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Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entries found

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  • Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar)


CIS 05-158 Kurihara N., Wada O.
Silicosis and smoking strongly increase lung cancer risk in silica-exposed workers
It remains controversial whether silica is a human lung carcinogen. A literature search was performed on papers published from 1966-2001 which epidemiologically reported on the relationship between silica/silicosis and lung cancer. Papers which did not exclude the effects of asbestos and radioactive materials including radon were removed. Based on the selected papers, the lung cancer risks from silica, silicosis and non-silicosis with exposure to silica were summarized by meta-analysis. The pooled relative risks were 1.32 for silica, 2.37 for silicosis and 0.96 for non-silicosis with exposure to silica. Since some papers on silica did not exclude silicosis, the risk due to silica itself may be smaller than 1.32. It was less possible that silica exposure directly increases lung cancer risk. On the other hand, the relative risk of 2.37 for silicosis suggested that silicosis increases lung cancer risk. The meta-analysis also revealed that cigarette smoking strongly increased the lung cancer risk in silicotic patients (relative risk, 4.47).
Industrial Health, July 2004, Vol.42, No.3, p.303-314. Illus. 67 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-155 Rosenberg N.
Occupational respiratory allergy to dyestuffs
Allergie respiratoire professionnelle aux matières colorantes [in French]
Respiratory allergies to dyestuffs occur during occupational exposure to these substances in powder or aerosol form. Although these disorders have mainly been reported with reactive dyes and cochineal carmine, many other dyestuff molecules may also be responsible. Contents of this review article on respiratory allergies to dyestuffs: physiopathology and prevalence; diagnosis, based on the example of reactive dyes (in occupational settings and in specialised institutions); evolution and prevention of dyestuff asthma; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2004, No.98, p.255-264. Illus. 50 ref.$File/TR33.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-120 Eluard P.F.
Voice disorders among teachers
Troubles de la voix chez les enseignants [in French]
In advanced societies, one third of the workers are employed in occupations where the voice is the primary means of communication. Dysphonia among teachers is a real pathology clearly documented in otolaryngology and phoniatrics, but in the context of individual care and prevention strategies. These disorders have not received much attention in occupational health in France. They do however represent a source of concern, as evidenced by the request by the social partners for this evaluation to be carried out. The study summarizes key features of occupational voice disorders, analyses results of epidemiological studies, identifies risk factors and occupations at risk and outlines an approach to prevention.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2004, No.98, p.221-238. Illus. 47 ref.$File/TF132.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-70 Lampreave Márquez J.L., Alday Fugueroa E., Buendía García M.J., Gómez Martínez M.
Occupational asthma
Asma profesional [in Spanish]
This article presents the current state of knowledge with respect to occupational asthma. Contents: description of the pathology; various types of asthma (allergic, irritative or toxic); diagnosis; medical treatment and confirmation of the occupational nature of the disease; evaluation of the severity of the asthma; evaluation of the degree of work incapacitation.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2004, Vol.L, No.194, p.57-64. 23 ref.

CIS 05-96 Massin N., Pillière F., Roos F., Dornier G.
Occupational asthma
L'asthme professionnel [in French]
Asthma is the most frequent respiratory disease that occurs during work. Among men, the main causal agents are flour and isocyanates while among women, they are alkaline persulfates (used in hairdressing products) and latex. It is important to ensure proper screening and prevention against potentially severe asthma that may pose a problem regarding the continued employment of workers in their current jobs. Contents of this information sheet: description of the disease; persons concerned; asthma diagnosis and search for possible occupational causes; means of prevention; regulations; INRS research and publications in this field.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2004. 4p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge$FILE/ed5025.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-556 Bertrand O., Ulrich G., Rivière G., Gressier V., Berr C., Petiet G.
Ethmoid adenocarcinoma in a patient manufacturing orthopaedic shoe soles made of cork - Considerations based on a case
Carcinome de l'ethmoïde chez un patient fabricant des semelles de chaussures orthopédiques en liège - A propos d'un cas [in French]
Ethmoid adenocarcinoma is recognized as a professional disease in wood workers, especially those in contact with fine hardwood dust. The main carcinogenic agent responsible is represented by the tannins contained in various wood species. This is also the case for cork, which can contain up to 6% of tannins. Considering that 40,000 French workers are currently exposed to cork dust, it is recommended that the same medical supervision procedures as those in place in the woodworking sector should be adopted. This article describes a case of muco-secretant adenocarcinoma infiltrating the right nasal cavity in a 57 year-old patient who manufactured orthopaedic shoes. From 1965 to 2001, the worker handled leather, rubber, adhesives and cork without effective protection against cork dust. The occupational nature of the disease was recognized.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 2004, Vol.65, No.1, p.25-29. 19 ref.

CIS 04-554 Jost M., Rüegger M.
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS)
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) [in German]
Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS) [in French]
The reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) is characterized by the incidence of persistent asthma among subjects previously without symptoms, following an exposure to respiratory irritants lasting several minutes to several hours. Respiratory disorders persist for at least three months, but generally last several years. Contents of this article on RADS: definition; physiopathology; frequencies of acute exposure that give rise to RADS; substances that may give rise to RADS; description of a clinical case; prognosis; occupational health and insurance aspects.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2004, No.75, p.26-33 (French), p.25-32 (German). Illus. 16 ref. [in French] [in German]

CIS 04-322 Kręcicki T., Zalesska-Kręcicka M., Pastuszek P., Rak J., Morawska-Kochman M., Zatoński M.
Treatment of Reincke's [sic] edema among different professional groups: Presentation of results
This research was performed on a group of 261 patients with Reinke's oedema treated in the ENT department of a Polish University Hospital between 1994 and 2000. In the study population, women were in a majority and teachers formed the largest occupational group (30%) followed by salespersons (15%). Most of the patients (86%) were tobacco smokers. All subjects underwent detailed videostroboscopic examination of the larynx and an evaluation of voice quality before and after treatment. The symmetry of vocal cords before and after treatment was found in 75 patients. Lack of symmetry before treatment, and proper symmetry after surgery was observed in 71 subjects. 50 patients showed less symmetry after treatment, and 65 patients were asymmetric before and after surgery. The assessment of voice quality, before and after treatment, revealed statistically significant post-treatment improvements.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2004, Vol.17, No.2, p.279-284. 35 ref.

