Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entries found
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- Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar)
Dang B., Chen L., Mueller C., Dunn K.H., Almaguer D., Roberts J.L., Otto C.S.
Ocular and respiratory symptoms among lifeguards at a hotel indoor waterpark resort
The objective of this study was to determine the cause of eye and respiratory irritation symptoms among lifeguards at an indoor waterpark. The investigation involved environmental sampling for chloramine, endotoxin and microorganisms, administering symptom questionnaires, reviewing ventilation system designs and reviewing water chemistry. Airborne trichloramine concentrations were found at levels reported to cause irritation symptoms in other studies. Some endotoxin concentrations were found at levels associated with cough and fever in previous studies. Exposed lifeguards were significantly more likely to report work-related irritation symptoms than unexposed individuals. The ventilation system may not have provided sufficient air movement and distribution to adequately capture and remove air contaminants. No water microbes were detected and water chemistry met state standards.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.52, No.2, p.207-213. 26 ref.
Harber P., Santiago S., Wu S., Bansal S., Liu Y., Yun D.
Subjective response to respirator type: Effect of disease status and gender
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of respirator type and user characteristics, such as the state of health, on the subjective response to respirator use. The subjective responses for multiple domains were evaluated in 104 volunteers performing work tasks in a simulated work environment. Each used a dual cartridge half face mask and a filtering facepiece respirator. The study population was recruited to include four groups (normal respiratory status, mild asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or chronic rhinitis). Mixed model regression analyses determined the effects of respirator type, disease, gender and age. Half face masks produced more adverse subjective response than the filtering facepiece for most scales. There were significant interactions, such that disease status modified the effect of respirator type. In general, women reported greater adverse ratings than did men. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.52, No.2, p.150-154. Illus. 32 ref.
Du C.L., Wang J.D., Chu P.C., Guo Y.L.
Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome
After an accidental release of expanded perlite powder in a factory in Taiwan, 24 exposed workers were followed for more than six months. Three developed persisting respiratory symptoms with positive provocation tests that were compatible with a reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During an experimental simulation of the accident, expanded perlite was shown to be very dusty, with airborne concentrations greatly exceeding current exposure limits. A review of literature showed that while exposure of expanded perlite below current permissible levels may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short-term exposure to high concentrations is warranted.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.119-122. 14 ref.
Acute_expanded_perlite_exposure.pdf [in English]
Gómez M.E., Sanchez J.F., Cardona A.M., Pioquinto J.F., Torres P., Sanchez D., Camargo L.M., Castañeda R.A., Villamizar R.H., Cremades L.V.
Health and working conditions in carpenter's workshops in Armenia (Colombia)
A study of the health and working conditions in 10 carpenter's workshops in the municipality of Armenia (Colombia) was conducted. Working conditions of the 177 most exposed workers were examined, and exposure to wood dust and noise, as well as lighting, were measured. The state of health was surveyed using a self-report questionnaire. Results show that personal protection was not used appropriately and that some were inadequate, that half of workshops had below the minimum allowable lighting limit level (500 lux) required, and that the noise level exceeded the permissible maximum limit value (85 dBA) in all the workshops.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.222-230. Illus. 39 ref.
Health_and_working_conditions.pdf [in English]
Heo Y., Lee S.H., Kim S.H., Lee S.H., Kim H.A.
Public facility workers' immunological characteristics involved with development of respiratory allergic diseases in Korea
The immuno-pulmonary status of employees working at public facilities was evaluated to determine whether they are at greater risk of developing respiratory allergies. Fifty-two employees from child daycare centres, elderly nursing homes, subway stations and hypermarkets, and 17 office workers were recruited. All were subjected to a skin prick test (SPT) for 25 aeroallergens and the methacholine bronchial challenge test. Various immunological parameters, including plasma IgE and IgG4 levels, hematology parameters and in vitro cytokine production from peripheral T cells, were assessed. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were also determined. Of the facility employees, 54% responded to the SPT, and house dust mite induced positive skin reactions most frequently. Compared to the SPT-negative facility employees and the office workers, the SPT-positive facility employees had upregulated plasma IgE levels and eosinophil frequency in their peripheral blood. Findings are discussed. This study suggests that workers at public facilities could show greater risk towards the development of respiratory allergic diseases.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.171-177. 32 ref.
Public_facility_workers.pdf [in English]
ASHCA/NIOSH Conference - Be safe, be profitable: Protecting workers in agriculture
This full issue includes the papers presented at a conference on protecting workers in agriculture, held on January 27-28 2010 in Dallas-Fort Worth, USA. Contents: global view of issues affecting United States production agriculture; perspectives of hired workers; overview of safety and health in the United States; preventing heat-related illness; respiratory issues; minimizing worker injuries in livestock handling; overcoming language barriers; safe tractor operations; aging agricultural workers; safety performance metrics; minimizing exposures to pesticides; pre-harvest food safety; musculoskeletal disorders; preventing injuries to reduce cost; zoonotic influenza and its implications for agricultural workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.15, No.3, p.17-329 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Härenstam A., Kauppinen K., Solonin Y.G., Bojko E.R., Tevlina V., Syurin S., Tarnovskays Y., Sallinen M., Petruk Y., Butenko T., Milutka E., Lindbohm M.L., Helaskoski E., Retnev V.M., Grebnkov S.V., Lehtinen S.
