] [in French]


CIS 05-622 Ott M.G.
Occupational asthma, lung function decrement, and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure: A critical review of exposure-response relationships
This literature review on the effects of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure on respiratory health focused on bronchial asthma and the accelerated decline in lung function. In the early years of the industry, annual incidence rates of TDI-induced occupational asthma (OA) were as high as 5-6 percent. In settings where mean TDI concentrations have been maintained below 5ppb, OA incidence rates have declined to below 1% annually. Studies from the 1960s and 1970s that examined lung function decrement provided evidence of a decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) during periods of ongoing exposure among employees experiencing high rates of work-related symptoms of OA. More recent studies have provided no consistent evidence of accelerated FEV1 loss among employees exposed up to 5ppb TDI (8-hr TWA) even with documented routine short-term TDI concentrations exceeding 20ppb.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2002, Vol.17, No.12, p.891-901. 73 ref.

CIS 05-645 Diller W.F.
Frequency and trends of occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate: A critical review
Reports and statements on the frequency of occupational asthma due to isocyanates are contradictory. In order to clarify the issue, a critical review of the medical literature of the past half-century worldwide has been performed, with special emphasis on toluene diisocyanate (TDI) as the main representative of the isocyanate family. Nine longitudinal workplace studies of 2751 persons under risk allowed the calculation of incidences of occupational asthma due to TDI. Annual incidences were repeatedly above 5% before 1980, and have decreased to between 0 and 0.7% since 1980. Prevalences of occupational asthma due to TDI were estimated from ten cross-sectional studies, based on 788 persons. Prevalences were repeatedly above 10% before 1985, and have been mostly between 0 and 10% in recent years.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2002, Vol.17, No.12, p.872-877. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 04-78 Radon K., Goldberg M., Becklake M.
Healthy worker effect in cohort studies on chronic bronchitis
Two mechanisms are responsible for the healthy worker effect in respiratory cohort studies. One is health-based selection of workers into employment (healthy hire effect), and the other is health-based losses over time (healthy worker survivor effect). The aim of the present paper was to estimate the magnitude of the healthy worker survivor effect in cohort studies of chronic bronchitis. A meta-analysis of eight cohort studies published between 1980 and 2001 was performed. The pooled odds ratio of the prevalence of chronic bronchitis for subjects leaving the cohorts was 1.23 when these subjects were compared with those who remained under study. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among exposed workers may be underestimated if the healthy worker survivor effect is not taken into account.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.28, No.5, p.328-332. Illus.27 ref.

CIS 03-1625 Axelson O.
Alternative for estimating the burden of lung cancer from occupational exposures - Some calculations based on data from Swedish men
This study attempts to calculate the occupational lung cancer burden using economically active men in Sweden as an example. Risk estimates were calculated using Swedish register data on occupation in 1970, lung cancer incidence in 1971-1989, smoking frequencies in 1963 and a mathematical formula. Farmers, gardeners, forestry workers and fishermen had the lowest lung cancer risk (42.1 per 100,000 person-years) and a smoking frequency of 44.7%. The incidence among those not at risk (non smokers, Io) was 12.6 or 8.4 per 100 000 person-years, taking a relative risk for smoking as 6 or 10, respectively. From these Io estimates, the expected rates for white- and blue-collar workers (smoking frequencies 52.7 and 57.7%, respectively) were 45.8 and 49.1 per 100 000 person-years. About one-fourth of the lung cancers that occur among economically active Swedish men seem to have been related to occupation. This figure agrees with other estimates.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2002, Vol.28, No.1, p.58-63. 24 ref.

CIS 03-1624 Karjalainen A., Kurppa K., Martikainen R., Karjalainen J., Klaukka T.
Exploration of asthma risk by occupation - Extended analysis of an incidence study of the Finnish population
In Finland, persons with clinically-verified persistent asthma are registered for medication reimbursement by the national health insurance scheme. Data were combined from three national registers, and all employed Finns aged 25-59 were followed for asthma incidence in 1986-1998. A log-linear model was used to estimate the relative risks of asthma for 275 nonadministrative occupations in comparison with administrative work (33 occupations). A significantly increased risk was found for either men or women in 125 occupations. For the men, the risk was highest among bakers, laundry workers, shoemakers and repairers, tanners, fell mongers and pelt dressers, and metal plating and coating workers. For the women, the risk was highest among shoemakers and repairers, railway and station personnel, jewelry engravers, engine room crew, molders, round-timber workers and bakers. The results suggest that the work-related excess of asthma incidence is much more widely spread across the labour force than previously thought.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2002, Vol.28, No.1, p.49-57. 18 ref.