CIS 04-329 Szymczak W., Szadkowska-Stańczyk I.
Quantitative assessment of lung cancer risk in men employed in the pulp and paper industry in Poland
To estimate the probability of death from lung cancer in the paper industry, a competing-risk prediction model was developed. The risk assessment was based on the data collected from a cohort of workers at a Polish paper plant. Using the model, it was possible to estimate an additional risk of lung cancer related to a specific period of occupational exposure, adjusted by age of entering the cohort. Thus in the group with first exposure at the age below 29, the risk changed from 2.25x10-7 during the first year of employment to 1.40x10-5 after 10 years, whereas in the group of workers with first exposure at the age of 50 years, the risk changed from 6.42x10-5 to 4.28x10-4. Using the risk model including elements of competing risk, it is possible to provide a more thorough characterization of the relationship between the exposure level and probability of death from lung cancer.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2004, Vol.17, No.2, p.263-272. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 04-356 Ijadunola K.T., Erhabor G.E., Onayade A.A., Ijadunola M.Y., Fatusi A.O., Asuzu M.C.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among wheat flour mill workers in Ibadan, Nigeria
In this case-control study, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among wheat flour mill workers in Nigeria was examined. Data were collected using structured interviews of workers in a medium-sized flour mill, work-site observations, and physical examinations. Respondents consisted of 91 flour-millers, 30 matched internal controls from the maintenance unit of the same flour mill, and 121 matched external controls. It was found that 54% of the flour-millers reported at least one respiratory symptom compared with 30% of the internal controls and 19% of the external controls. Also, most symptoms were significantly more prevalent among the flour-millers than controls, and this trend was more evident among never-smokers than ex-smokers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.45, No.3, p.251-259. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 04-340 Zitting A
Radiographic small lung opacities and pleural abnormalities in relation to occupational asbestos exposure, smoking history and living environment in Finland
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of radiographic abnormalities of the lungs and pleura according to the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses in the adult Finnish population, to estimate the association of past asbestos exposure, smoking history and living environment with theses abnormalities, and to analyse the intra- and inter-observer variation in the main radiographic findings. Results indicate that occupational asbestos exposure plays an important role in the aetiology of radiographic pleural and pulmonary abnormalities, and that small lung opacities produced by asbestos do not differ in size or shape from those caused by smoking. Classification of small lung opacities was subject to observer variation.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2004. 61p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 18.00.

CIS 04-326 Attfield M.D., Costello J.
Quantitative exposure-response relationship for silica dust and lung cancer in Vermont granite workers
Exposure evaluation data for the years 1924 to 1977 were analysed in conjunction with mortality data to examine quantitative exposure-response for silica, lung cancer and other lung diseases in a cohort of granite workers in the U.S. state of Vermont. The findings indicated a clear relationship of lung cancer, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, non-malignant lung disease and kidney cancer with cumulative exposure. An exposure to silica of 0.05mg/m3 from age 20 to 64 was associated with a lifetime excess risk of lung cancer for white males of 27/1000. The results of this study of workers exposed almost exclusively to silica and no other major occupational confounding exposures indicate a clear exposure-response for lung cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2004, Vol.45, No.2, p.129-138. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 04-86 Lazor-Blanchet C., Rusca S., Vernez D., Berry R., Albrecht E., Droz P.O., Boillat M.A.
Acute pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a floor stain protector in the building industry in Switzerland
Waterproofing agents are widely used as stain-repellents on indoor floor and wall tiles. They are applied by spraying, generally by professionals, but sometimes also by consumers themselves. This article describes three cases of acute respiratory injury in healthy adults following occupational inhalation of a new waterproofing formulation containing an acrylate fluoropolymer. Within two hours after exposure, they developed a rapidly progressive dyspnoea; two also showed hypoxaemia and flu-like reactions. All three improved with supportive treatment within a few days. The mechanism of toxicity is still under investigation, but experimental data suggest the role of this new acrylate fluoropolymer. Both workers and consumers should be warned about the risks of spraying floor stain repellents, informed about the importance of proper air circulation within the premises and instructed to avoid concomitant smoking.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2004, Vol.77, No.4, p.244-248. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 04-103 Barnard C.G., McBride D.I., Firth H.M., Herbison G.P.
Assessing individual employee risk factors for occupational asthma in primary aluminium smelting
To assess the importance of individual risk factors in the development of occupational asthma (OA) among primary aluminium smelting workers, a case-control study was carried out among workers employed in areas with moderate to high levels of dust and fume. 45 cases diagnosed with OA and four controls per case were matched for the same year of employment and age group. The pre-employment medical questionnaires were reviewed. Further information on demographics and details of allergic symptoms, respiratory risk factors, respiratory symptoms were obtained through medical examinations. Finally, all participants were subjected to spirometry. There was a significant positive association between hay fever and OA (odds ratio OR 3.58). A higher forced expiratory ratio (FER) at employment reduced the risk of developing OA (OR 0.93). The risk of OA was more than three times higher in individuals with an FER of 70.0-74.9% than in individuals with an FER ≥80.0% (OR 3.46). Individuals with hay fever may be more susceptible to OA when exposed to airborne irritants in primary aluminium production. The pathological basis may be reduced nasal filtration and increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2004, Vol.61, No.7, p.604-608. 38 ref.