Women and work
Collection of articles on women and work of relevance to Baltic and Nordic countries. Contents: progress and challenges of research on women and work; gender sensitivity with respect to women, work and health; women's work in the Komi Republic of the Russian Federation; specialists needed in the social institutions of the Archangelsk region; special features of respiratory pathology in female nickel electrolysis production workers; women and shift work; health status and working conditions of tram drivers in Saint Petersburg; role of occupational health services in the protection of pregnant workers; women's work from the occupational medicine viewpoint; revitalizing Finnish-Karelian collaboration in occupational health.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2004, Vol.13, No.1, p.1-43 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Women_and_work.pdf [in English]
Zhenshchiny_i_trud.pdf [in Russian]
Henwood N., Niu S., Michell K., Mwakini N.K., Kaoneka B.K., Lekei E., Rwako A.J., Matee J.J., Jemneh T.A., Pääkkönen T.
Health care workers
Collection of articles on the safety and health of health care workers of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO list of occupational diseases and health care workers; protection of health care workers with a focus on respiratory health; hepatitis in the context of Botswana. Other topics: safety implications of pesticide use in vegetable cultivation among small-scale farmers in Tanzania; Ethiopian migrant workers' perceptions of the United Kingdom health and safety regulations; review of a conference on well-being held in February 2010 in Helsinki, Finland.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2010, Vol.20, No.4, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health_care_workers.pdf [in English]
Quarcoo D., de Roux A., Wicker S., Rabenau H.F., Groneberg D.A., Gottschalk R.
Occupationally-acquired infections among health care workers: Respiratory diseases
Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens - eine Serie - respiratorische Erkrankungen [in German]
Due to the contact with infectious patients, health care workers are at risk of work-related infectious diseases. This article on respiratory diseases is the first of a series of four on occupationally acquired infections among health care workers. It reviews literature data on viral and bacterial infections (SARS, influenza, para-influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, adenoviruses, tuberculosis, pertussi and other infectious agents) and describes the preventive measures to be taken by health care workers (wearing a mask, personal hygiene, infection control). Health care workers dealing with patients infected with highly pathogenic agents (SARS, avian flu) should be specially trained. See also ISN 110617, ISN 110619 and ISN 110620.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Mar. 2009, Vol.59, No.3, p.81-91. Illus. 41 ref.
Refresher training on asbestos and occupational
Fortbildung Asbest Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Formation continue sur le thème de l'amiante et de la médecine du travail [in French]
Review of the communications presented at a refresher training seminar on asbestos and occupational medicine. Main topics addressed: occupational diseases due to asbestos; statistical trends of mesothelioma over the past 20 years in Switzerland and forecasts; cost of occupational diseases due to asbestos; types of asbestos and their hazards; early screening; histological, immunohistochemical and radiological diagnosis; awareness and preventive measures; addressing the issue of asbestos in vocational training.
IZA - Sicherheit und Gesundheit, 2010, No.4, p.6-8. Illus.
Safak A.A., Arbak P., Yazici B., Bilgin C., Erdogmus B., Annakkaya A.N., Ozsahin S.L.
Bronchial wall thickness in toll collectors
There is an increasing concern about the possible adverse effects of diesel exhaust particulates on human health. In a diesel exposed occupational group composed of 120 toll collectors, a cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the chest radiographs and 40 toll collectors were selected for computed tomography examination. The wall thicknesses and luminal diameters of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi of right apical and posterior basal segments were measured with manual tracing method. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that exposure to diesel fumes may have a role in increasing the thickness of large airway walls and in decreasing the diameter of large airways.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.317-323. Illus. 22 réf.
Malo J.L., De Guire L., Labrèche F., Labrecque M., Gautrin D.
Occupational asthma with and without a latency period
Asthme professionnel avec et sans période de latence [in French]
This review article summarizes the epidemiological, environmental, psychosocial and medico-legal aspects of occupational asthma. Based on surveys of the general population, 15% of asthma patients declare stronger symptoms at the place of work. Some suffer from occupational asthma (OA), namely a type of asthma caused by agents that are present at the place of work. Studies on prevalence among workers exposed to environments known to be risky show that approximately 2% of workers exposed to protein derivatives suffer from OA, a level that reaches 5% for workers exposed to chemicals. Frequencies are the highest among painters exposed to diisocyanates and bakery product workers exposed to flour dust and enzymes. Risk factors include exposure intensity, and to a lesser degree, individual factors such as atopy.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 1st Quarter 2010, No.166, 17p. Illus. 118 ref.
Yeomans L., Coldwell M., Saunders J., Farrant J., Codling A., Bowen J., Harris-Roberts J.
Health and Safety Executive
An exploratory study of occupational health risks for beauty therapists who carry out massage and spray tanning treatments
This study explored the possible risks of musculoskeletal and respiratory ill health for beauty therapists who deliver massage and spray tanning treatments. The delivery of these treatments was observed in three salons who also offered facials, waxing, manicures and pedicures. Postural analyses indicated an overall medium risk level of developing MSDs. However, as the reported durations were short and frequencies low, the true risk may be lower. When delivering spray tanning treatments, the workers' personal exposures to specific volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were all low and the active ingredient in spray tan solution was not detected. The bacterial/fungal contamination of the samples was very low and not considered to pose a risk to health.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 41p. Illus. 25 ref.
