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Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entries found

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  • Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar)

2005

CIS 06-569 Bushe F.
The toiling breath
This article describes the nature of asthma, focusing on the two main types of occupational asthma, namely allergic asthma and irritant asthma, together with their main causal agents. Preventive measures are proposed, including substitution, engineering controls, personal protective equipment and removal from the source of exposure by change of work. Methods of diagnosing occupational asthma are briefly outlined (anamnesis, respiratory function tests, metacholine challenge tests). Occupations at risk are listed, along with potential asthma triggers, and preventive measures for employers and workers are summarized.
Accident Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.52, No.4, p.20-25, 31. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 06-630 Latza U., Haamann F., Baur X.
Effectiveness of a nationwide interdisciplinary preventive programme for latex allergy
This study describes a nationwide awareness campaign aimed at reducing exposure to powdered high-protein latex gloves among health care workers in Germany and evaluates the effectiveness of the programme. Data on compensation claims for latex-related skin and airway diseases were compared before and after implementation of the programme. A survey on change in glove use was also conducted after implementing the programme. The number of compensation claims for latex-induced skin diseases increased from 664 at the start of the programme in 1996 to 884 in 1998, and then decreased to 567 in 1999 and 204 in 2002. Similar decreases were observed for respiratory diseases. This programme was found to be effective and can be regarded as a model for the reduction of other occupational diseases such as bakers' or isocyanate asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.394-402. Illus. 47 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/lp3ef1rrqr5xxmylwa7w/contributions/j/3/3/1/j3314532m7844317.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-565 Latza U., Baur X.
Occupational obstructive airway diseases in Germany: Frequency and causes in an international comparison
Occupational inhalation exposures contribute to a significant proportion of obstructive airway diseases (OAD), namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Data on the occurrence of occupational OAD in the German industrial sector for the year 2003 are presented and compared with that of several other countries. Most confirmed reports of OAD are cases of sensitizer-induced occupational asthma (625 confirmed cases) followed by COPD in coal miners (414 cases), irritant induced occupational asthma (156 cases) and isocyanate asthma (54 cases). Main causes of occupational asthma in Germany comprise flour and flour constituents (35.9%), food and feed dust (9.0%) and isocyanates (6.5%). Flour and grain dust is a frequent cause of occupational asthma in most European countries and South Africa. Isocyanates remain a problem worldwide.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.48, No.2, p.144-152. 46 ref.

CIS 06-626 Dave S.K., Beckett W.S.
Occupational asbestos exposure and predictable asbestos-related diseases in India
Surveys of asbestos-exposed workers in India have identified significant occupational exposures, early pleural and parenchymal changes on chest radiograph and decrements in lung function. Based on knowledge of past and current exposures to asbestos in industry, a future occurrence of clinical asbestos-related diseases including pleural changes, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchogenic carcinoma and diffuse malignant mesothelioma can be predicted. These cases of asbestos related disease are expected to occur in asbestos-exposed workers from mining, milling and manufacturing as well as in those with secondary exposures to asbestos-containing materials, including construction and maintenance workers, users of asbestos-containing consumer products, and the occupants of asbestos-containing buildings.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.48, No.2, p.137-143. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 06-613 Kaukiainen A., Riala R., Martikainen R., Reijula K., Riihimäki H., Tammilehto L.
Respiratory symptoms and diseases among construction painters
This study on the self-reported prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases among construction painters was carried out to estimate the potential risk for this group compared with a representative group of carpenters sharing the construction work environment but without significant exposure to paint. A questionnaire was addressed to 1,000 male construction painters and 1,000 male carpenters (mean response rate 60.5%). Logistic regression modelling was used to study symptoms and diseases of the respiratory tract in relation to occupation and duration of painting experience. Age, atopy and smoking habits were taken into account. Odds ratios of various respiratory symptoms are presented. The results confirm a higher risk for respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis among construction painters than among carpenters.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2005, Vol.78, No.6, p.452-458. 27 ref.

CIS 06-560 Baur X., Latza U.
Non-malignant occupational respiratory diseases in Germany in comparison with those of other countries
This study presents data on the occurrence of non-malignant occupational airway diseases in Germany in 2003 and compares the data with available data from other countries. Confirmed cases of non-malignant occupational respiratory diseases in Germany were mainly benign asbestos associated diseases, silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, obstructive airway diseases due to allergens, chronic obstructive bronchitis and/or emphysema in hard coal miners, obstructive airway diseases due to irritants or toxic agents, diseases caused by ionizing radiation and diseases due to isocyanates. Miners, bakers, chemical workers, hairdressers and health care workers were mostly affected. Similar findings from other countries are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2005, Vol.78, No.7, p.593-602. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 06-559 Nicholson P.J., Cullinan P., Newman Taylor A.J., Burge P.S., Boyle C.
Evidence-based guidelines for the prevention, identification, and management of occupational asthma
These evidence based guidelines for the prevention, identification and management of occupational asthma were based on an extensive literature review. The most important action to prevent occupational asthma is to reduce exposure at source. Thereafter surveillance should be performed for the early identification of symptoms, including occupational rhinitis, with additional functional and immunological tests where appropriate. Effective management of workers suspected to have occupational asthma involves the identification and investigation of symptoms suggestive of asthma immediately they occur. Those workers who are confirmed to have occupational asthma should be advised to avoid further exposure completely and early in the course of their disease to offer the best chance of recovery.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.62, No.5, p.290-299. 231 ref.

