Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entries found
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- Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar)
Can fluoride cause lung cancer?
This editorial consists of a brief literature survey of the possible carcinogenic role of the fluorine ion as an introduction to the paper "Lung cancer in a steel city - Its possible relation to fluoride emissions" by V.A. Cecilioni published in the same issue and abstracted in CIS 73-1593.
Fluoride, Oct. 1972, Vol.5, No.4, p.169-171. 14 ref.
Lung cancer in a steel city - Its possible relation to fluoride emissions
Recent epidemiological studies of mortality rates from lung cancer suggest a close relationship between cancer incidence and the presence of large steelmaking centres. This is substantiated by the present survey of 300 deaths from primary lung cancer recorded in 1966-1968 in the industrial city of Hamilton, Ontario. A direct relationship was noted between mortality rates and the proximity to the main heavy-industry section of the town. During the period 1938-1968, lung cancer deaths increased at approximately the same rate as iron and steel production, although the population of the town only doubled. The possible role of fluoride (largely as hydrogen fluoride in the atmosphere) and other air pollutants is discussed.
Fluoride, Oct. 1972, Vol.5, No.4, p.172-181. Illus. 21 ref.
Giordano A.M., Morrow P.E.
Chronic low-level nitrogen dioxide exposure and mucociliary clearance
There is evidence that NO2 inhibits ciliary beating in vitro at concentrations as low as 30ppm, and that lower concentrations affect the smooth muscle of the airways. The mean rates of tracheal mucociliary transport found in animals by various investigators using different techniques are tabulated; their range is 5-36mm/min. The present investigation was conducted on rats by a new in vivo technique permitting repeated measurements over several months. A mean mucociliary velocity of 8.14mm/min was obtained in untreated rats. A 6-week exposure to 6ppm of NO2 caused a significant decrease in transport rates, in spite of large individual variations, but the functional impairment induced by NO2 was reversible within 7 days.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1972, Vol.25, No.6, p.443-449. Illus. 28 ref.
The role of tolerance in pulmonary defense mechanisms
Exposure to ozone (O3) is known to produce tolerance against the formation of pulmonary oedema, but little evidence is available concerning effects other than oedema. Tests were carried out on rabbits, using the unilaterial lung exposure technique. The methodology is described in detail, and the results presented and discussed. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the initial O3 exposure did not afford protection against the cytotoxic effects of the gas.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1972, Vol.25, No.6, p.432-438. Illus. 23 ref.
Minnig H., Weck A.L.
"Cheese-washers' disease" - Immunology and epidemiology
Die "Käsewascherkrankheit" - immunologische und epidemiologische Studien [in German]
Report on the medical history and the serological-examination results of 125 cheese-salters who, for many years, had had respiratory exposure to cheese mould (penicillium casei). In certain cases, the serological examination was supplemented by patch testing and lung function tests. A number of cases of particular interest from the differential-diagnosis point of view are described. The most common form of the disease leads to a chronic interstitial pneumopathy. The incidence of certain serological factors and typical symptoms and characteristics in the medical history clearly indicate the occupational origin of this disease. Analysis of data obtained from cheese-dealers shows that sensitisation is related not only to individual predisposition but also to working conditions which necessitate the adoption of suitable supervision and hygiene measures. Resuilts obtained by other workers in this field are indicated.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 26 Aug. 1972, Vol.102, No.34, p.1205-1212, and 2 Sep. 1972, No.35, p.1251-1257. Illus. 33 ref.
Lloyd Davies T.A.
Respiratory disease in foundrymen - Report of a survey.
A survey of 1,997 foundrymen aged 35-64 years employed in 66 foundries selected at random and a control population of 1,777 men of the same age group, carried out by a team of Medical Inspectors of Factories. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly higher among foundrymen (10.5% among foundry floor men and 10.9% among fettlers, as against 7.2% among controls). X-ray films were read using the National Coal Board elaboration of the ILO (Geneva 1958) Classification. The statistical treatment of the results is described and an arithmetical score assigned to each film. The percentage of foundrymen with simple pneumoconiosis was higher among fettlers than among foundry floor men (Category 1: 25 and 12%; Category 2: 7 and 2%; Category 3 and above: 2 and 0.1% respectively). The main data collected in the survey are presented in 42 tables and 16 figures. Chapters are devoted to: selection of sample; methods; population examined; differences in age, anthropometry and smoking habits; respiratory symptoms; obstructive airway disease; collection of sputum; chest radiographs; multiple regression analysis of respiratory function tests, sputum volume, and pneumoconiosis (discrete opacities); socio-economic and other factors; discussion and conclusion.
Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1971. 73p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: £0.50.
The respiratory system and harmful agents
Appareil respiratoire et nuisances [in French]
A monograph dedicated to the memory of Professor C. Gernez-Rieux which reviews co-ordinated thematic research carried out at Lille University over the last decade. Individual sections are devoted to: fundamental respiratory-system reaction processes to harmful agents; the respiratory system and occupational harmful agents (coalworker's pneumoconiosis, non-silicotic occupational bronchopulmonary disease and industrial pollution); respiratory disease due to fungal-spore inhalation, and hypersensitive pulmonary disease; bronchopulmonary disease and chronic respiratory insufficiency due to harmful agents.
Université du droit et de la santé, Lille, France, 1971. 61p. Illus. 298 ref.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Alergická forma bronchopulmonálnej aspergilózy [in Slovak]
Description of a case of allergic aspergillosis in a furniture-works machine-tool operator. Clinical examination showed only discrete obstruction of the respiratory tract and consequently laboratory tests were carried out which indicated the presence of Aspergilli in respiratory tract secretion, anti-aspergilla precipitins in blood serum and eosinophils in peripheral blood. There was cutaneous hyersensitivity to various Aspergillus types and radiography showed recurrent dust infiltrations with central bronchiectasis and repeated bronchial-drainage disturbances leading to bronchial occlusion. The antigen source was probably sawdust. The disease was not accepted as being of occupational origin for worker's compensation purposes.
Studia pneumologica et phtiseologica cechoslovaca, 1971, Vol.31, No.7-8, p.343-348. 16 ref.
Minette A., Lavenne F.
Reproductibility of lung function tests in epidemiological studies on bronchitis
Reproductibilité des épreuves fonctionnelles pulmonaires applicables en enquêtes épidémiologiques sur la bronchite. [in French]
Research carried out with the financial assistance of the Commission of European Communities. A literature review of the applicable parameters is followed by a report on their comparative studies. Measurements on a number of different-sized groups (225, 60 or 28 persons) covered FEV1.0 FEV0.75, FEV0.25-0.75, FEV0.5-0.75, peak expiratory flow rate, airway resistance and residual volume. The most stable parameters with the least scatter over the day were FEV1.0 and FEV0.75, this supports the use of these parameters in epidemiological studies on bronchitis.
Revue de l'Institut d'hygiène des mines - Tijdschrift van het Instituut voor mijnhygiëne, 1971, Vol.26, No.2, p.63-72. Illus. 54 ref.
Coates E.O., Watson J.H.L.
Diffuse interstitial lung disease in tungsten carbide workers.
Case reports are given of 12 persons employed in the manufacture or grinding of tungsten carbide who developed a progressive diffuse interstitial pneumonia, characterised clinically by non-productive cough and by dyspnoea on exertion. Lung tissue examined by light microscopy in 8 patients and by electron microscopy in 1 showed interstitial infiltrates of mononuclear and mast cells, desquamated hystiocytes in the alveoli, and various amounts of interstitial fibrosis; 8 of the patients died. Details are given on observation of 5 additional subjects with episodic cough related to carbide dust exposure but without roentgen abnormalities. The disease is a pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of finely powdered cobalt in the carbide formulation.
Annals of Internal Medicine, Nov. 1971, Vol.75, p.709-716. Illus. 19 ref.
Dalldorf F.G., Kaufmann A.F., Brachman P.S.