An_exploratory_study_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Peto J., Rake C., Gilham C., Hatch J.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational, domestic and environmental mesothelioma risks in Britain
There are just over 2100 people diagnosed with mesothelioma in the United Kingdom each year with about five times as many cases in men as in women In this study, more than 600 patients with mesothelioma and 1400 healthy people were interviewed to examine United Kingdom rates of the disease linked to different occupations. It was calculated that men born in the 1940s who worked as carpenters for more than 10 years before they reached the age of 30 have a lifetime risk for mesothelioma of about one in 17. For plumbers, electricians and decorators born in the same decade who worked in their trade for more than 10 years before they reached the age of 30, the risk is one in 50 and for other construction workers one in 125. For every case of mesothelioma, asbestos also causes about one case of lung cancer so the overall risk of asbestos related cancer for this particular group of carpenters is about one in 10. The risk was also increased in other industries and the study showed that two-thirds of all British men and one quarter of women had worked in jobs involving potential asbestos exposure at some time in their lives. There was also a small increased risk in those who had lived with someone who had been exposed to asbestos. The risk of mesothelioma for the rest of the United Kingdom population who haven't experienced these occupational exposures is about one in 1000. These apparently-unexposed cases account for 60 per cent of all mesotheliomas in women and 15 per cent in men. This is higher than the overall rate in women in most other countries, suggesting that many of these unexplained cases were caused by unrecognized environmental asbestos exposures which occurred in certain situations because of the widespread use of asbestos during the 1960s and 1970s.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, x, 63p. Illus. 46 ref.
Occupational_domestic_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Goldcamp M.J., Goldcamp D.M., Ashley K., Fernback J.E., Agrawal A., Millson M., Marlow D., Harrison K.
Extraction of beryllium from refractory beryllium oxide with dilute ammonium bifluoride and determination by fluorescence: A multiparameter performance evaluation
Beryllium exposure can cause a number of deleterious health effects, including beryllium sensitization and the potentially fatal chronic beryllium disease. Efficient methods for monitoring beryllium contamination in workplaces are valuable to help prevent dangerous exposures to this element. In this work, performance data on the extraction of beryllium from various size fractions of high-fired beryllium oxide (BeO) particles (from <32 μm up to 212 μm) using dilute aqueous ammonium bifluoride (ABF) solution were obtained under various conditions. Beryllium concentrations were determined by fluorescence using a hydroxybenzoquinoline fluorophore. The effects of ABF concentration and volume, extraction temperature, sample tube types, and presence of filter or wipe media were examined. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2009, Vol.6, No.10, p.735-744. Illus. 22 ref.
Extraction_of_beryllium.pdf [in English]
van Rooy F.G.B.G.J., Houba R., Palmen N., Zengeni M.M., Sander I., Spithoven J., Rooyackers J.M., Heederik D.J.J.
A cross-sectional study among detergent workers exposed to liquid detergent enzymes
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate sensitisation and respiratory health among workers who produce liquid detergent products and handle liquid detergent enzymes. It involved 109 workers of a detergent products plant, who were interviewed for respiratory and allergic symptoms and who provided blood samples to examine sensitisation to enzymes. Those sensitised to ≥1 enzymes were referred for clinical evaluation. Workers and representatives were interviewed to characterise exposure qualitatively and estimate exposure semi-quantitatively. Workers were classified into three exposure groups with varying exposure profiles to enzymes, based on frequency, duration and level of exposure. Workers were exposed to proteases, alpha-amylases, lipase and cellulases. The highest exposures occurred in the mixing area. Liquid spills with concentrated enzyme preparations and leakage of enzymes during weighing, transportation and filling were causing workplace contaminations and subsequently leading to both dermal and inhalation exposure for workers. Workers with the highest exposures reported significantly more work-related symptoms of itching nose (prevalence ratio PR 4.2) and sneezing (PR 4.0) and marginally significant more symptoms of wheezing (PR 2.9) compared with the least exposed group. Fifteen workers (14.2%) were sensitised to ≥1 enzymes. A marginally-statistically significant gradient in sensitisation across the exposure categories was found. There was a clinical case of occupational asthma and two others with probable occupational rhinitis. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.759-765. 30 ref.
Slager R.E., Poole J.A., LeVan T.D., Sandler D.P., Alavanja M.C.R, Hoppin J.A.
Rhinitis associated with pesticide exposure among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study
Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, based on data from 2245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators participating in a wider cohort study. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education and growing up on a farm, the associations between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in the past year were evaluated. 74% of commercial pesticide applicators reported at least one episode of rhinitis in the past year (current rhinitis). Five pesticides used in the past year were significantly positively associated with current rhinitis. There was no evidence of confounding by common agricultural rhinitis triggers such as handling grain or hay.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.718-724. 19 ref.
Rhinitis.pdf [in English]
Pujades-Rodríguez M., Lewis S., Mckeever T., Britton J., Venn A.