CIS 06-394 Steenland K.
One agent, many diseases: Exposure-response data and comparative risks of different outcomes following silica exposure
Evidence in recent years indicates that silica causes lung cancer and renal disease in addition to its well-known relationship to silicosis. The available exposure-response data for silica and silicosis, lung cancer and renal disease were reviewed. The risks of death or disease incidence by age 75 were compared for these three diseases, subsequent to 45 years of exposure to silica at the current exposure limit of 0.1mg/m3 respirable crystalline silica. The absolute risk of silicosis ranged from 47% to 77%. The absolute risk of death from silicosis was estimated at 1.9%. The excess risk of lung cancer death, assuming US male background rates, was 1.7%. The excess risk of end-stage renal disease was 5.1%, and the excess risk of death from renal disease was estimated to be 1.8%. Given that the usual OSHA acceptable excess risk of serious disease or death for workers is 0.1%, it is clear that the current limit is far from sufficiently protective of workers' health. Kidney disease emerges as a higher risk than either mortality from silicosis or lung cancer, although the data are based on fewer studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2005, Vol.48, No.1, p.16-23. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 06-390 Varughese S., Teschke K., Brauer M., Chow Y., van Netten C., Kennedy S.M.
Effects of theatrical smokes and fogs on respiratory health in the entertainment industry
Theatrical fogs are widely used in the entertainment industry. In this study, personal fog exposures, lung function and acute and chronic symptoms were measured among 101 employees at 19 sites using fogs. Chronic work-related wheezing and chest tightness were significantly associated with increased cumulative exposure to theatrical fogs over the previous two years. Acute cough and dry throat were associated with acute exposure to glycol-based fogs, while increased acute upper airway symptoms were associated with overall increased theatrical fog exposure. Lung function was significantly lower among those working closest to the fog source. It is concluded that mineral oil and glycol-based fogs are associated with acute and chronic adverse effects on respiratory health among employees. Reducing exposure through controls, substitution and elimination where possible is likely to reduce these effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.411-418. 26 ref.

CIS 06-295 Bonauto D.K., Sumner A.D., Curwick C.C., Whittaker S.G., Lofgren D.J.
Work-related asthma in the spray-on truck bed lining industry
This study examined compensation claims for occupational asthma associated with exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among workers involved in spray-on truck bed lining. A descriptive study of workers' compensation claims was conducted. Eight such claims were identified between 1993 and 2002, resulting in a claims incidence rate of 200 per 10,000 full-time equivalent workers employed. This rate is excessive and suggests a need for significant intervention, including improvements in the clinical assessment provided to MDI-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.514-517. 12 ref.

CIS 06-389 Bang B., et al.
Exposure and airway effects of seafood industry workers in Northern Norway
This study examined airway symptoms and exposure to bioaerosols and exhaust gases in seafood industry plants in Northern Norway. It involved personal and environmental exposure measurements in 17 plants, analysis of 984 questionnaire responses and clinical examinations of 225 workers. The workers were found to be exposed to allergens, endotoxins, moulds and exhaust gases. The one-year prevalence of work-related airway symptoms was 42.8% for production workers and 25.9% for administrative workers. Mean levels of one-second forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity were less than the predicted values in all exposed non-smoker groups. 20.5 % had increased levels of total IgE. However, specific IgE-mediated reactions seemed to be relevant only in the shrimp industry.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.482-492. 30 ref.

CIS 06-444 Droste J., Vermeire P., Van Sprundel M., Bulat P., Braeckman L., Myny K., Vanhoorne M.
Occupational exposure among bakery workers: Impact on the occurrence of work-related symptoms as compared with allergy characteristics
This study examined the relationship between exposure to occupational allergens, sensitization, atopy and work-related symptoms among bakery workers. Data were collected by questionnaire, skin prick tests, lung function tests, and exposure measurements among 246 workers from 74 bakeries and analysed using logistic and linear regression analyses. It was found that exposure levels were associated with respiratory symptoms, with sensitization to baker's allergens and with decreased lung function. High exposure and sensitization to common and bakers' allergens were independent risk factors for work-related symptoms. However, allergy determinants performed best in predicting work-related symptoms.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.458-465. 32 ref.