CIS 04-80 Gomez M.I., Hwang S.A., Lin S., Stark A.D., May J.J., Hallman E.M.
Prevalence and predictors of respiratory symptoms among New York farmers and farm residents
Data from telephone interviews with 1620 New York farmers and farm residents were used to study the prevalence and risk factors of symptoms that could be related to asthma and allergies. The prevalence of wheezing was 18.2%, that of rhinitis and lachrymation was 57.4%. Significant risk factors for wheeze were: cigarette smoking; a systemic reaction to allergy skin testing, immunotherapy or insect sting; reactivity to a pet; having goats; more acreage in corn for silage. Significant risk factors for rhinitis and lachrymation were younger age, having more than a high school education, being a worker on the farm and having done spraying. Wheeze may be indicative of existing or latent asthma, while rhinitis or lachrymation may indicate an increased sensitivity to respirable dusts and chemicals.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2004, Vol.46, No.1, p.42-54. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 03-1613 Moshammer H., Neuberger M.
Lung cancer and dust exposure: Results of a prospective cohort study following 3260 workers for 50 years
To study the health effects of occupational dust exposure on life expectancy and specific causes of death, male workers residing in Vienna, Austria, were selected at age ≥40 (mean 54) years during preventive check-ups between 1950 and 1960, and were followed until death. Half (1630) were exposed at work to (non-fibrous) particulates. The non-exposed workers were matched for year, age and smoking status at the start of observation. Average life expectancy of those exposed was 1.6 years less than that of those non-exposed. Only a small part of this decrease in life expectancy was related to acknowledged occupational diseases such as silicosis and silico-tuberculosis. Chronic obstructive lung disease and cancer of the lung and stomach were found more frequently among those exposed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2004, Vol.61, No.2, p.157-162. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 03-1933 SARS - Practical and administrative responses to an infectious disease in the workplace
This working paper consists of a set of informal guidelines developed by the ILO on responses to the threat of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at the workplace. Contents: history of SARS; overview of current knowledge on SARS; practical workplace strategies; administrative actions to ensure preparedness in the event of a SARS outbreak (at national and workplace levels); ethical and psychological considerations concerning SARS.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. vi, 46p. 42 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1439 SARS - Practical and administrative responses to an infectious disease in the workplace
Working paper on practical preventive measures against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), prepared in collaboration by the SafeWork Programme at ILO Headquarters and the ILO Sub-Regional Office for East Asia in Bangkok. Contents: introduction (the threat of SARS, SARS as an occupational health hazard, action at the national and workplace level); overview of current knowledge about SARS (cause, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention); practical workplace strategies for the prevention of SARS; administrative action in case of an outbreak of SARS (at the national and workplace level); ethical and psychological considerations concerning SARS.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. vi, 46p. 42 ref. + Internet links. [in English]


CIS 06-1102 Wang X.R., Christiani D.C.
Occupational lung disease in China
Occupational lung disease is a major public health problem in China. The recently transformed industrial structure and expansion of the industrial labour force pose both tremendous challenges and opportunities for occupational health policy and research. New occupational health problems are emerging, while traditional occupational lung diseases continue to occur. This review covers the current status of occupational lung diseases in China with reference to the major challenge this country has been facing, namely pneumoconioses. It also describes relevant scientific research advances made during the past decade.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2003, Vol.9, No.4, p.320-325. 28 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-306 Chaudemanche H., Monnet E., Westeel V., Pernet D., Dubiez A., Perrin C., Laplante J.J., Depierre A., Dalphin J.C.
Respiratory status in dairy farmers in France; cross sectional and longitudinal analyses
To compare respiratory status in dairy farmers with that of non-farming controls, a longitudinal study was carried out in a region of France. From a cohort constituted in 1994 (T1), 215 (81.1%) dairy farmers and 110 (73.8%) controls were re-evaluated in 1999 (T2). The protocol comprised a medical and occupational questionnaire, spirometric tests at both evaluations, allergological tests at T1, and a non-invasive measure of blood oxygen saturation at T2. In 1999, the prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher, and ventilatory capacity (FEV1/VC) and blood oxygen saturation was lower in dairy farmers than in controls. Results indicate that dairy farming is associated with an excess of chronic bronchitis, a moderate degree of bronchial obstruction and a mild decrease in blood oxygen saturation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.60, No.11, p.858-863. 30 ref.

CIS 06-154 Woskie S.R., Virji M.A., Hallock M., Smith T.J., Hammond S.K.
Summary of the findings from exposure assessments for metalworking fluid mortality and morbidity studies
Since 1985, a number of studies have evaluated the association between worker exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) and cancer mortality or respiratory morbidity. The studies have used different methods to measure the MWF aerosol concentration and to evaluate the exposures to the specific components of the MWF aerosol (bacteria, endotoxin, elements, metals, ethanolamines, polyaromatic hydrocarbons). This article summarizes the exposures measured in these epidemiological studies by estimating their thoracic and inhalable MWF particulate levels. In addition, the issues that must be resolved before a universal sampling and analysis method for MWF can be recommended are reviewed. Finally, recommendations for future directions in MWF exposure assessment and control are suggested.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2003, Vol.18, No.11, p.855-864. Illus. 65 ref.

