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Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entries found

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  • Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar)


CIS 00-1331 Laraqui C.H., Caubet A., Harourate K., Mehdaoui Z., Laraqui O., Verger C.
Prevalence of respiratory disorders among poultry retailers
Prévalence des troubles respiratoires chez les marchands de volailles [in French]
A retrospective cohort survey was used to evaluate the prevalence of clinical symptoms, skin reactions and respiratory disorders among subjects exposed to poultry in comparison with unexposed individuals. Among the exposed cohort, 77% had clinical symptoms compared with 46% among the unexposed controls. Rhinitis, asthma, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, cough and bronchitis were significantly more frequent among those exposed than the controls. The cause of respiratory disorders was exposure to poultry, as shown by the fact that its prevalence was 1.8-fold higher among non-smokers exposed to poultry than among non-smokers unexposed to poultry. A variable degree of respiratory obstruction was found among 40% of the exposed individuals versus 14% in the unexposed individuals. Skin tests were positive in 22 % of the exposed compared with 15% of the unexposed. Among the 22 exposed individuals with positive skin tests, 6 had allergic reactions to feathers, 7 to moulds and 1 to cereals. These alarming results emphasize the importance of adopting medical and technical prevention measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1998, Vol.59, No.8, p.574-580. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-1332 Bradshaw L.M., Fishwick D., Slater T., Pearce N.
Chronic bronchitis, work related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in welders in New Zealand
A cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms and lung function in welders was performed at eight New Zealand welding sites. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis were more common in current welders than in non-welders. Of those workers with a cumulative exposure index to welding fume ≥10 years, 16.7% reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis compared with 4.7% of those with a cumulative exposure index <4 years. Workers with chronic bronchitis had significantly lower measures of baseline peak expiratory flow and FEV1/FVC ratio than workers without chronic bronchitis. Multivariate analysis showed that current smoking and total exposure index to welding fumes >10 years were independent risk factors for chronic bronchitis. The report of any work-related respiratory symptom was more prevalent in welders than non-welders and workers with these symptoms had significantly lower FEV1 and FVC values. Multivariate analysis identified a high proportion of time spent welding in confined spaces as the main risk factor for reporting these symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.55, No.3, p.150-154. 30 ref.

CIS 00-795 Massin N., Bohadana A.B., Wild P., Héry M., Toamain J.P., Hubert G.
Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in lifeguards exposed to nitrogen trichloride in indoor swimming pools
The objective of the study was to measure the levels of exposure to nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools and to examine how they relate to irritant and chronic respiratory symptoms, indices of pulmonary function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in lifeguards working in the pools. 334 lifeguards recruited from 46 public swimming pools and 17 leisure centre swimming pools were examined. Mean NCl3 concentrations were greater in leisure than in public pools. A significant concentration-response relation was found between irritant eye, nasal and throat symptoms - but not chronic respiratory symptoms - and exposure concentrations. The data show that lifeguards exposed to NCl3 in indoor swimming pools are at risk of developing irritant eye, nose and throat symptoms. Exposure to NCl3 does not seem to carry the risk of developing permanent bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but this association might have been influenced by self selection.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.258-263. 22 ref.

CIS 00-798 de Klerk N.H., Musk A.W.
Silica, compensated silicosis, and lung cancer in Western Australian goldminers
Silica has recently been reclassified as carcinogenic in humans based largely on the observed increase in rates of lung cancer in subjects with silicosis. This study aims to examine exposure-response relations between exposure to silica and subsequent silicosis and lung cancer in a cohort of goldminers. A total of 2,297 goldminers was examined in 1961, 1974 and 1975. Data were collected on respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and employment history. Subjects were followed up to the end of 1993. Survival analyses for lung cancer mortality and incidence of compensated silicosis were performed with age and year matched conditional logistic regression analyses. 89% of the cohort were traced to the end of 1993. 84% of the men had smoked at some time and 66% were current smokers. 1386 deaths occurred during the follow up period, 138 from lung cancer, and 631 subjects were compensated for silicosis. A strong effect of smoking on mortality from lung cancer and a smaller effect on the incidence of compensated silicosis was found. The incidence of silicosis was clearly related to exposure to silica and the onset of silicosis conferred a significant increase in risk for subsequent lung cancer, but there was no evidence that exposure to silica caused lung cancer in the absence of silicosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.243-248. 27 ref.