CIS 06-302 Duignan K.
Action speaks louder
This article reviews occupational voice disorders. It describes some of the causes of vocal strain, throat irritation, hoarseness and loss of voice including physical factors (background noise, smoke, low humidity, postural strain), workload and psychological factors (stress, interpersonal conflict). It identifies persons at risk, and examines the management of occupational voice hazards and economic and legal aspects.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 2005, Vol.23, No.6, p.50-53. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 06-294 Kullman G., Boylstein R., Jones W., Piacitelli C., Pendergrass S., Kreiss K.
Characterization of respiratory exposures at a microwave popcorn plant with cases of bronchiolitis obliterans
Eight former workers from a popcorn packaging plant were reported to have severe obstructive lung disease consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Investigations into respiratory exposures were carried out at the plant. Air samples were collected to assess airborne particulate concentrations, particle size distributions, endotoxins, nitrogen oxides and other chemicals. Bulk corn and flavoring components were also analyzed for endotoxins and culturable bacteria and fungi. Findings confirm that workers involved in popcorn packaging can be exposed to a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds from flavouring ingredients. Animal studies show that diacetyl can cause airway epithelial injury, although the contribution of other specific compounds associated with obstructive respiratory disease remains unresolved.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2005, Vol.2, No.3, p.169-178. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 06-327 Baletic N., Jakovljevic B., Marmut Z., Petrovic Z., Paunovic K.
Chronic laryngitis in glassblowers
This case-control study examined the prevalence of chronic laryngitis in a group of 100 male glassblowers and a control group of 100 male workers engaged in other occupations in the same plant. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and during medical examinations. After adjustment for possible confounders, such as age, years of service, smoking habits and alcohol consumption, results show a significantly higher prevalence of chronic laryngitis among glassblowers than among controls. However, the duration of exposure was not statistically significant for chronic laryngitis.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2005, Vol.43, No.2, p.302-307. 16 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-2-5.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-293 Blomqvist A., Düzakin-Nystedt M., Ohlson C.G., Andersson L., Jönsson B., Nielsen J., Welinder H.
Airway symptoms, immunological response and exposure in powder painting
Powder coating is an alternative to solvent-based spray painting. Powder paints may contain organic acid anhydrides (OAAs), which are irritants to the airways and may cause sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and immunological response among powder coaters and to describe their exposure to OAAs. Participants included 93 exposed and 26 formerly exposed workers, and 86 unexposed workers who completed a questionnaire on working conditions and symptoms and underwent medical examinations. Although the exposure to OAAs was estimated to be low, IgG antibodies to OAA were observed in some subjects. There was a relatively high prevalence of eye and airway symptoms among the powder coaters that were clearly related to exposure. The symptoms were probably caused by the irritating properties of powder paint dust.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.123-131. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 06-375 Baur X.
Enzymes as occupational and environmental respiratory sensitisers
Airborne enzymes occurring in the general environment and in purified form in industrial production have a high allergenic potential to the airways and mucous membranes, causing rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma. It can be assumed that this also applies to the increasing number of enzymes manufactured by the cloning of genetically engineered microorganisms. Cross-sectional studies demonstrate exposure-response relations for IgE-mediated sensitization and airway disorders. Atopic individuals are more susceptible to enzyme allergy than non-atopic individuals. Skin prick testing and measurement of specific IgE antibodies have been shown to be useful diagnostic tools. Very high concentrations of proteases may lead to emphysema. There is also evidence of non-allergic airway inflammation by proteases. It is recommended that all enzymes be classified with the risk phrase R42 (may cause sensitization by inhalation) and that their inhalation uptake be totally avoided.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2005, Vol.78, No.4, p.279-286. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 06-372 Jarvis J., Seed M.J., Elton R.A., Sawyer L., Agius R.M.
Relationship between chemical structure and the occupational asthma hazard of low molecular weight organic compounds
The aim of this literature survey was to investigate relationships between chemical structure and reported occupational asthma for low molecular weight organic compounds. Nitrogen- or oxygen-containing functional groups such as isocyanates, amines, acid anhydrides and carbonyls were associated with occupational asthma, particularly when the functional group was present twice or more in the same molecule. Results suggest that chemical cross-linking is an important molecular mechanism leading to the development of occupational asthma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.62, No.4, p.243-250. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 06-446 Lambert G.P., Spurzem J.R., Romberger D.J., Wyatt T.A., Lyden E., Stromquist A.M., Merchant J.A., Von Essen S.G.
Tumor necrosis factor-α hyper-responsiveness to endotoxin in whole blood is associated with chronic bronchitis in farmers
Many farmers present respiratory problems that may be related to workplace inhalation of organic dust containing endotoxins. The purpose of this study was to determine whether blood cytokine responsiveness to endotoxin is associated with respiratory disorders. 95 farmers completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire and were subjected to spirometry and blood sampling. Blood was incubated 24 hours in the presence and absence of endotoxin and analyzed for tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Hypo- or hyper-responsiveness to endotoxin was based on whether cytokine values were in the lower or upper 10% of the group range, respectively. A significant association existed between TNF-α hyper-responsiveness and chronic bronchitis. These results indicate that the blood cytokine assay may be useful to identify persons at risk of developing bronchitis following exposure to organic dust at the workplace.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2005, Vol.10, No.1, p.39-44. 30 ref.

CIS 06-308 Klokker M., Vesterhauge S.
Perilymphatic fistula in cabin attendants: An incapacitating consequence of flying with common cold
A perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is an abnormal communication between the inner ear and the middle ear that leaks perilymph. It has also been described in connection with various activities including flying. The symptoms are uncharacteristic vertigo and, in some cases, hearing impairment and tinnitus. This study describes four cases of PLF during a period of six months in a major Scandinavian airline employing approximately 3000 cabin attendants (CAs). None of the cases was diagnosed at the primary health care level. All were referred to the aviation medical centre for investigation. The PLF diagnosis was based on the case history, platform pressure test (a fistula test), and other vestibular tests. Only one CA has been able to return to flying duties. The article emphasizes the risk of flying with poor middle ear equalization and the necessity of reminding airline crews never to fly with a common cold.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.76, No.1, p.66-68. 18 ref.