CIS 06-145 Bukowski J.A.
Review of respiratory morbidity from occupational exposure to oil mists
A review of the literature suggests that machinists may have a slightly higher prevalence of common respiratory symptoms and mild and reversible changes in pulmonary function. However, the inconsistency in this body of literature argues against drawing definitive conclusions. There is also no evidence that any of these effects lead to permanent disease or impairment. The most likely causal agents for respiratory effects are microbial contaminants in water-based metalworking fluids, not straight mineral oils. This is consistent with the epidemic outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, bronchitis and asthma reported at some work sites using water-based metalworking fluids. This highlights the importance of frequent cleaning and fluid changes for metalworking fluid reservoirs. A dramatic drop in the threshold limit values for mineral oil mists would not resolve this problem.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2003, Vol.18, No.11, p.828-837. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 06-66 Henneberger P.K., Derk S.J., Davis L., Tumpowsky C., Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D., Schill D.P., Valiante D., Flattery J., Harrison R., Reinisch F., Filios M.S., Tift B.
Work-related reactive airways dysfunction syndrome cases from surveillance in selected US States
In this study on work-related reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS), cases of work-related asthma (WRA) were identified in four states in the USA during 1993-1995 as part of a surveillance programme. Information gathered by interview was used to describe 123 work-related RADS cases and to compare them to 301 other WRA cases where onset of disease was associated with a known asthma inducer. RADS represented 14% of all new-onset WRA cases. RADS cases had significant adverse medical and occupational outcomes identified by follow-back interview. In particular, 89% still had breathing problems, 78% had ever sought emergency care and 39% had ever been hospitalized for work-related breathing problems, 54% had applied for worker compensation benefits and 41% had left the company where they experienced onset of asthma.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.45, No.4, p.360-368. 30 ref.

CIS 06-118 Rosenman K.D., Reilly M.J., Schill D.P., Valiante D., Flattery J., Harrison R., Reinisch F., Pechter E., Davis L., Tumpowsky C.M., Filios M.
Cleaning products and work-related asthma
Data from four state-based surveillance systems of work-related asthma were used to identify cases associated with exposure to cleaning products. From 1993 to 1997, 236 (12%) of the 1915 confirmed cases of work-related asthma were associated with exposure to cleaning products. Eighty percent of the reports were of new-onset asthma and 20% were work-aggravated asthma. Among the new-onset cases, 22% were consistent with reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Individuals identified were generally women (75%), white non-Hispanic (68%), and 45 years or older (64%). Their most likely exposure had been in medical settings (39%), schools (13%), or hotels (6%). Cleaning products contain a diverse group of chemicals that are used in a wide range of industries and occupations as well as in the home. Their potential to cause or aggravate asthma has recently been recognized. Further work to characterize the specific agents and the circumstances of their use associated with asthma is needed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.556-563. 33 ref.

CIS 06-200 Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment
Review article on adverse effects associated with moulds in the indoor environment. Contents: allergy and hypersensitivity reactions (hypersensitivity pneumonitis, uncommon allergic syndromes); fungal infections; mycotoxins; recommendations on minimizing exposure to moulds among persons with allergic airway disease, on sampling and analysing, on cleaning indoor fabrics contaminated with moulds and on medical examinations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.470-478. 83 ref.

CIS 06-107 Wang. X.R., Eisen E.A., Zhang H.X., Sun B.X., Dai H.L., Pan L.D., Wegman D.H., Olenchock S.A., Christiani D.C.
Respiratory symptoms and cotton dust exposure; results of a 15 year follow up observation
The respiratory health of 429 Chinese cotton textile workers (study group) and 449 silk textile workers (control group) was followed from 1981 to 1996. Byssinosis, chest tightness, and non-specific respiratory symptoms were assessed by standardized questionnaires at four time points and exposures to cotton dust and endotoxin were estimated using area samples collected at each survey. Among cotton workers, the cumulative incidence of byssinosis and chest tightness was 24% and 23% respectively. No typical byssinosis was identified among silk workers and the incidence of chest tightness was 10%. Other respiratory symptoms were also more common among cotton workers. It was concluded that chronic exposure to cotton dust is related to both work specific and non-specific respiratory symptoms; byssinosis is more strongly associated with exposure to endotoxin than to dust. Cessation of exposure may improve the respiratory health of cotton textile workers, with the improvement increasing with time since last exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.935-941. 42 ref.

CIS 06-72 Whelan E.A., Lawson C.C., Grajewski B., Petersen M.R., Pinkerton L.E., Ward E.M., Schnorr T.M.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers
The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms and illnesses among two populations largely confined to indoor environments, flight attendants (FAs) and schoolteachers. The prevalence of work related eye, nose, and throat symptoms, wheezing, physician diagnosed asthma, chest illness, and cold or flu were calculated and stratified by smoking status in 1824 FAs and 331 schoolteachers (all women). FAs and teachers were significantly more likely to report work related eye, nose and throat symptoms than were other working women. FAs were also significantly more likely than teachers and other working women to report chest illness during the prior three years. Both study groups were more likely to report five or more episodes of cold or flu in the past year than were other working women and both groups were more likely to report wheezing than other working women. FAs were less likely than teachers and other working women to report having been diagnosed with asthma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.929-934. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 05-545 Choudat D.
Recognition of COBPs and asthma as occupational diseases in the construction industry
Reconnaissance en maladie professionnelle des asthmes et des BPCO dans le BTP [in French]
This article summarizes the procedure to be followed in France for the compensation of chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies (COBPs) and asthma in the construction industry. It comprises three steps: declaration of the disease, recognition of its occupational origin and compensation. A table listing the tasks liable to give rise to asthma or COBP is included.
Revue de médecine du travail, May-June 2003, Vol.XXX, No.3, p.55-58. 3 ref.