CIS 03-1737 Elci O.C., Akpinar-Elci M., Blair A., Dosemeci M.
Occupational dust exposure and the risk of laryngeal cancer in Turkey
Among 7631 cancer cases from the Okmeydani Hospital, Istanbul, between 1979 and 1984, 958 larynx cancer cases were identified among men. After exclusions, 940 laryngeal cancer cases and 1519 referents were available. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain basic information on the patients. A job-exposure matrix was developed for occupational dusts, including silica, asbestos, wood, cotton, and grain, and age-, smoking-, and alcohol-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate risks of laryngeal cancer. An excess of laryngeal cancer occurred for workers potentially exposed to silica and cotton dust, particularly for supraglottic cancer (OR 1.8, for silica and OR 1.6, for cotton dust), and there was a significant dose-response relationship with silica exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.28, No.4, p.278-284. 46 ref.

CIS 03-1787 Hollund B.E., Moen B.E., Egeland G.M., Florvaag E., Omenaas E.
Occupational exposure to hairdressing chemicals and immunoglobulin E synthesis
The study was based on a questionnaire sent to 100 hairdressers and a reference group of 95 office workers. The questionnaire sought information on allergy, respiratory symptoms during the past year, work conditions (exposure) and smoking habits. The hairdressers were divided into high and low exposure groups. Total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE towards the most prevalent airborne allergens were analysed. The serum levels of total IgE were significantly higher among the highly exposed hairdressers than among the office workers. The prevalence of asthma-like respiratory symptoms during the past year was significantly higher among the highly exposed hairdressers. The total serum IgE level was significantly higher among the hairdressers, but this difference disappeared after adjustment for age, atopy and smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.28, No.4, p.264-269. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 03-652 Bramley T.J., Lerner D., Sarnes M.
Productivity losses related to the common cold
The common cold has the potential to cause substantial productivity losses because of its high prevalence in working-age groups. This article presents the findings of a survey conducted to estimate productivity loss by measuring three sources of loss: direct absenteeism due to the cold, on-the-job productivity losses, and caregiver absenteeism, which in turn gives rise to the absenteeism of working women with young children. Each cold experienced by a working adult caused an average of 8.7 lost work hours (2.8 absenteeism hours; 5.9 hours of on-the-job loss), and 1.2 work hours were lost because of attending to children who were suffering from colds. It is concluded that the economic cost of lost productivity due to the common cold approaches USD 25 billion, of which USD 16.6 billion is attributed to on-the-job productivity loss, USD 8 billion is attributed to direct absenteeism, and USD 230 million is attributed to caregiver absenteeism.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.822-829. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 03-795 Kim T.S., Kim H.A., Heo Y., Park Y., Park C.Y., Roh Y.M.
Level of silica in the respirable dust inhaled by dental technicians with demonstration of respirable symptoms
Dental technicians are exposed to various dusts. This study was conducted to measure level of silica in the respirable dust generated from dental prosthodontics manufacturing and to compare the occurrence of respiratory symptoms among dental technicians with that of non-dental hospital workers (control group). 50 personal samples from dental technicians were obtained during porcelain or polishing process. The mean concentration of respirable dust was 651µg/m3 during the porcelain process, with a highest concentration of 2874µg/m3, and of and 725µg/m3 during the polishing process, with a highest concentration of 1764µg/m3. The silica contents of the dusts were 0.81% and 1.66% for the porcelain and polishing processes, respectively. The frequency of respiratory symptoms, including wheezing and rhinorrhoea, was significantly higher in the dental technicians than in the controls.
Industrial Health, July 2002, Vol.40, No.3, p.260-265. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 03-673 Karjalainen A., Martikainen R., Oksa P., Saarinen K., Uitti J.
Incidence of asthma among Finnish construction workers
This article explores the risk of asthma among male workers in the construction industry in Finland. Cohorts of all male construction industry workers and all persons employed in administrative work were followed for asthma incidence through a occupational disease registry data between 1986 and 1998. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for 24 construction occupations. The risk was increased in nearly all construction occupations studied, but it was highest among welders and flame cutters (RR 2.34), asphalt roofing workers (RR 2.04), plumbers (RR 1.90), and bricklayers and tile setters (RR 1.83). Only 2% of the cases of asthma among construction workers had been recognized as occupational asthma. Construction industry workers have an increased risk of adult-onset persistent asthma and cases of occupational asthma caused by well-established causative agents have only a minor contribution to this overall asthma excess.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.44, No.8, p.752-757. 31 ref.