Effect of living close to a main road on asthma, allergy, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
A number of epidemiological studies suggest that the risk of asthma is increased among those living in close proximity to major roads. However, the evidence is inconsistent, and effects on asthma and related respiratory and allergic conditions using objective measures such as lung function and allergic sensitisation have not been widely investigated. In 1995, 1996 and 2001 data on respiratory and allergic disease, along with demographic and lifestyle factors, were collected in 59,285 children (aged 2-16 years) and adults as part of the annual Health Survey for England. Geographical Information System software enables mapping the location of each participant's home and computing the distance to the nearest major road. The effect of distance on self-reported wheezing in the past year, asthma, eczema, hay fever, one-second forced expiratory volume, immunoglobulin E and spirometry defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Living within 150m from a major road was not significantly associated with an increased risk of any of the outcome variables in any age group. Furthermore there was little evidence that risk increased with increasing proximity across the 0-150m range where contrasts in traffic-related pollutant concentrations are greatest.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66, No.10, p.679-684. 36 ref.
Prevention and control of risks in the marble industry
Prevenção e controle dos riscos presentes em marmorarias [in Portuguese]
This article reviews the risks inherent to the tasks carried out in marble cutting operations, together with the appropriate preventive measures. Contents: summary of the various occupational safety and health projects undertaken in Brazil since 1988; effects of silica exposure in marble operations; control and preventive measures; exposure to chemical and physical agents (noise, vibration); ergonomic risks; personal protective equipment to be supplied by the employer; refresher training as a means of prevention; periodical medical examinations; retracing the history of the working conditions in the marble-cutting sector in Brazil; activities of the marble industry technical group established in 2004.
Revista CIPA, Aug. 2009, Vol.30, No.357, p.30-53. Illus.
Warren N., Meijster T., Heederik D., Tielemans E.
A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers
This article presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitization and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally, and tracks the development of work-related sensitization and respiratory symptoms in each worker. The model has three components: a multi-stage disease model describing the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in each worker over time; an exposure model describing occupational exposure to flour dust and allergens; and a basic population model describing the length of a worker's career in the bakery sector and the influx of new workers. Each worker's disease state is modelled independently using a discrete time Markov Chain, updated yearly using each individual's simulated exposure. A Bayesian analysis of data from a recent epidemiological study provided estimates of the yearly transition probabilities between disease states. For non-atopic/non-sensitised workers the estimated probabilities of developing moderate (upper respiratory) symptoms and progression to severe (lower respiratory) symptoms are 0.4% and 1.1% per mg/m3/year of flour dust, respectively, and approximately twice these for atopic workers. The model predicts that 36% of workers with severe symptoms are sensitised to wheat and 22% to α-amylase. The predicted mean latency period for respiratory symptoms was 10.3 years.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.66, No.12, p.810-817. Illus. 39 ref.
A_dynamic_population-based_model.pdf [in English]
Algranti A., de Fátima Maçãira E., Medina Coeli Mendoça E.
You, the cleaning worker! Shall we talk?
Você, trabalhador da limpeza! Vamos conversar? [in Portuguese]
The objective of this booklet is to draw attention to the risks arising from exposure to vapours, gases and dust from products used or during the actual activity of daily cleaning, focusing on the onset of symptoms that may precede the development of diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. It makes some recommendations for care while performing tasks that can help prevent unnecessary exposure to these products. It makes also some guidance on workers' rights and procedures for the diagnosis and recognition of asthma and rhinitis as occupational diseases.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, 05409-002 São Paulo SP, Brazil, 2009. 19p. Illus.
Você_trabalhador_da_limpeza.pdf [in Portuguese]
Mittmann-Frank M., Berger H., Buchter A.
Occupational and preventive medical diagnostic programme regarding exposure to nanomaterials and special or new materials
Arbeitsmedizinisches und präventivmedizinisches Untersuchungsprogramm bei Exposition mit Nanopartikeln und speziellen oder neuen Materialien [in German]
There is an urgent need to determine the health hazards from exposure to nanomaterials. These substances exhibit different physical, chemical and biological properties than the larger particle sized products with the same chemical composition and one should not automatically attribute the known same toxic effects of one to the other. According to present knowledge, the greatest risk arises from inhalation of insoluble or slightly soluble particles. Taking into consideration the various possible mechanisms of the interactions between nanomaterials and the human body, this article proposes an extensive occupational and preventive medical diagnostic programme. See also ISN 111201.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Nov 2009, Vol.59, No.11. p.336-343. 50 ref.
Arbeitsmedizinisches_und_präventivmedizinisches_Untersuchungsprogramm.pdf [in German]
Evidenz-basierte Leitlinie [in German]
Chronic berylliosis is a granulomatous systemic illness that is difficult to distinguish from sarcoidosis. A project was therefore set up in Germany to develop evidence-based guidelines on the prevention of chronic beryllium disease. This article presents the current stage of development of the project and the methods applied for a systematic literature search.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2009, Vol.59, No.10, p.316-318. Illus. 4 ref.