CIS 05-644 Frimat P.
Chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies and asthma in the construction industry: What means of prevention?
Broncho-pneumopathies chroniques obstructives et asthme dans le BTP -Quelle prévention? [in French]
This article summarizes the two main approaches adopted in France for the prevention of chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies (COBPs) and asthma in the construction industry, namely prevention by means of individual and collective technical measures and medical supervision. Contents: main principles of prevention (technical measures, individual protection, filtering equipment, supplied air respirators); medical prevention (medical supervision of healthy workers and workers with asthma or COBP).
Revue de médecine du travail, May-June 2003, Vol.XXX, No.3, p.51-54.

CIS 05-643 Brochard P., Fernet F., Pairon J.C., Ameille J.
Chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies and asthma in the construction industry
Broncho-pneumopathies chroniques obstructives et asthme dans le secteur du bâtiment et des travaux publics [in French]
This literature survey indicated a lack of epidemiological data on chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies (COBPs) and asthma in the construction industry, despite the established presence of numerous workplace contaminants known to cause or worsen these diseases. The article describes different types of air contaminants (particles, irritant gases and vapours) and outlines results of epidemiologic studies on COBPs and asthma in the construction industry. It is suggested that better use should be made of data collected by occupational physicians.
Revue de médecine du travail, May-June 2003, Vol.XXX, No.3, p.46-50. 27 ref.

CIS 05-303 Gañet Benavente R.E., Martínez Guttiérrez M.P.
Voice: Work instrument and occupational risk factor
La voz: instrumento de trabajo y factor de riesgo laboral [in Spanish]
This review article describes the mechanism of voice production, examines the use of voice in occupational settings and identifies occupational factors which may cause voice disorders. Contents: voice production; laryngeal anatomy; histology; physiology of phonation; voice changes; diagnosis; dysphonia classification; functional dysphonia; using voice as part of one's work; prevalence and risk factors of voice changes; diagnosis methods used among persons using voice as part of their work; medical supervision and legal aspects.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Aug. 2003, Vol.XLX, No.192, p.35-46. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 05-308 Fritschi L., Sim M.R., Forbes A., Abramson M.J., Benke G., Musk A.W., de Klerk N.H.
Respiratory symptoms and lung-function changes with exposure to five substances in aluminium smelters
To determine whether occupational exposures contribute to respiratory symptoms among workers involved in the production of primary aluminium, a cross-sectional survey of 1,615 male employees of two Australian aluminium smelters was conducted. Subjects underwent spirometry and were asked about respiratory symptoms and the relationship of those symptoms to work. Their job histories were combined with a task-exposure matrix to produce individual quantitative measures of cumulative exposure to fluoride, sulphur dioxide, respirable dust, the benzene-soluble fraction of coal tar pitch volatiles (BSF) and oil mist. After adjusting for smoking and age, it was found that subjects with the highest cumulative exposure to fluoride (>0.16mg/m3 years) and respirable dust (>2.9mg/m3 years) were two to four times more likely to report work-related wheeze and chest tightness than were unexposed subjects. Lower prevalence ratios for the same symptoms were seen with sulphur dioxide and BSF. Levels of lung function decreased slightly with exposure to oil mist, but not with cumulative exposure to other substances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2003, Vol.76, No.2, p.103-110. 28 ref.

CIS 05-376 Kishimoto T., Ohnishi K., Saito Y.
Clinical study of asbestos-related lung cancer
The characteristics of 120 patients with primary lung cancer suspected to be induced by exposure to asbestos were analysed. Most patients were male and the age ranged from 47 to 87 years with a median of 70 years. No particular tendency was observed in the histological types of the lung cancer. Forty patients were heavy smokers. Most of the patients had been exposed to asbestos in shipyards, the construction industry and ironworks. The term of asbestos exposure was from two to 60 years with a median 27 years. Lung cancers appeared after 15 to 69 years with a median 43 years from the initial exposure to asbestos. Lung cancer was accompanied by asbestosis in 35 patients and by pleural plaques in 77, with 22 patients having both asbestosis and pleural plaques. The number of asbestos bodies per 5g wet lung tissue for 72 patients whose lung tissues were obtained from autopsy or surgery was more than 150. In a group of 32 patients, 14 were exposed to crocidolite fibres, ten to amosite and eight to chrysotile.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2003, Vol.41, No.2, p.94-100. Illus. 37 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-78 Mancuso C.A., Rincon M., Charlson M.E.
Adverse work outcomes and events attributed to asthma
The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of asthma on work aptitude, workplace events, and career. 196 patients in an urban health care centre completed a questionnaire on life events and rated whether adverse work events were caused by asthma. 36% of these patients had either changed jobs, work hours, or work duties, and 65% had taken days off because of asthma. In multivariate analyses, less education, not wanting to work, more comorbidity, prior use of oral corticosteroids and current use of oral beta agonists and methylxanthines were associated with these outcomes. Also, currently-working patients were more likely to be using inhaled corticosteroids. 39% believed asthma had adversely affected their career by causing them to not pursue a desired career; not get promoted due to absenteeism, change to a worse job and be perceived as incapable of more responsible assignments. 7% had a negative work event in the preceding year that they attributed to asthma, including job loss and unfavourable interactions with co-workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.44, No.3, p.236-245. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 05-86 Brisman J., Albin M., Rylander L., Mikoczy Z., Lillienberg L., Dahlman Höglund A., Torén K., Meding B., Kronholm Diab K., Nielsen J.
The incidence of respiratory symptoms in female Swedish hairdressers
Airway diseases in hairdressers are a concern. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the risk factors for three respiratory symptoms, wheeze, dry cough, and nasal blockage, in hairdressers. 3,957 female hairdressers and 4,905 women from the general population responded to a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, atopy, smoking, and work history. Incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for the three symptoms studied were calculated. The IRs of all three symptoms were higher in the hairdressers compared with the referents. Smoking modified the effects of cohort affiliation for all three symptoms, although the combined effect from hairdressing work and smoking was less than expected.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.44, No.6, p.673-678. 18 ref.