CIS 03-633 Vandenplas O., Larbanois A., Jamart J.
Socio-economic consequences of occupational asthma in Belgium
In this study, the socio-economic status of 86 subjects with a diagnosis of occupational asthma ascertained by specific inhalation challenges was examined. The follow-up assessment was performed a median of 43 months after the diagnostic evaluation. At that time, 33% of the subjects remained exposed to the causal agent, 38% suffered persistent work disruption and 64% reported a reduction in income. A reduction in income was more frequent among those who avoided exposure. The loss of earnings was offset by the disability indemnity in only 22% of those subjects who benefited from compensation by the Belgian Workers' Compensation Board. Logistic regression analysis showed that old age and low education level were the most significant predictors of unemployment, while asthma severity influenced employment status only minimally. These data indicate that the compensation system should be further directed at improving rehabilitation programs in order to reduce adverse economic and employment consequences of occupational asthma.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2002, Vol.XXXIX, No.1, p.5-12. 17 ref.

CIS 03-797 NIOSH hazard review - Health effects of occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica
This review summarizes the adverse health effects of worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica; properties, production, potential and sampling methods; health effects (silicosis, tuberculosis, lung cancer, other cancers and nonmalignant respiratory diseases; autoimmune and chronic renal diseases); review of experimental studies; exposure limits, monitoring and control; research needs.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Apr. 2002. xviii, 127p. Illus. Approx. 500 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-194 Mpofu D., Lockinger L., Bidwell J., McDuffie H.H.
Evaluation of a respiratory health program for farmers and their families
Occupational exposures to organic dusts, gases, welding fumes and agricultural chemicals result in an increased risk of respiratory health problems in farmers, when compared with other workers. The Respiratory Health Program for farmers in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan addresses the difficulties of delivering an occupational health programme to a sparsely-distributed population on the prairies. Under this programme, farmers' pulmonary function and respiratory health by were examined by means of spirometry and questionnaires, respectively. Respiratory function indicators were lower than predicted. It was found that age, years in farming, usual cough, wheezing on most days and nights, bringing up phlegm from the chest, breathlessness and cigarette smoking were associated significantly with pulmonary function results. The Respiratory Health Program (1994 through 2000) was assessed with respect to acceptability, accessibility, appropriateness, continuity, effectiveness and efficiency based on responses by farm families.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.44, No.11, p.1064-1074. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 03-433 Larsson B.M., Larsson K., Malmberg P., Palmberg L.
Airways inflammation after exposure in a swine confinement building during cleaning procedure
The purpose this study was to investigate health effects during cleaning of a pigsty and to evaluate the effect of respirators. Sixteen volunteers were exposed for three hours during cleaning of a pigsty with a high pressure waterjet cleaner. Seven were equipped with a mask. The bronchial responsiveness increased in all subjects following exposure, significantly more in the group exposed without respirators. The cell concentration (mainly neutrophilic granulocytes) in nasal lavage fluid as well as the concentration of interleukin-8 increased significantly only in those subjects without respirators. In peripheral blood, an increase of neutrophilic granulocytes was observed in both groups, although it was significantly higher in the group without mask. The inhalable and respirable dust levels were 0.94mg/m3 and 0.56mg/m3 respectively.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.41, No.4, p.250-258. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 03-302 Littorin M., Welinder H., Skarping G., Dalene M., Skerfving S.
Exposure and nasal inflammation in workers heating polyurethane
This study involved 38 workers exposed to sprayed or heated polyurethane adhesives (14 with a history of work-related nasal symptoms and 15 referents without such history), together with nine unexposed office workers. Determinations included biomarkers of exposure to methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in urine and nasal lavage fluid, and serum IgG specific for MDI and TDI. Possible nose inflammation and other symptoms were noted. It was found that exposure to sprayed and heated PUR adhesives, especially when heated by gun, was associated with the presence of biomarkers of isocyanate exposure in urine and nasal lavage fluid. Workers with a prior history of nasal symptoms had higher levels of albumin in nasal lavage fluid after work than those who had had no such history. Urinary markers as well as serum IgG-specific for MDI and TDI were associated with increased levels of inflammation and other nasal symptoms. These results indicate that degradation products of polyurethanes induce chronic rhinitis.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2002, Vol.75, No.7, p.468-474. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 03-301 Tiitola M., Kivisaari L., Zitting A., Huuskonen M.S., Kaleva S., Tossavainen A., Vehmas T.
Computed tomography of asbestos-related pleural anomalies
The objective of this study was to assess observer agreement in several asbestos-related pleural abnormalities and to define criteria to discriminate between pleural changes in workers with occupational disease, and those in controls. Pleural abnormalities in spiral computed tomography of 602 construction workers with asbestosis or bilateral pleural plaques and 49 controls were reviewed by three radiologists using structured forms. It was found that the extent, calcification and thickness were well-repeatable indicators of benign pleural pathology and their use in future classification systems in computed tomography is recommended. The extent of 45cm2 and the degree of calcification were helpful in discriminating between pleural changes in workers with occupational disease, and those in controls who also presented marked pleural pathology.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.75, No.4, p.224-228. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 03-186 Caccappolo-van Vliet E., Kelly-McNeil K., Natelson B., Kipen H., Fiedler N.
Anxiety sensitivity and depression in multiple chemical sensitivities and asthma
Patients with sensitivities to multiple chemicals report symptoms of cognitive dysfunction, respiratory distress and mood disturbance. Lifetime and current psychiatric disorders, personality traits associated with symptom reporting and tests of cognitive function were compared between 30 subjects with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), 19 asthmatics and 31 healthy controls. When compared with asthmatics and controls, more MCS subjects met criteria for current depression and somatization disorder. MCS subjects and asthmatics scored significantly higher than controls on scales of chemical odour intolerance and anxiety sensitivity, both of which were significant predictors of physical symptoms. Few differences on objective neuropsychological tests were noted. However, MCS subjects with co-morbid depression performed significantly worse on a verbal memory test relative to asthmatics but not to controls.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.44, No.10, p.890-901. 65 ref.