CIS 00-800 Sorahan T., Burges D.C.L., Hamilton L., Harrington J.M.
Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers 1946-95
The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexavalent chromium). Based on mortalities for the general population of England and Wales, male workers with some period of chrome bath work had higher lung cancer mortalities than did other male chrome workers. Similar findings were shown for female workers. After adjusting for sex, age, calendar period, year of starting chrome work, period from first chrome work and employment status there was a significant relationship between duration of chrome bath work and risks of mortality for lung cancer. Duration of other chrome work was not a useful predictor of risks of lung cancer. Similar findings for both variables were obtained relative to risk of chrome nasal ulceration. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that soluble hexavalent chromium compounds are potent human lung carcinogens.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.236-242. 18 ref.

CIS 00-767 Abecassis J.C., Tibloux A., Baud J.P., Duval-Arnould G., de Wuyst P., Lambré C.
Mineral wools and health
Laines minérales et santé [in French]
Topics: bronchial cancer; conference; exposure; health hazards; labelling; legislation; man-made fibres; mineral fibres; mineral wool; pulmonary fibrosis; respiratory diseases; threshold limit values; toxicity evaluation.
Revue de médecine du travail, Sep.-Oct. 1998, Vol.XXV, No.4, p.197-223. Illus.

CIS 00-425 Baur X., Stahlkopf H., Merget R.
Prevention of occupational asthma including medical surveillance
Based on new scientific data on dose-response relationships and on ethical considerations, proposals are made for the medical surveillance of occupational asthma within the framework of secondary prevention. It is proposed that medical surveillance programmes be mandatory for workplaces and occupations with an asthma incidence of more than twice that of the general population. Medical surveillance programmes are recommended if asthma frequency is high but below 200%. A stepwise approach for monitoring workers at risk for developing occupational asthma is presented, including a screening by questionnaire and a personal interview and diagnosis confirmation. The management of affected workers is also briefly discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.34, No.6, p.632-639. 57 ref.

CIS 00-464 Brancaleone P., Weynand B., De Vuyst P., Stanescu D., Pieters T.
Lung granulomatosis in a dental technician
Combined histological, mineralogical and immunological studies of a dental technician with pulmonary granulomatosis suggest that this condition was most likely related to occupational exposure to beryllium and possibly to aluminium.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.34, No.6, p.628-631. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-483 Larese F., Fiorito A., Casasola F., Molinari S., Peresson M., Barbina P., Negro C.
Sensitization to green coffee beans and work-related allergic symptoms in coffee workers
In a study of 112 workers in a modern coffee manufacturing plant with good environmental conditions, there was a significant correlation between sensitization to green coffee beans and work-related symptoms, common allergic symptoms and atopy by prick test. Results indicate a need to evaluate atopic status in workers and to identify the most susceptible subjects with the aim of informing them of their at-risk status and monitoring their progress.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.34, No.6, p.623-627. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 00-482 Houba R., Doekes G., Heederik D.
Occupational respiratory allergy in bakery workers: A review of the literature
The literature on baker's allergy is reviewed focusing on the allergens involved, epidemiologic research, exposure assessment, evidence of exposure-response relationships and possible prevention strategies. A large number of potential allergens have been identified and are described here. While little is known about the incidence of baker's allergy, a large number of cross-sectional studies have shown that sensitization and work-related symptoms are common among bakery workers. Only atopy and exposure levels have consistently been reported as determinants of this disease. Age, sex and smoking habits do not seem to be associated with sensitization or work-related respiratory symptoms. Immunochemical methods have been developed to investigate the role of allergen exposure in the development of baker's asthma. Clear exposure-response relationships have been found. Implications for prevention strategies and standard setting are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.34, No.6, p.529-546. 177 ref.