Occupational respiratory allergy to small laboratory animals
Allergie respiratoire professionnelle aux petits mammifères de laboratoire [in French]
Occupational respiratory sensitization to small laboratory mammals applies to biological, medical and pharmaceutical research. The condition is generally immuno-allergic and IgE-dependant. The most common allergens have been identified and characterized, in particular for rats and mice, the most frequently-involved species. Diagnosis usually relies on symptoms linked to contact with animals and positive skin or serological tests. Various preventive and protective measures are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4nd Quarter 2009, No.120, p.471-479. Illus. 43 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2047/$File/TR47.pdf [in French]
Friesen M.C., Fritschi L., Del Monaco A., Benke G., Dennekamp M., de Klerk N., Hoving J.L., MacFarlane E., Sim M.R.
Relationships between alumina and bauxite dust exposure and cancer, respiratory and circulatory disease
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between alumina and bauxite dust exposure, and cancer incidence and circulatory and respiratory disease mortality among bauxite miners and alumina refinery workers. It involved 5770 male workers in Australia linked to national mortality and cancer incidence registries, for which cumulative exposures were estimated using job histories and historical air monitoring data. Findings suggest that cumulative bauxite exposure may be associated with an excess risk of death from non-malignant respiratory diseases, while cumulative alumina dust exposure may be associated with an excess risk of death from cerebrovascular disease. Neither exposure appears to increase the risk of incident cancers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.615-618. 17 ref.
Taeger D., Johnen G., Wiethege T., Tapio S., Möhner M., Wesch H., Tannapfel A., Müller K.M., Brüning T., Pesch B.
Major histopathological patterns of lung cancer related to arsenic exposure in German uranium miners
A comprehensive histopathological database and a detailed job-exposure matrix developed for former German uranium miners with exposure to arsenic, radon, and quartz were analyzed to quantitatively assess the effect of arsenic regarding cell type of lung cancer. An arsenic-related increase of the proportion of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was observed, but was restricted to miners without silicosis. The increase was found at all levels of co-exposure to radon and quartz dust. In miners with silicosis, the proportion of adenocarcinoma increased with rising arsenic exposure. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.867-875. Illus. 45 ref.
Meijster T., Tielemans E., Heederik D.
Effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of allergic respiratory disease in bakers: Change in flour dust and fungal alpha-amylase levels
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention programme aimed at reducing exposure to flour dust in the bakery products industry in the Netherlands. Data from several measurement surveys collected before and after the intervention were used to evaluate exposure over time. Measurements were based on personal sampling and analysis of flour dust and fungal α-amylase concentrations. The limited reduction in exposure levels indicates that a more rigorous approach is needed to substantially decrease the exposure levels to flour dust and related allergens.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.543-549. Illus. 39 ref.
Loomis D., Dement J.M., Wolf S.H., Richardson D.B.
Lung cancer mortality and fibre exposures among North Carolina asbestos textile workers
This cohort study of the relationship between lung cancer mortality and asbestos fibre exposure involved workers employed between 1950 and 1973 in one of four asbestos textile products plants in North Carolina. Vital status was ascertained through 31 December 2003. Historical exposures to asbestos fibres were estimated from work histories and industrial hygiene measurements. The mortality of the cohort was compared with that of the national population. Mortality from all causes, all cancers and lung cancer was significant higher among exposed subjects, with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of 1.47, 1.41 and 1.96 respectively. SMRs for pleural cancer, mesothelioma and pneumoconiosis were also elevated. The risk of lung cancer and asbestosis increased with cumulative fibre exposure. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.535-542. 42 ref.
Clin B., Morlais F., Guittet L., Gislard A., Marquignon M.F., Paris C., Caillard J.F., Launoy G., Letourneux M.
Performance of chest radiograph and CT scan for lung cancer screening in asbestos-exposed workers
The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and the specificity of chest CT scans with chest radiographs for the biennial screening of bronchopulmonary cancer in a cohort of asbestos-exposed workers. The screening procedures were applied to 972 individuals who had been highly exposed to asbestos. The study focused on the 1230 screens for which a two-year follow-up period was available, during which 24 cases of bronchopulmonary cancer were diagnosed. Findings are discussed. Overall, the study confirms the superior sensitivity of chest CT scans compared with conventional chest radiography. A recommended diameter of 5mm is proposed as the threshold for considering non-calcified lesions as "suspect" for the surveillance of asbestos-exposed individuals.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.529-534. Illus. 31 ref.
Zaebst D.D., Seel E.A., Yiin J.H., Nowlin S.J., Chen P.
Summary of retrospective asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates for a nuclear naval shipyard and their correlation with radiation exposure estimates
An earlier nested case-control study at a U.S. nuclear naval shipyard primarily assessed the relationship between lung cancer and ionizing radiation. Chemical confounders considered important were asbestos and welding fumes, and the chromium and nickel content of welding fume. In this study, exposures to the potential confounders were estimated by an expert panel based on a set of quantitatively defined categories of exposure. Findings suggest that a fairly large proportion of study population workers were exposed to asbestos and welding fumes. However, the levels of these exposures were not sufficient to affect the risk estimates.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2009, Vol.6, No.7, p.404-414. Illus. 21 ref.
d'Errico A., Pasian S., Baratti A., Zanelli R., Alfonzo S., Gilardi L., Beatrice F., Bena A., Costa G.