CIS 06-135 Walusiak J., Wiszniewska M., Krawczyk-Adamus P., Nieścierenko E., Pałczyński C.
Allergy to α-amylase in apprentice bakers - prevalence, incidence, risk factors and clinical symptoms
Uczulenie na α-amylazę u uczniów szkół piekarskich - zapadalność, czynniki ryzyka i obraz kliniczny [in Polish]
The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence, incidence and risk factors of hypersensitivity to α-amylase and to identify allergy-related clinical symptoms in apprentice bakers. A group of 287 apprentice bakers was examined by questionnaire, skin prick tests to common and occupational allergens and evaluation of total serum IgE level, specific anti-flour and α-amylase IgE. Tests were carried out before the onset of vocational training and one and two years later. Respiratory disease was diagnosed by spirometry and inhalation challenge tests. 28 apprentices (9.8%) showed hypersensitivity to α-amylase after two years of exposure. Of those, 17 had allergic rhinitis and 15 had asthma. Results indicate that the incidence of allergy to α-amylase increases with increasing duration of exposure. Hypersensitivity to common allergens, especially moulds, is a risk factor for occupational allergy to α-amylase. It is recommended that skin prick tests to common allergens, particularly moulds, should be performed in bakers before starting occupational exposure to identify high-risk groups.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.2, p.121-130. 17 ref.

CIS 06-158 Kaukiainen A.
Health effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents and paint compounds
This report describes a questionnaire survey of construction painters and carpenters in Finland to assess the effects of past and recent solvent exposure on neurotoxic symptoms and to evaluate the prevalence of work-related respiratory disorders and hand dermatitis among painters. Two clinical experiments were also carried out to evaluate tests for the screening and evaluation of suspected solvent-induced disorders. Significant associations were found between cumulative intensity of long-term solvent exposure and symptoms of memory, concentration and mood. Solvent exposure in painters was also associated with previously diagnosed psychiatric disorders, hypertension and arrhythmia. Painters reported more asthma-like, rhinitis, laryngeal and eye symptoms than the carpenters and they also had more symptoms of hand dermatitis and chronic bronchitis. An approach for the screening and evaluation of solvent-related nervous system disorders is proposed.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2005. 143p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 05-724 Rosenberg N.
Occupational non-infectious respiratory diseases caused by biological agents - Physiopathology and syndromic reactions
Affections respiratoires non infectieuses professionnelles liées aux agents biologiques - Physiopathologie et réactions syndromiques [in French]
Biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, moulds and parasites are to be found at the workplace in many sectors of activity. Exposure to these agents may give rise to infections and other pathologies such as immunoallergies, poisoning and cancer. This article reviews current knowledge on occupational non-infectious respiratory diseases caused by biological agents. Topics covered: types of biological agents and mechanisms of respiratory pathogenicity; immuno-allergic pathologies (rhinitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis); toxic respiratory effects (bronchial diseases, toxic organic dust syndrome).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.102, p.235-244. Illus. 37 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/6A54F95527338226C12570340036D687/$FILE/tr35.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-657 Lacasse Y., Martin S., Desmeules M.
Silicosis, silica and lung cancer: Meta-analysis of medical literature
Silicose, silice et cancer du poumon: méta-analyse de la littérature médicale [in French]
Despite significant efforts to limit exposure to silica, 494 new cases of silicosis were diagnosed in Quebec between 1988 and 2003. While the CSST acknowledges the existence of a relationship between silica exposure and certain cases of lung cancer, this view is not unanimously accepted by lung specialists. This study examines the literature concerning the relationship between silicosis, exposure to silica and lung cancer. Findings suggest that there is an increased risk of death due to lung cancer in silicotic persons. The data published to date also suggest that silica exposure represents a low risk factor for lung cancer at exposure concentrations that exceed the permitted limit based on North American standards. These results are broadly in agreement with the conclusions of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. iv, 91p. Illus. 128 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 10.70. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-403.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-638 Krakowiak A., Dudek W., Tarkowski M., Świderska-Kiełbik S., Nieścierenko E., Pałczyński C.
Occupational asthma caused by cobalt chloride in a diamond polisher after cessation of occupational exposure: A case report
Occupational asthma caused by cobalt chloride was diagnosed in a 35-year-old patient, who worked as a diamond paste polishing disc former. He had been suffering for two years from dyspnoea, cough and symptoms of rhinitis. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with common environmental allergens were found to be negative, while SPTs with cobalt chloride were positive for all applied solutions. Provocation with cobalt chloride caused a significant increase in the proportion of eosinophils, basophils and albumin during the late allergic reaction. Positive lymphocyte transformation caused by cobalt was also observed. It is concluded that cobalt salts may induce occupational asthma; the mechanism may be IgE-mediated.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2005, Vol.18, No.2, p.151-158. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 05-617 Pechter E., Davis L.K., Tumpowsky C., Flattery J., Harrison R., Reinisch F., Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D., Schill D.P., Valiante D., Filios M.
Work-related asthma among health care workers: Surveillance data from California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey, 1993-1997
In this study on work-related asthma (WRA), cases were identified using physician reports and hospital discharge data in four states. Structured interviews were used to confirm cases and collect data on occupations and exposures associated with WRA. It was found that health care workers accounted for 16% of the 1879 confirmed WRA cases, but only 8% of the states' workforce. Cases were primarily nurses employed in hospitals. The most commonly reported exposures were to cleaning products, latex, and poor air quality. It is concluded that health care providers need to recognize the risk of WRA, since early diagnosis decreases the morbidity associated with the disease. Careful product purchasing and facility maintenance would decrease the risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.47, No.3, p.265-275. 89 ref.