Woolsorters' disease - An experimental model
Description of an experimental model of inhalation anthrax in monkeys that very closely mimics woolsorters' disease. It is thought that the morphological data throw light on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of anthrax but also demonstrate a common mechanism of tissue injury and death caused by many bacteria. 91 monkeys were exposed for up to 32 days to dusty air from a mill processing imported goat hair known to contain anthrax spores. 23 monkeys contracted inhalation anthrax. The morphologic study of the infected monkeys supported the notion that in most cases of inhalation anthrax, spores are carried to the mediastinal lymph nodes where they germinate and produce a primary lymphatic infection. The large bacteria quickly invade the bloodstream and cause fatal septicaemia. The anthrax bacillus produces a toxin which often causes marked local vascular injury with oedema, haemorrhage and thrombosis. In anthrax septicaemia the toxin causes generalised vascular injury with widespread capillary thrombosis, circulatory failure, shock, and death.
Archives of Pathology, Dec. 1971, Vol.92, p.418-426. Illus. 27 ref.
Udžvarlić H., Tanasković B.
Respiratory lesions in electric porcelain factory workers
Oštećenja disajnih organa kod radnika u tvornici elektroporcelana [in Serbocroatian]
In 1969-1970, an industrial hygiene survey was made of airborne dust concentration, composition and particle size in a Yugoslav electric porcelain works; the results are tabulated. Clinical examination of 165 workers revealed 5 cases of pneumoconiosis, 5 of active tuberculosis, 1 of pneumoconiosis with tuberculosis and 4 of chronic bronchitis; clinical and radiological pictures are described. There was a close relationship between respiratory lesions and workplace dust composition - especially where the dust contained free silica of respirable size. The following measures are recommended: local exhaust ventilation, polyester fibre working clothes, humidification of raw materials, total enclosure of processes, rigorous pre-employment medical examinations, and BCG vaccination.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1971, Vol.22, No.2, p.111-125. 25 ref.
Schubel F., Linss G.
Inhalation allergy to "Zineb 80" fungicide
Inhalationsallergie durch Fungizid "Zineb 80" [in German]
Report of a case of pronounced allergic mucosal irritation with oedema following work in a field which had 1h previously been sprayed with Zineb 80 (zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate). Medical history, clinical and laboratory findings and therapy are described. Workers should not be allowed to enter fields immediately after they have been treated with agricultural chemicals, even if these chemicals are claimed to be non-toxic for man.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, June 1971, Vol.26, No.25, p.1187-1189. 6 ref.
Effect of the working environment in animal-feed mixing premises on respiratory disease
Einfluss des Arbeitsmilieus in den Futtermischungsräumen auf die Erkrankungen der Atmungswege [in German]
Industrial hygiene studies in 42 Czechoslovak animal-feed plants revealed dust concentrations 6-85 times higher than the Czechoslovak MAC for inert dusts (10mg/m3). Numerous dust samples contained aspergillus, mucor, rhizopus and penicillium spores. 33% of male employees had chronic bronchitis (with some cases of emphysema); only 13% of the females were affected. Analysis of the occurrence and extent of bronchitic phenomena showed a statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. More aspergillus and penicillium spores were found in the sputum of exposed males (8.5% in both cases) that in that of controls (1.9 or 6.9%); this indicates massive spore inhalation in animal-feed mixing. The authors consider that only hermetic enclosure of mixing and bagging plants can produce a fundamental improvement in working conditions.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1971, Vol.22, No.3, p.253-268. 27 ref.
Knudson T.L., Kolanz M.E.
An innovative safety model and e-learning guide to working safely with beryllium throughout the industrial supply chain
Over the past 10 years, the primary beryllium producer in the United States has partnered with the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) in conducting research to develop a beryllium safety model to prevent chronic beryllium disease. As the result of this research-to-practice partnership, a philosophically different worker protection model evolved based on the premise of addressing all routes and pathways of potential worker exposure. The model's fundamental principles involve keeping: beryllium out of the lungs; work areas clean; off the skin; off clothing; at the source; in the work area; on the plant site; workers prepared to work safely. Recent research by NIOSH is demonstrating that the model has reduced beryllium sensitization and lowered the risk of chronic beryllium disease in employees hired since 2001. As a result, an e-learning tool was created to enhance the communication of the model throughout the industrial supply chain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2009, Vol.6, No.10, p.758-761. 7 ref.
An_innovative_safety_model.pdf [in English]
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