A case-control study on occupational risk factors for sino-nasal cancer
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of sinonasal epithelial cancer, with emphasis on metalworking industries. Between 1996 and 2000, incident cases were collected from cancer registry of the Piedmont region of Italy. A questionnaire on occupational history, completed by 113 cases and 336 hospital controls, was used to assign exposure to occupational hazards. Data were subjected to unconditional logistic regression analyses. The risk of adenocarcinoma was significantly related to exposure to wood dust (odds ratio OR 58.6), leather dust (OR 32.8) and organic solvents (OR 4.3), while ever-exposure to welding fumes (OR 3.7) and arsenic (OR 4.4) significantly increased the risk for squamous cell carcinoma. For each of these hazards, significant dose-response relationships were found. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2009, Vol.66, No.7, p.448-455. 40 ref.
Arif A.A., Delclos G.L., Serra C.
Occupational exposures and asthma among nursing professionals
To identify occupational risk factors associated with the development of new-onset asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) in nurses, a cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample of licensed Texas nurses and compared to three other healthcare professional groups. Occupational exposures were ascertained through a job-exposure matrix. Self-reported asthma was significantly greater among nursing professionals involved in medical instrument cleaning (odds ratio (OR) 1.67), exposed to cleaning products and disinfectants (OR 1.72), using powdered latex gloves (OR 1.60) and exposed to solvents (OR 2.00). Risks of BHR symptoms were significantly greater among nursing professionals exposed to cleaning products and disinfectants (OR 1.57) ant to solvents (OR 1.51).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2009, Vol.66, No.4, p.274-278. 23 ref.
Hart J.E., Laden F., Eisen E.A., Smith T.J., Garshick E.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in railroad workers
United States railroad workers have been exposed to diesel exhaust since diesel locomotives were introduced after World War II. This retrospective cohort study examined the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality with years of work in diesel-exposed jobs. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the adjusted incidence rate ratio. Workers in jobs with diesel exhaust exposure had an increased risk of COPD mortality relative to those in unexposed jobs. Workers hired after the introduction of diesel locomotives had a 2.5% increase in COPD mortality risk for each additional year of work in a diesel-exposed job.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2009, Vol.66, No.4, p.221-226. Illus. 68 ref.
Work-related lung cancer
Cáncer de pulmón relacionado con el trabajo [in Spanish]
The Occupational Hazards Directorate of the Columbian Ministry of Social Protection has prepared a guide on occupational lung cancer that includes recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. This information sheet summarizes the recommendations contained in the guide, which can be downloaded from the following link: http://www.fondoriesgosprofesionales.gov.co/documents/Publicaciones/Guias/Gatiso_Cancer_pulmon.pdf.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 3rd Quarter 2009, Vol.61, No.16, 2p. Illus.
Erren T.C., Glende C.B., Morfeld P., Piekarski C.
Is exposure to silica associated with lung cancer in the absence of silicosis? A meta-analytical approach to an important public health question
Using published data from 1966 to 2007, this study investigated whether exposure to silica is associated with lung cancer risks in individuals without silicosis. Findings are inconclusive. Further research should concentrate on silica exposures both above and below those that induce silicosis, so that the shape of the exposure-response relationship may be identified, with adjustments for likely confounding factors including silicosis.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.997-1004. Illus. 81 ref.
Parks P.D., Durand G., Tsismenakis A.J., Vela-Bueno A., Kales S.N.
Screening for obstructive sleep apnea during commercial driver medical examinations
The objective of this study was to evaluate consensus criteria for screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Drivers underwent OSA screening using consensus criteria at commercial driver routine medical examinations. Among 456 drivers examined, 53 (12%) were referred for polysomnography, among whom 20 were confirmed to have OSA. Using the consensus criteria, an OSA diagnosis was reached for the same 20 subjects, supporting the high positive predictive value of the criteria. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.275-282. Illus. 41 ref.
Moshammer H., Neuberger M.
Lung function predicts survival in a cohort of asbestos cement workers
To study the predictive power of respiratory screening examinations, a cohort of 309 asbestos workers of an asbestos cement plant was followed until death or the end of 2006. A decrease in lung function was found to predict the risk of premature death better than exposure history and regular spirometry should therefore be offered as primary screening to all former asbestos workers. Among workers with a history of high cumulative exposure, rapid lung function decrease or radiological signs (diffuse pleural thickening or small irregular opacities), more sensitive techniques (high resolution computer tomography) need to be applied. All smokers with a history of asbestos exposure should be given free smoking cessation therapy to prevent premature death, from lung cancer in particular.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.199-207. 29 ref.
Dosman J.A., Chenard L., Rennie D.C., Senthilselvan A.
Reciprocal association between atopy and respiratory symptoms in fully-employed female, but not male, workers in swine operations
Women account for a sizeable proportion of the workers in swine operations. A total of 240 men and 134 women swine barn workers, together with 184 men and 227 women non-farming rural dwellers completed questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and underwent skin prick tests. Findings indicate that atopy in exposed female workers may be protective of symptoms suggestive of chronic bronchitis but that atopic women workers may be more susceptible to the development of asthma, and that exposures to the various inhaled substances at the workplace may be mediated differently in men and women.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.270-276. Illus. 21 ref.