CIS 05-316 Pickvance S., Karnon J., Peters J., El-Arifi K.
The impact of REACH on occupational health with a focus on skin and respiratory diseases
Final report of a study commissioned in 2004 by the then European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety (TUTB) and carried out at the University of Sheffield. The study examined the impact of the 2003 European Union REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) proposal on the health of the EU-25 workforce. It focused on two broad groups of occupational diseases: non-malignant diseases of the skin (dermatitis) and of the respiratory system (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The research involved an estimation of the actual number of cases of occupational skin and respiratory diseases in EU member states, development of scenarios for the number of cases reduced under REACH and a calculation of the economic benefits.
European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and Safety (ETUI-REHS), Health and Safety Department, Boulevard du Roi Albert II, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2005. 88p. Illus. 133 refs. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://hesa.etui-rehs.org/uk/newsevents/files/reach-sheffield-complet.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-340 Kvam B.M.N., Romundstad P.R., Boffetta P., Andersen A.
Cancer in the Norwegian printing industry
The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Norwegian workers in the printing industry, particularly lung and bladder cancer. Cancer incidence was investigated from 1953 through 1998 in a cohort of 10,549 male members of a trade union in the printing industry in Oslo and surrounding regions. Smoking data from a sample of the cohort were used for evaluating the risk of smoking-related cancers. Among the skilled workers, significantly elevated risks of cancer of the urinary bladder (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.47), liver (SIR 1.92), pancreas (SIR 1.46) and colon (SIR 1.27) were observed, whereas an increased risk of lung cancer in this group was confined to those born before 1910. Among the unskilled workers, there were significantly increased risks of cancer of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and all sites. However, no specific agent could be identified as an occupational carcinogen. The results did not support the hypothesis of a generally increased risk of lung cancer. The risk pattern for unskilled workers may reflect confounding by non-occupational factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.31, No.1, p.36-43. 62 ref.

CIS 05-326 Ameille J., Descatha A., Pairon J.C., Dalphin J.C.
Occupational chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies
Bronchopneumopathies chroniques obstructives professionnelles [in French]
Epidemiological studies carried out during the last thirty years among populations in both general and occupational settings show that an increasing number of chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies (COBPs) are caused by occupational factors. Sectors of activity where the causal relationship are best documented include the mining and textile industries, cereals and foodgrains, pigsties and dairy farming. From 1988 onwards, the progressive implementation of regulatory measures enabled certain occupational COBPs to be compensated. However, the medical criteria specified in the schedule of occupational diseases are very restrictive, and many occupational aetiologies cannot currently be compensated in this framework.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2005, No.146, 8p. 126 ref.

CIS 04-552 Rosenberg N.
Occupational respiratory allergies to acid anhydrides
Allergie respiratoire professionnelle aux anhydrides d'acide [in French]
Anhydrides of di- and tri-carboxylic acids are extremely reactive chemicals. They are widely used in the plastics industry. They are responsible for many allergic respiratory problems that result from their inhalation in the form of powder or smoke in occupational settings. Contents of this information sheet on occupational respiratory allergies to acid anhydrides: pathophysiology; prevalence among exposed occupations; diagnosis at the place of work; confirmation of diagnosis in a specialised medical institution; evolution; prevention; compensation of occupational diseases.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2005, No.101, p.79-87. 63 ref.

CIS 04-624 Thoumelin P., Monin E., Armandet D., Julien M.J., Massart B., Vasseur C., Pillon A.M., Zilliox M., Balducci F., Bergeret A.
Irritant respiratory problems among swimming pool attendants
Troubles d'irritation respiratoire chez les travailleurs des piscines [in French]
A survey of attendants in 59 swimming pools in the Rhône-Alpes region was carried out. Respiratory problems reported by the attendants were compared with data concerning their activity, their conditions of work, the characteristics of the equipment and levels of nitrogen trichloride measured in poolside ambient air. A campaign launched by an urban community for improving hygiene in swimming pools is also described. The campaign resulted in substantial reductions in chloramine levels in air and water, known to be responsible for ocular and respiratory airway irritation of swimming pool attendants.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2005, No.101, p.43-64. Illus. 50 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20138/$File/TF138.pdf [in French]

2004

CIS 07-797 Hemelt M., Granström C., Hemminki K.
Occupational risks for nasal cancer in Sweden
The Swedish Family Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for nasal cancer (NC) among 52 occupational groups. SIRs were adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Among 739 male cases, significantly elevated SIRs for nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in woodworkers, teachers and fishermen. In woodworkers, the risk increased with a longer occupational history of exposure. Electrical workers had a significant elevated risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Among 182 female cases, significantly elevated SIRs were observed among glass and ceramic industry workers. The study identified some known risk occupations and suggested several new ones.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.10, p.1033-1040. 30 ref.