CIS 04-565 Bertrand J.P., Bourgkard E., Chau N., Pham Q.T.
Use of masks, respiratory symptoms and lung function among coal miners
Port du masque, symptômes respiratoires, fonction pulmonaire des mineurs de charbon [in French]
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of masks, respiratory symptoms and lung function among coal miners. Subjects consisted of 395 miners aged between 28 and 42, exposed for more than five years to coal dust and whose pulmonary radiograph was classified 0/0 according to the 1980 ILO international classification of pneumoconiosis. Methods included administering the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) questionnaire, evaluating cumulated dust exposure and conducting lung function tests. Four groups were determined according to their degree of mask use. It was found that the prevalence of respiratory symptoms was not significantly linked with the degree of mask use. However, the proportion of miners with chronic bronchitis was lower among miners who had a high degree of mask usage.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.7-8, p.495-501. 16 ref.

CIS 04-579 Cowie H.A., Wild P., Beck J., Auburtin G., Piekarski C., Massin N., Cherrie J.W., Hurley J.F., Miller B.G., Groat S., Soutar C.A.
An epidemiological study of the respiratory health of workers in the European refractory ceramic fibre industry
Etude épidémiologique de la santé respiratoire des travailleurs de l'industrie européenne des fibres céramiques réfractaires [in French]
The objective of this study was to investigate possible relations between respiratory health and past airborne exposure to refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs) and respirable dust in workers at six European factories. The target population comprised workers associated with RCF production. Information was collected on personal characteristics, chest radiographs, lung function, respiratory symptoms, smoking, and full occupational history. 774 workers participated. Profusion of small opacities in exposed workers was similar to that among an unexposed control group. Small opacities of International Labour Organisation (ILO) category 1/0+ were not associated with exposure. An association of borderline significance between 0/1+ opacities and exposure to respirable fibres was found for some exposure periods only, the time-related pattern being biologically implausible. Pleural changes were related to age and exposure to asbestos, and findings were consistent with an effect of time since first exposure to RCFs. Among men, forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were inversely related to exposure to fibres, in current smokers only. FEV1/FVC ratio and transfer factor (TLCO) were not related to exposures. The estimated restrictive effect was on average mild. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was low. Chronic bronchitis and its associated symptoms (cough, phlegm) showed some association with recent exposure to respirable fibres. This could be due to an irritant effect of RCFs.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.193, p.23-35. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 04-564 Radon K., Winter C.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in sheep breeders
The European Farmers' Study has indicated that sheep farmers might be at risk for the development of respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in sheep breeders and potential work-related risk factors. On the basis of the responses to a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS), and details of farming, 325 sheep breeders of two regions of South Germany keeping at least 10 sheep could be included in the survey. The prevalences were compared to the results of the European Farmers' Study. Sheep breeders showed a significantly higher prevalence of asthma-related symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 2.1), chronic phlegm (OR 4.0) and WRS (OR 1.7) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits and full time farming. In the multiple logistic regression model, the risk for asthma-related symptoms was doubled in full time farmers. The major predictor of WRS was full time farming and the use of chemical footbaths. It is concluded that sheep breeders might be at high risk for the development of respiratory symptoms, which may be associated with work intensity and chemical exposure during work.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.770-773. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 04-667 Respiratory sensitizers
Respirační senzibilizující materiály [in Czech]
Ämnen som framkallar allergier i andningsorganen [in Swedish]
Atemwegssensibilisierende Stoffe (Inhallationsallergene) [in German]
Pēgés erethismoú (hupereuaisthēsías) tou anapneustikoú sustḗmatos [in Greek]
Sensibilizantes respiratorios [in Spanish]
Respiratoorset sensibilisatsiooni põhjustavad kemikaalid [in Estonian]
Hengityselinsairauksille herkistävät ainet [in Finnish]
Substances respiratoires allergisantes [in French]
Légzőrendszert érzékennyé tevő anyagok [in Hungarian]
Sostanze sensibilizzanti dell'apparato respiratorio [in Italian]
Kvėpavimo organus jautrinančios medžiagos [in Lithuanian]
Respiratorās sensitivitātes palielinātāji [in Latvian]
Inhalatie-allergenen [in Dutch]
Czynniki uczulające układ oddechowy [in Polish]
Alergéneos respiratórios [in Portuguese]
Respiračné senzibilátory [in Slovak]
Povzročitelji preobčutljivosti dihal [in Slovenian]
Indåndingsallergener [in Danish]
For the European Week for Safety and Health at Work 2003, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work is producing a series of fact sheets focusing on the communication of occupational safety and health-related information on dangerous substances. Respiratory sensitizers are biological and chemical agents that can induce allergic respiratory diseases in humans. This fact sheet discusses important characteristics of the exposure to these agents and appropriate prevention measures. Contents: causes of occupational respiratory problems; allergic respiratory diseases; allergic sensitizers; managing respiratory sensitizers.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2003. 2p. Illus. 7 ref. [in English] [in Swedish] [in French] [in Czech] [in Danish] [in German] [in Estonian] [in Greek] [in Italian] [in Latvian] [in Latvian] [in Hungarian] [in Lithuanian] [in Dutch] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Slovak] [in Slovenian] [in Finnish] [in Spanish]