Serinken M., Karcioglu O., Evyapan F., Sungurtekin H.
Bilateral pneumothorax following acute inhalation injury
A male worker in an upholstery factory in Turkey was confined in the tanning machine for 15 min. On admission into hospital, he was confused with Glasgow coma scale score of 9. His vital signs were as follows: blood pressure 80/58 mmHg; pulse rate 114; respiratory rate 30 bpm; temperature 37.1°C; oxygen saturation 48%. Chest X-ray and bronchoscopy showed lung injury that warranted bilateral tube thoracotomy. The patient was discharged without any sequelae after eight days. Exposure to irritant gases such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide can cause severe pulmonary injury.
Clinical Toxicology, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.595-597. Illus. 6 ref.
MacArthur A.C., Le N.D., Fang R., Band P.R.
Identification of occupational cancer risk in British Columbia: A population-based case-control study of 2,998 lung cancers by histopathological subtype
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the relationship between lung cancer and sector of activity by histopathological subtype. Cases consisted of male 2998 subjects diagnosed between 1983 and 1990, identified through the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Controls consisted of 10,223 age-matched males selected among the general population. Data were subjected to conditional logistic regression analyses after adjustment for potentially important confounding factors. For all lung cancers, an excess risk was observed for workers in the primary metal, mining, machining, transport, utility and protective services. Associations with histopathological subtypes included an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in construction trades, adenocarcinoma for professional workers in medicine and health, small cell carcinoma in railway and truck transport and large cell carcinoma in the primary metal industry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.52, No.3, p.221-232. 47 ref.
Koh D.H., Kim H.R., Han S.S.
The relationship between chronic rhinosinusitis and occupation: The 1998, 2001, and 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic rhinosinusitis and occupation, using data from the 1998, 2001, and 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Men and women aged 20-59 years who participated in the three surveys were included. Trained interviewers visited subjects' homes and administered a standardized questionnaire. The prevalence ratios of chronic rhinosinusitis by major groups were compared with those of clerical workers. Data were subjected to Poisson regression analyses. There were significantly increased prevalence ratios among plant and machinery operators and assemblers, elementary occupations, crafts and related trade workers, and the unemployed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.52, No.3, p.179-184. 32 ref.
Harris-Roberts J., Robinson E., Waterhouse J.C., Billings C.G., Proctor A.R., Stocks-Greaves M., Rahman S., Evans G., Garrod A., Curran A.D., Fishwick D.
Sensitization to wheat flour and enzymes and associated respiratory symptoms in British bakers
A cross-sectional study of 225 workers currently potentially exposed to flour dust in British bakeries was performed to identify predictors of sensitization to wheat flour and enzymes. Participants responded to a questionnaire and underwent lung function testing. The most commonly work-related reported symptoms were nasal irritation (28.9%), eye irritation (13.3%) and cough or chest tightness (10.2%). Chest tightness was significantly associated (odds ratio OR 7.9) with co-sensitization to wheat flour and any added enzyme. Fifty-one workers were atopic and 23 were sensitized to workplace allergens. Atopy was the strongest predictive factor (OR 18.4) determining sensitization. Current versus never smoking (OR 4.7) was a significant risk factor for sensitization in atopic workers only, after correction for the current level and duration of exposure. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.52, No.2, p.133-140. 30 ref.
Bourgkard E., Wild P., Courcot B., Diss M., Ettlinger J., Goutet P., Hémon D., Marquis N., Mur J.M., Rigal C., Rohn-Janssens M.P., Moulin J.J.
Lung cancer mortality and iron oxide exposure in a French steel-producing factory
A total of 16,742 men and 959 women ever employed for at least one year in a French steel mill between 1959 and 1997 were followed up for mortality from 1968 to 1998. Occupational exposures were assessed by a factory-specific job-exposure matrix validated with atmospheric measurements. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using local death rates (external references). Poisson regressions were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) for occupational exposures (internal references), adjusted on potential confounding factors. Among men, mortality was lower than expected for lung cancer compared to the local population (SMR 0.89) and higher than expected compared to the French population (SMR 1.30). A significant bladder cancer excess was observed among workers exposed to oil mist (RR 2.44). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.175-181. 32 ref.
Quinlan P.J, Earnest G., Eisner M.D., Yelin E.H., Katz P.P., Balmes J.R., Blanc P.D.
Performance of self-reported occupational exposure compared to a job-exposure matrix approach in asthma and chronic rhinitis
Self-reported exposure to vapours, gas, dust or fumes (VGDF) has been widely used as an occupational exposure metric in epidemiological studies of chronic lung diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of VGDF for repeatability, systematic misclassification, and sensitivity and specificity against exposure likelihood by a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Data from two interviews two years apart of adults with asthma and chronic rhinitis were used. VGDF and JEM were also analysed among a subset of 199 subjects who reported the same job at both interviews using logistic regression analysis. The VGDF was found to be a useful assessment method for epidemiological studies of occupational exposure risk.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.154-160. Illus. 29 ref.
Bourgkard E., Wild P., Courcot B., Diss M., Ettlinger J., Goutet P., Hemon D., Marquis N., Mur J.M., Rigal C., Rohn-Janssens M.P., Moulin J.J.