CIS 07-854 Garshick E., Laden F., Hart J.E., Moy M.L.
Respiratory symptoms and intensity of occupational dust exposure
A postal questionnaire survey on respiratory health was conducted between 1988 and 1992 among a cohort of U.S. veterans eligible for Veterans' Affairs healthcare benefits. Data were collected on history of cough, phlegm, and wheeze, work in a dusty job, and duration, type and intensity of dust exposure, together with information on smoking and other possible confounders. In 2,617 white men, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of chronic cough, chronic phlegm and persistent wheeze attributable to occupational dust exposure were increased twofold. Risks also increased as a function of exposure intensity. For heavy dust exposure the OR was 1.98 for chronic cough, 2.82 for chronic phlegm and 2.70 for persistent wheeze.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2004, Vol.77, No.7, p.515-520. 21 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/3nxckc5vghpmd0kq/fulltext.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-808 Godard P., Amielle J., Pairon J.C.
Occupational asthma
Asthme professionnel [in French]
Collection of ten sheets on occupational asthma aimed at helping general practitioners and occupational physicians to diagnose and treat this disease. Topics addressed include respiratory impairment of asthma patients, main occupations involved, medical treatment, notification, compensation and guidance on change of job. Includes a glossary of the main acronyms and abbreviations.
Editions Imothep, 19 avenue Duquesne, 75007 Paris, France, 2004. 10p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.uvmt.org/Multimedia/fiches%20pro%2018_03.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-650 Morfeld P.
Findings of epidemiological studies on health effects of long-term occupational exposure to dusts of titanium dioxide pigments
Ergebnisse epidemiologischer Studien zur gesundheitlichen Auswirkung von Langzeitexpositionen gegenüber Stäuben aus pigmentärem Titandioxid [in German]
Titanium dioxide pigment dust is considered to be a representative example of a workplace dust that causes little or no adverse health effects. This literature survey reviews epidemiological studies in order to examine the hypothesis, based on experiments on mice, that granular biopersistent dust is carcinogenic in cases of long-term exposure to concentrations within permissible limits. Based on several epidemiological studies, and after taking confounding factors into account, it was not possible to demonstrate an increased risk of lung cancer after exposure to titanium dioxide pigment dust within MAK values (1.5mg/m3 of respirable TiO2 and 4 mg/m3 of inhalable TiO2).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, July 2004, Vol.54, No.7, p.246-258. 40 ref.

CIS 06-965 Chen-Yeung M.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and healthcare workers
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a novel coronavirus, transmitted from human to human by aerosols or by direct contact. This article reviews how health care workers (HCWs) became infected during the outbreak of the disease in Hong Kong and describes the infection-control measures put in place. Risk factors for infection in HCWs included lack of awareness and preparedness when the disease first struck, poor institutional infection control measures, lack of training in infection control procedures, poor compliance with the use of personal protection equipment (PPE), exposure to high-risk procedures such as intubation and nebulization, and exposure to unsuspected SARS patients. Measures to prevent nosocomial infection include: establishing isolation wards for triage, SARS patients and convalescence; training and monitoring hospital staff in infection-control procedures; active and passive screening of HCWs; enforcement of droplet and contact precautions; and compliance with the use of PPE.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.421-427. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 06-357 Flodin U., Jönsson P.
Non-sensitizing air pollution at workplaces and adult onset asthma
The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to non-sensitizing air pollution at workplaces increases the risk of adult onset asthma. 120 persons with asthma diagnosed by general practitioners were compared with 446 referents matched for age and gender and living in the same community as the cases. Information on occupation, exposure to specific allergens, smoking habits, dwellings and atopy was obtained from a postal questionnaire. It was found that three years or more of work in air-polluted workplaces resulted in an increased odds ratio of 1.7 for asthma. Working in buildings affected by dampness and mould brought a fourfold risk. It is concluded that occupational exposure to unspecific air pollution at workplaces is associated with an increased risk of adult-onset asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.77, No.1, p.17-22. 32 ref.

CIS 06-144 Sjögren B.
Fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders
Welders inhale gases and respirable particles. To investigate the relationship between fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders using basic electrodes containing calcium fluoride, 63 railroad track welders were interviewed. Fluoride was measured in post-shift urine samples. Seventeen welders reported respiratory symptoms related to welding fume exposures. Respiratory symptoms were somewhat more common with increasing concentrations of fluoride in urine. The association between welding fume exposure and respiratory symptoms seems related more to fluorides than to other particles among welders using basic electrodes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.310-312. 19 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Sjogren.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-94 Ballal S.G., Ahmed H.O., Ali B.A., Albar A.A., Alhasan A.Y.
Pulmonary effects of occupational exposure to Portland cement: A study from eastern Saudi Arabia
A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees in a randomly-selected factory producing Portland cement in eastern Saudi Arabia to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases and chest x-ray changes consistent with pneumoconiosis. A sample of 150 exposed and 355 unexposed employees was selected. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was completed during an interview and chest X-rays were read according to the ILO criteria for pneumoconiosis. Dust level was determined by the gravimetric method. Concentrations of personal respirable dust ranged from 2.13mg/m3 in the kilns to 59.52mg/m3 in the quarry area. Cough and phlegm were found to be related to cigarette smoking, while wheezing, shortness of breath and bronchial asthma were related to dust levels. It is recommended that engineering measures be adopted to reduce the dust level in this company, together with health monitoring of exposed employees.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.272-277. 18 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Ballal.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-199 Kennedy S.M., Copes R., Bartlett K.H., Brauer M.
Point-of-sale glass bottle recycling: Indoor airborne exposures and symptoms among employees
Airborne exposures and both chronic and acute respiratory and somatic symptoms were surveyed among 226 employees at 36 randomly selected liquor stores with bottle recycling and in-house glass breaking. Rates of chronic symptoms were compared to an external, unexposed control population. Exposure levels were estimated for inhalable particulate matter (0.18 mg/m3), endotoxin (3.6 EU/m3) and viable fungi (1064 CFU/m3). Fungal levels were associated with visibly mouldy bottles being broken, outdoor fungal counts and uncovered glass bins. Compared to controls, employees reported more work related chest tightness and chronic nasal symptoms. Acute chest symptoms were associated with breaking visibly mouldy bottles, but not with measured fungal counts; inhalable particulate matter levels >0.2 mg/m3 were associated with acute upper airway irritation. Results suggest that this type of recycling programme may generate fungal exposures sufficient to elicit upper airway and chest symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2004, Vol.61, No.7, p.628-635. 23 ref.