CIS 03-236 Brasseur G.
Bakers' asthma - A new breath of air for the trade
L'asthme du boulanger - Un nouveau souffle pour la profession [in French]
Flour is the main causal agent of occupational asthma in France, and bakers are are among its most common victims. The professional organization of bakers worked in collaboration with the prevention unit of the French national health insurance organization (sécurité sociale) to develop an approach to the prevention of the condition. The measures are mostly simple to implement. They consist essentially in avoiding the release of flour dust during the transportation, weighing, emptying of sacks into the dough trough, mixing and sprinkling of flour and during cleaning operations.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2002, No.621, p.2-6. Illus.

CIS 03-205 Rosenberg N.
Respiratory allergies in hairdressers
Allergie respiratoire des coiffeurs [in French]
The work of hairdressers results in exposure to chemicals that are potentially damaging to the respiratory tract. According to a telephone survey of 355 female hairdressers carried out in Finland in 1998, the prevalence of rhinitis and asthma was 16.9% and 4.5% respectively. Contents of this review article on respiratory allergies of hairdressers: epidemiology; physiopathology; causal substances (alkaline persulfates, henna, hair dyes, amines, ammonium thioglycolate, hair lacquer resins); diagnosis at the place of work; diagnosis in specialized institutions; evolution; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2002, No.92, p.417-425. 59 ref.

CIS 03-308 Beaudet N., Brodkin C.A., Stover B., Daroowalla F., Flack J., Doherty D.
Crab allergen exposures aboard five crab-processing vessels
A cross-sectional survey of five crab-processing vessels was conducted in order to evaluate crab allergen concentrations and respiratory symptom prevalence among workers. Crab allergen concentrations were quantified during specific work activities with 25 personal air samples collected on PTFE filters and analysed by a competitive IgE immunoassay technique. Questionnaires were used to assess respiratory symptoms suggestive of bronchitis or asthma in 82 workers. Aerosolized crab allergen concentrations ranged from 79ng/m3 to 21,093ng/m3. A significant percentage of workers reported respiratory symptoms during the crab-processing season: cough (28%), phlegm (11%), and wheeze and other asthma-like symptoms (4%). Despite variations in crab allergen levels, respiratory symptom prevalence was similar across all job categories.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.605-609. 11 ref.

CIS 03-185 Bianchi C., Ramani L., Bianchi T.
Concurrent malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and hepatocellular carcinoma in the same patient: A report of five cases
Five cases are reported in which malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and hepatocellular carcinoma co-existed in the same patient (four men and one woman, aged between 58 and 86). The diagnosis was established at necropsy. In one case, the association was already clinically suspected. All mesotheliomas were asbestos-related. Liver cirrhosis co-existed in four cases, two of them positive for HCV markers. Many elements suggest that the above association is not a fortuitous coincidence. In particular, asbestos could favour liver cancerogenesis by inducing immune impairment.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.40, No.4, p.383-387. 45 ref.

CIS 03-184 Guidotti T.L.
Apportionment in asbestos-related disease for purposes of compensation
Workers' compensation systems attempt to evaluate claims for occupational disease on an individual basis using the best available guidelines. This may be difficult when there is more than one risk factor associated with the outcome, such as exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking, and when the occupational exposure is not clearly responsible for the disease. Apportionment is an approach that involves an assessment of the relative contribution of work-related exposures to the risk of the disease or to the final impairment that arises for the disease. This review article discusses the concept of apportionment and applies it to asbestos-associated diseases. Apportionment, attractive as it may be as an approach to the adjudication of asbestos-related disease, is difficult to apply in practice. Even so, these models may serve as a general guide to the assessment of asbestos-related disease outcomes for purposes of compensation.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.40, No.4, p.295-311. Illus. 68 ref.

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