Lung cancer mortality and iron oxide exposure in a French steel-producing factory
Mortalité par cancer du poumon et exposition aux oxydes de fer dans une usine sidérurgique française [in French]
The objective of this study was to highlight a possible relationship between exposure to iron oxides and the risk of lung cancer among workers of a French steel mill producing carbon steel. A historical cohort comprising all workers having ever worked for at least a year between 1959 and 1997 was constituted. Causes of death were determined from death certificates, while occupational exposures were evaluated with the help of a plant-specific job-exposure matrix developed by a panel of eight experts and validated by atmospheric sampling. The cohort consisted of 16,742 men and 959 women, followed-up for mortality from 1968 to 1998. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using local death rates. Poisson regressions were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) for occupational exposures, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among men, mortality was lower than expected for lung cancer compared to the local population (SMR 0.89) and higher than expected compared to the French population (SMR 1.30). A significant bladder cancer excess was observed among workers exposed to oil mist (RR 2.44). Other findings are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2009, No.118, p.209-220. 32 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20180/$File/TF180.pdf [in French]
Ahn Y.S., Kang S.K.
Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the industrial accident compensation insurance in Korea
To provide basic information regarding compensation for workers exposed to asbestos, 60 cases of asbestos-related occupational lung cancer and mesothelioma that were compensated during the 15 years from 1993 to 2007 by the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation (KLWC) are described. The characteristics of the cases were analyzed using the KLWC electronic data and epidemiologic investigation data. Compensation was approved for 41 cases of lung cancer and 19 cases of mesothelioma; males accounted for 91.7% (55 cases). The most common age group was 50-59 yr (45.0%). The mean duration of asbestos exposure for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 19.2 and 16.0 yr, respectively. The mean latency period for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 22.1 and 22.6 yr, respectively. The major industries associated with mesothelioma cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (4 cases) and manufacture of asbestos textiles (3 cases). The major industries associated with lung cancer cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (7 cases), construction (6 cases) and the production of primary metals (4 cases). Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.113-122. 43 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/113/_pdf/-char/ja/ [in English]
Elfman L., Riihimäki M., Pringle J., Wålinder R.
Influence of horse stable environment on human airways
This study examined seasonal differences in indoor air quality in a horse stable and assessed whether air quality was associated with respiratory signs or selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and 13 stable workers were investigated three times, in winter, in late summer and the third time in the following winter. Measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergens, microorganisms, endotoxins and glucans. Workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Findings are presented and discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, May 2009, Vol.4, No.10, 7p. Illus. 26 ref.
Mérat-Tagnard F., Michels F., Géraut L., Ferrand J.F., Moulin P., Guével E.
Cardiovascular diseases and work
Affections cardio-respiratoires et travail [in French]
This article reviews the papers presented at the 22nd Congress of the French society of occupational medicine and hygiene in the armed forces and armaments industry (Société d'hygiène et de médecine du travail dans les armées et industries d'armement) held in Lille, France, on 2 and 3 October 2008, on the topic of work-related cardiorespiratory diseases. Contents: occupational cardiovascular risks among firefighters; Takotsubo syndrome (a stress-induced cardiomyopathy); exposure to beryllium in France; management of a case of tuberculosis in occupational settings; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; creation of a centre in French Polynesia for the medical surveillance of workers of the French Pacific testing site; atypical cases of notification of asbestos-related occupational disease; cutting fluids and the lung; occupational allergic rhinitis and asthma.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2009, No.117, p.77-88. 5 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TD%20164/22.06File/TD164.pdf [in French]
Poussières de bois [in French]
In France, more than 300,000 workers are exposed to wood dust. Wood dust is the second most-important cause of occupational cancers recognized and compensated in France. Contents of this issue primarily devoted to wood dust: national campaign on the control and awareness of cancer risks related to wood dust exposure; hand-held woodworking tools. It also presents several recent INRS publications and initiatives on various topics (safety and health management within the enterprise, prevention of back pain, labelling of chemicals, occupational safety and health in warehouses, occupational safety and health on building sites).
Réalité Prévention, Mar.-Apr. 2009, No.20, 4p. (whole issue). Illus.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/Pdf%20ActuRealitePrevention20/$File/ActuRealitePrevention20.pdf [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Bakers - Time to clear the air!
Aimed at bakers, this leaflet explains how flour dust can cause asthma. It describes in an illustrated form the main operations which cause flour dust to develop and how to protect oneself.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2009. 8p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg429.pdf [in English]
Pizon A.F., Schwartz A.R., Shum L.M., Rittenberger J.C., Lower D.R., Giannoutsos S., Virji M.A., Krasowski M.D.
Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline
A 20 year-old man working at a chemical waste plant developed dizziness, abdominal pain and nausea. Following medical examinations which revealed cyanosis and methaemoglobinaemia, methylene blue administration led to complete recovery without sequelae. p-Chloroaniline was later identified as the chemical involved. The subject denied direct contact with the chemical, but was not wearing a respirator during work. GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) confirmed p-chloroaniline and its primary metabolite, p-chloroacetanilide, in the patient's urine.
Clinical Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.132-136. Illus. 12 ref.
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