CIS 06-97 Gallego C., Marciano E.
Prevalence of occupational lung diseases among workers exposed to respiratory risk factors
Prevalencia de enfermedades pulmonares ocupacionales en trabajadores expuestos a riesgo respiratorio [in Spanish]
This study evaluates the prevalence of occupational respiratory diseases in a group of 4529 workers of 241 enterprises based in an industrial suburb of Buenos Aires. 369 workers for whom the medical file indicated lung anomalies were subjected to further examinations. Two control groups were also established. The most frequent exposures involved sensitizers (53%), irritants (35%) and dust or smoke (13%). Among the workers that were subjected to further examinations, it was possible to establish 27 cases of occupational respiratory disease and 125 cases of respiratory disease unrelated to work. The most frequent occupational disease was asthma (9,15%), mainly due to exposures to flour, isocyanates and animals, as well as to cleaning tasks. Smoking and obesity were associated with respiratory diseases. Exposure to respirable substances was associated with respiratory pathway obstruction (determined by spirometry), both among smokers and non-smokers.
Salud Ocupacional, Oct.-Dec. 2004, Vol.XXII, No.91, p.19-23. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 05-305 Kishimoto T., Ozaki S., Kato K., Nishi H., Genba K.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma in parts of Japan in relationship to asbestos exposure
In this study, malignant pleural mesothelioma cases in hospitals located in a region of Japan were evaluated. A total of 106 patients (97 men, 9 women) aged between 41 and 87 years were examined, of whom 100 had occupational exposure to asbestos. There were 37 cases of epithelial, 25 biphasic and 15 sarcomatous tumours. In the remaining 23 cases, it was not possible to characterize the tumour. The mean survival rate for all cases was 9.2 months. 51 had occupational histories of shipyard work, 16 patients worked in asbestos cement piping, and the remainder were employed in miscellaneous jobs involving asbestos exposure. The mean duration of asbestos exposure was 17.2 years and the average latent period for the occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma was 37.0 years. 94% of malignant pleural mesothelioma were due to exposure to crocidolite and amosite, with the remainder due to chrysotile.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2004, Vol.42, No.4, p.435-439. 31 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2004/pdf/42-4-5.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-464 Andersen C.I., Von Essen S.G., Smith L.M., Spencer J., Jolie R., Donham K.J.
Respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction in swine veterinarians: A persistent problem
This cross-sectional study was conducted during the American Association of Swine Veterinarians annual meeting. The 122 subjects (median age 42.5 years) completed a respiratory symptom and work history questionnaire and performed spirometry. Work-related symptoms included rhinitis (69%), cough and chest tightness (53%) and wheezing (31%). Airway obstruction was seen in 24% of participants. Veterinarians with airway obstruction reported working more hours per week in hog barns than did practitioners with normal pulmonary function.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.386-392. 49 ref.

CIS 05-304 Radon K., Ehrenstein V., Praml G., Nowak D.
Childhood visits to animal buildings and atopic diseases in adulthood: An age-dependent relationship
Several studies have reported protective effects of farming environments against atopic diseases. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural town. 3112 inhabitants aged 18-44 responded to a postal questionnaire on atopic diseases, life-time exposure to farming environments, and potential confounders. Respondents with regular childhood exposure to animals had a significantly reduced risk of nasal allergies. The greatest reduction in risk was seen for respondents starting regular visits to animal stables during the first year of life or between the ages of three and five. Participants reporting start of exposure after age of five remained at a lower risk for nasal allergies. Findings indicate that the preventive effect of animal exposure against atopic respiratory diseases continues into adulthood.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.349-356. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 05-296 Haddar M., Kaced N., Korichi S., Alloula R.
Prevalence of occupational asthma: Survey in four occupational sectors
Prévalence de l'asthme professionnel: enquête dans quatre secteurs d'activité professionnelle [in French]
Few studies exist on occupational asthma in Algeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma in various industrial sectors considered to present risks of this ailment. A descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological design was chosen, involving a group of 508 workers recruited among manufacturing operators of four industrial units (school furniture, leather, wheat flour, cotton-based products). The investigations included: standardized questionnaires adapted to occupational asthma and clinical examinations of all workers; basic pulmonary test function and pharmacodynamic tests for persons showing symptoms of occupational asthma; spirometry; immunological tests and skin tests for workers exposed to wheat flour and wood dust. Prevalence of occupational asthma was 3.6% for the cotton production, 5.8% for wheat flour, 6.8% for wood and 11.6% for leather, respectively. Basic preventive measures are outlined.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2004, Vol.65, No.7-8, p.541-550. 51 ref.