CIS 04-464 Lange J.H., Mastrangelo G., Fedeli U., Fadda E., Rylander R., Lee E.
Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer mortality by type of farming: Is there a hidden dose-response relationship?
Previous studies have suggested that persons in occupations exposed to endotoxins have a reduced rate of lung and respiratory system cancer. In particular, an earlier investigation found a significantly reduced risk of all sites malignant neoplasms in white male crop and livestock farmers, and black male and female crop farmers. The present study provides data on lung and respiratory system cancers in the same workers. Data were obtained from occupation and industry-coded death certificates collected from 26 US states for the period 1984-1993. Cause, sex and race specific proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated using a NIOSH computer program. In each sex and race group, respiratory and lung cancer PMRs were lower than unity. Pooled lung cancer PMR was 0.80 in crop farmers and 0.70 in livestock farmers. These findings, together with those of an earlier study on Californian farmers, suggest a decreasing lung cancer risk with increasing endotoxin exposure, with a possible inverse dose-response relationship.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.2, p.229-232. 32 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-467 Desai M.R., Ghosh S.K.
Occupational exposure to airborne fungi among rice mill workers with special reference to aflatoxin producing A. flavus strains
This study was undertaken to evaluate workers' exposure to mycoflora in rice mills in an Indian region. The airborne fungal communities were isolated and identified quantitatively. Of all the isolates, genus Aspergillus was predominant and among the Aspergillus species, A. flavus was the common isolate, irrespective of the method applied for sample collection. The number of isolates recovered from exposed workplaces was significantly greater than in control areas. The percentage of aflatoxin positive strains of A. flavus was 8%. Surface morphology of aflatoxin positive strains was studied by scanning electron microscopy. High concentrations of total and respirable dust concentrations were found in the exposed workplaces, whereas in the stores only the total dust concentration was significantly higher than in control areas. The study indicates that rice mill workers are occupationally exposed to airborne aflatoxin producing strains of A. flavus and should be equipped with protective masks.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.2, p.159-162. Illus. 19 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-468 Prażmo Z., Dutkiewicz J., Skórska C., Sitkowska J., Cholewa G.
Exposure to airborne Gram-negative bacteria, dust and endotoxin in paper factories
Air samples for determination of the concentration of Gram-negative bacteria, dust and endotoxin were collected at ten sites in two large pulp and paper mills in Poland. Plant "A" was an older facility while the plant "B" was a modern, fully automated factory with an effective ventilation system. The concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria in the air of examined factories were within a range of 11.0-310.0 cfu/m3, being the highest in plant A at the initial stages of the production cycle consisting of wood chip handling and pulp production. Although Gram-negative bacteria were present in the air of paper mills at relatively low concentrations which never exceeded the value of 1000 cfu/m3 proposed as a safe level, they may have adverse effects on exposed workers, as evidenced by high concentrations of airborne endotoxin and the presence of numerous potentially pathogenic species. Thus, these microorganisms pose a potential risk of respiratory disease for the workers of pulp and paper mills, in particular for those engaged in the handling of wood chips and pulp production.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.93-100. Illus. 54 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-361 Hoffmann H.J., Iversen M., Brandslund I., Sigsgaard T., Omland Ø., Oxvig C., Holmskov U., Bjermer L., Jensenius J.C., Dahl R.
Plasma C3d levels of young farmers correlate with respirable dust exposure levels during normal work in swine confinement buildings
Work in swine confinement buildings may lead to an inflammatory response and may be associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins. This study compared the inflammatory response of former farm workers who had previously developed respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, tightness of the chest during work in swine confinement buildings and had stopped work because of these symptoms, with that of age-matched former farm workers who were known not to have developed such symptoms. Both groups were subjected to an experimental exposure in a swine confinement building for three hours. Complement activation and acute phase proteins were measured in blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage. Plasma C3d levels correlated significantly with respirable dust. There was complement activation in response to respirable dust, more so among cases than in the control group. It is concluded that acute occupational exposure to organic dust containing endotoxin leads to a weak systemic inflammatory response.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 48 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-75 Arif A.A., Delclos G.L., Whitehead L.W., Tortolero S.R., Lee E.S.
Occupational exposures associated with work-related asthma and work-related wheezing among U.S. workers
Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994, this study analyses associations between occupation and asthma and wheezing among workers in the United States. Several occupations that were at risk of developing work-related asthma and/or wheezing were identified, with cleaners and equipment cleaners showing the highest risks. Various other sectors were also identified. Work-related asthma and work-related wheezing affected 26% and 27% of the working population, respectively. This study adds evidence to the literature that identifies work-related asthma as an important public health problem.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.44, No.4, p.368-376. 47 ref.