CIS 05-364 Whitehouse A.C.
Asbestos-related pleural disease due to tremolite associated with progressive loss of lung function: Serial observations in 123 miners, family members, and residents of Libby, Montana
The community of Libby, Montana was recently the focus of national attention following a widespread amphibole contamination associated with vermiculite mining and processing. Patients who had occupational and non-occupational exposure to asbestos in Libby were evaluated for progressive loss of pulmonary function. Of the 123 patients evaluated, the average annual age-corrected losses were 3.2% for vital capacity, 2.3% for total lung capacity and 3.3% for carbon monoxide diffusion. All these patients had predominantly pleural changes with minimal to no interstitial disease. The study demonstrates a progressive loss of pulmonary function in patients exposed to tremolite asbestos.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.219-225. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 05-338 Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Kern J., Deckovic-Vukres V., Pukarin-Cvetkovic J., Nola-Premec I.A.
Respiratory findings in pharmaceutical workers
Pharmaceutical workers may be at risk of developing respiratory problems as a result of their work environment. This study investigated 163 female and 35 male workers employed in a pharmaceutical plant producing primarily antibiotics, in order to characterize the risk of this environment. 113 controls were selected from a food packing facility. Chronic respiratory symptoms were recorded by using the British Medical Research Council questionnaire. Acute symptoms which developed during the work shift were recorded and participants were subjected to spirometry tests. A significantly higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded among pharmaceutical workers (compared to controls), the highest being for sinusitis, nasal catarrh, and dyspnoea. There was also a high prevalence of acute symptoms recorded during the work shift. The most significant risk factors for these respiratory findings were smoking and length of time worked in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly in men.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.5, p.472-479. 26 ref.

CIS 05-8 Maître A., Perdrix A.
Isocyanates
Isocyanates [in French]
Isocyanates are characterized by the presence of one or several highly-reactive functional groups, providing them with exceptional industrial properties. This high reactivity also explains why they represent the most important chemical cause of occupational asthma in industrialized countries, and particularly in France. The severity of the pathologies is related to the nature of the induced asthma and bronchiolitis that follow acute exposures. However, there is still a lack of understanding of both the complex physiopathological mechanisms and the mutagenic effects. The requirement for strictly-controlled technical prevention measures, particularly in spray painting, is causing users to consider substitution products.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2004, No.145, 5p. 64 ref.

CIS 05-81 Laraqui C.H., Laraqui O., Alaoui Yazidi A., El Kabouss Y., Caubet A., Qarbach M., El Hassani S., Verger C., Laraqui S.
Evaluation of respiratory hazards among pit diggers in the region of Agadir, Morocco
Evaluation des risques respiratoires chez les puisatiers de la région d'Agadir, Maroc [in French]
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate occupational respiratory hazards among 346 pit diggers in Agadir, Morocco, and its surrounding region. The survey covered working conditions, physical and chemical soil analyses and a medical assessment (questionnaire, clinical examination, spirometry and chest X-ray). The study population consisted exclusively of male workers with a mean age of 42.8±10.5 years and a mean duration of exposure of 14.5±6.9 years. 50% of the subjects had respiratory symptoms dominated by dyspnoea (43.1%) and cough (35%). 64.2% had abnormal spirometry. Chest X-ray analyses revealed pulmonary abnormalities among 32.9% of the subjects (of which 78.9% were small and 21.1% large opacities). The clinical and functional respiratory symptoms and the radiological abnormalities appeared early and their prevalence increased with the duration of the exposure to dust. There was no correlation between the outcome of lung function tests and chest X-rays opacities. Pit digging work appears highly silicogenic, and it is imperative to implement medical and technical prevention measures to reduce respiratory hazards.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2004, Vol.65, No.6, p.480-488. 21 ref.

CIS 05-161 Ulm K., Gerein P., Eigenthaler J., Schmidt S., Ehnes H.
Silica, silicosis and lung-cancer: Results from a cohort study in the stone and quarry industry
A cohort study among workers compensated for silicosis between 1988 and 2000 from the stone and quarry industry in Germany was initiated. The cohort consisted of 440 workers who were followed up until the end of 2001. A detailed assessment of the jobs of all workers was carried out. During the follow-up 144 workers died, compared with 74.35 expected cases based on the mortality rates of the general population from Germany, leading to a standard mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.94. Lung cancer was the cause of death in 16 cases (SMR 2.40). All workers had a peak exposure above 0.15mg/m3, the current threshold value. The cumulative exposure was above 2mg/m3-years and the average exposure was 0.10mg/m3 or higher. In order to reduce the risk of lung cancer among workers in the stone and quarry industry, current levels of exposure to silica should be reduced.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2004, Vol.77, No.5, p.313-318. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 05-158 Kurihara N., Wada O.
Silicosis and smoking strongly increase lung cancer risk in silica-exposed workers
It remains controversial whether silica is a human lung carcinogen. A literature search was performed on papers published from 1966-2001 which epidemiologically reported on the relationship between silica/silicosis and lung cancer. Papers which did not exclude the effects of asbestos and radioactive materials including radon were removed. Based on the selected papers, the lung cancer risks from silica, silicosis and non-silicosis with exposure to silica were summarized by meta-analysis. The pooled relative risks were 1.32 for silica, 2.37 for silicosis and 0.96 for non-silicosis with exposure to silica. Since some papers on silica did not exclude silicosis, the risk due to silica itself may be smaller than 1.32. It was less possible that silica exposure directly increases lung cancer risk. On the other hand, the relative risk of 2.37 for silicosis suggested that silicosis increases lung cancer risk. The meta-analysis also revealed that cigarette smoking strongly increased the lung cancer risk in silicotic patients (relative risk, 4.47).
Industrial Health, July 2004, Vol.42, No.3, p.303-314. Illus. 67 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2004/pdf/42-3-1.pdf [in English]

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