CIS 04-230 Guide on systems to facilitate contact tracing and the prevention of SARS in the workplace
The Singapore Ministry of Manpower (MOM) has introduced a series of precautionary measures aimed at protecting workplaces from the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). With effect from 15 June 2003, daily temperature-taking will be required for all construction worksites, shipyards, factories employing more than 25 workers and for foreign worker dormitories. Furthermore, it is essential that workplaces implement systems to facilitate contact tracing when any employee or visitors is suspected of being infected with SARS. This guide aims to help employers establish pro-active measures to facilitate contact tracing in the workplace. It consists of a series of recommendations together with forms for logging workers' temperature, reporting suspected SARS cases and recording their contacts. See also CIS 04-231.
Occupational Health Department, Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road, #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 27p. [in English]

CIS 03-1909 Microbiological load of a ventilation system filter
Mikrobiologische Belastung des Filters einer Lüftungsanlage [in German]
Some employees of a dairy working in humid environments were found to suffer from repeated respiratory diseases. It was therefore decided to investigate the possible causes. It was found that the filter of one of the three ventilation systems was humid while the other two were dry, and that it contained very high levels of endotoxins and moulds, since their proliferation is favoured by humidity. This problem was related to a faulty design of the ventilation system which used partly re-circulated air mixed with fresh air, a process which allows energy savings. The article emphasizes the importance of controlling the air in production facilities equipped with ventilation systems.
Akzente - Magazin für Arbeitssicherheit, Gesundheitsschutz und Rehabilitation, Jan.-Feb. 2003, No.1, p.8-9. Illus.

CIS 03-1673 Droste J., Myny K., Van Sprundel M., Kusters E., Bulat P., Braeckman L., Vermeire P., Vanhoorne M.
Allergic sensitization, symptoms and lung function among bakery workers as compared with a nonexposed work population
In this study on the risks of occupational asthma and skin allergies among bakery workers, a sample of 246 workers from traditional and industrial bakeries were compared with a reference population of 251 workers from a petrochemical plant. Data on skin tests, symptoms and lung function were collected by standardized procedures. It was found that bakery workers did not show more skin test positivity than reference workers (39.4% and 42.6%, respectively). However, they showed a strongly increased risk of sensitization to specific bakery allergens such a wheat flour and α-amylase (odds ratio (OR) 22.0), whereas their risks of positive skin tests to common allergens, including wheat pollen and storage mite, were significantly decreased (OR 0.6). They had significantly more often respiratory symptoms and lower lung function parameters. Atopy and sensitization to bakers' allergens were independent and additional risk factors for work-related symptoms.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.45, No.6, p.648-655. 22 ref.

CIS 03-1632 Andersson E., Olin A.C., Hagberg S., Nilsson R., Nilsson T., Torén K.
Adult-onset asthma and wheeze among irritant-exposed bleachery workers
It is unclear whether new-onset asthma is associated with irritant exposure. This study investigated if occupational exposure to irritant gases, especially repeated peak exposure (gassings), increased the risk of obstructive airways disease. Data on airway symptoms and exposure among 101 bleachery and 314 paper department workers of a pulp mill were collected by a questionnaire. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HR) (Cox regression) were calculated . The incidence rate for adult-onset physician-diagnosed asthma among bleachery workers reporting gassings giving rise to respiratory symptoms was 7.6/103 person-years and for those without gassings 2.2/103 person-years, compared to 1.0/103 person-years for paper workers. In a Cox regression model for asthma, stratified for sex, HR for gassings were 5.6, for hay fever 3.0, and for ever smoking 0.7. The same model for adult-onset wheeze gave HR of 5.2, 1.7, and 1.1, respectively. Repeated peak exposure to irritant gases in the pulp industry increased the risk for both adult-onset asthma and wheeze.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2003, Vol.43, No.5, p.532-538. 25 ref.

CIS 03-1748 Kazan-Allen L.
The asbestos war
Asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal disease. This issue on asbestos-related problems covers following aspects: the fight to ban asbestos; scientific controversy; statistics of malignant mesothelioma in Australia; legal actions for compensation in South Africa and France; history of asbestos mining in Southern Africa; cross-country comparative overview of the asbestos situation in ten Asian countries; asbestos-related morbidity in India; impact of asbestos waste around the Roro hills, India, on the neighbouring population's health; asbestos situation in Japan, Korea, Mexico and Belgium; globalization and the transfer of a hazardous industry.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.9, No.3, p.173-298 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (Introduction) [in English]

CIS 03-1778 Rosenberg N.
Occupational respiratory allergies caused by wood dust
Allergies respiratoires professionnelles provoquées par les poussières de bois [in French]
Woodworking is a known cause of respiratory allergy risk. High-speed revolving machines produce large amounts of easily-inhalable fine dust, which when deposited at all levels in the respiratory tract may cause nose, bronchial and lung symptoms. Moulds, bacteria and bacterial endotoxins which grow on wood parts stored in the premises, together with substances used for wood treatment present additional respiratory hazards. Contents of this article on occupational respiratory allergies caused by wood dust: physiopathology; prevalence among exposed occupational groups; diagnosis in occupational settings; confirmation of diagnosis in specialized institutions; development; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.96, p.501-510. 86 ref.

CIS 03-1664 El-Zein M., Malo J.L., Infante-Rivard C., Gautrin D.
Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence among welders of coexisting symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA). A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, systemic symptoms and occupational history was administered by telephone to a sample of 351 welders from two cities in Quebec, Canada. The co-occurrence of possible MFF together with welding-related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA was 5.8%, these two groups of symptoms being significantly associated. In conclusion, there is a strong association between welding-related MFF and welding-related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding-related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.60, No.9, p.655-661. 28 ref.

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