CIS 99-1878 Previdi M., Marraccini P., Farioli L., Rubino F.M., Colombi A.
Occupational respiratory allergic diseases: Strategies for monitoring the work place, identification of allergens and preventive measures
Allergopatie respiratorie professionali: monitoraggio ambientale, aeroallergeni, prevenzione [in Italian]
The main studies published on the relationship between concentrations of airborne allergens and the development of symptoms are reviewed, focusing on three aeroallergens - wheat flour proteins, latex and laboratory animal allergens. The studies cannot be directly compared because of differences in methods, but they do suggest that low levels of airborne allergens may be sufficient to sensitize individuals. The evidence for a dose-response relationship between exposure and symptoms is indirect and not always clear. In occupational medicine, the presence of severe asthma or other allergic disease is suggested as a criterion for excluding workers from a particular job. Workers that are atopic but do not manifest allergic symptoms should be informed about the risk of developing occupational respiratory diseases, and periodic check-ups are strongly recommended. Standardized methods of measurement of airborne allergens for environmental control are needed to allow comparison between studies and adopt primary preventive measures. Topics: allergens; allergic respiratory disorders; experimental animals; flour; individual susceptibility; latex; literature survey; sensitization.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1998, Vol.89, No.6, p.481-498. 68 ref.

CIS 99-1873 Ahrens W., Merletti F.
A standard tool for the analysis of occupational lung cancer in epidemiologic studies
A standard tool for the analysis of known and suspected causes of occupational lung cancer in population-based studies is proposed in order to allow comparable definitions of exposure or of categorizations of occupations. It is based on a list of occupations and industries known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. The lists were translated into codes of the ILO International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1968, and the International Standard Industrial Classification, 1971. The specificity of the categorization is compromised for some groups that are defined by highly specific production processes or exposures. Nevertheless, the grouping is based on a highly valid source of information in population-based studies. It is proposed for use in the assessment of the public health impact of occupational lung cancer. Topics: classification systems; classification; epidemiology; lung cancer; risk factors; statistical aspects.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 1998, Vol.4, No.4, p.236-240. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1683 Ng T.P.
Occupational asthma caused by orangutan in a zoo animal handler
A zoo animal handler developed bronchial asthma for the first time from handling orangutans (Pongo pygmaes). He had prior allergic reactions (rhinoconjunctivitis and urticarial rash), but no asthma, to deer and other hoofed animals in the zoo. In a worksite challenge, immediate and late onset of asthmatic symptoms and airflow obstruction were provoked by carrying a baby orangutan for about 20 minutes. Topics: allergic asthma; case study; handling of animals; maximal expiratory flow; zoological gardens.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1998, Vol.39, No.3, p.127-128. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 99-1596 Ali B.A., Ballal S.G., Albar A.A., Ahmed H.O.
Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75%, were calculated. A significantly higher post-shift reduction in FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by acute exposure to cement dust. Topics: cement; cement industry; cross-sectional study; dose-response relationship; irritation; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; respiratory impairment; Saudi Arabia; shift work; smoking.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.48, No.8, p.519-522. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1517 Ross D.J., Keynes H.L., McDonald J.C.
SWORD '97: Surveillance of work-related and occupational respiratory disease in the UK
SWORD is one of seven clinically based reporting schemes which together now provide almost comprehensive coverage of occupational diseases across the UK. Of an estimated 3,903 new cases seen in 1997, 1,031 (26%) were of occupational asthma, 978 (25%) of mesothelioma, 794 (20%) of non-malignant pleural disease, 336 (9%) of pneumoconiosis and 233 (6%) of inhalation accidents. Incidence rates of occupational asthma were generally highest among workers in the manufacture of wood products, textiles and food (particularly grain products and crustaceans) and additionally, in the production of precious and non-ferrous metals, rubber goods, detergents and perfumes, and in mining. Health care workers were noted to have a surprisingly high incidence of inhalation accidents. Occupational asthma attributed to latex has increased dramatically; the highest rates are among laboratory technicians, shoe workers and health care workers. Topics: asthma; epidemiologic study; food industry; latex; medical supervision; mesothelioma; occupation disease relation; occupational diseases; pleural diseases; pneumoconiosis; respiratory diseases; statistics; textile industry; United Kingdom; woodworking industry.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.48, No.8, p.481-485. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 99-1588 Eisner M.D., Smith A K., Blanc P.D.
Bartenders' respiratory health after establishment of smoke-free bars and taverns
A cohort of bartenders was interviewed before and after prohibition of smoking in all bars and taverns by the state of California. Spirometric assessment included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). At baseline, all 53 bartenders reported workplace environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. After the smoking ban, self-reported ETS exposure at work declined from a median of 28 to 2 hours per week. Thirty-nine bartenders initially reported respiratory symptoms. Of those symptomatic at baseline, 23 no longer had symptoms at follow-up. Forty-one bartenders initially reported sensory irritation symptoms. At follow-up, 32 of these subjects had resolution of symptoms. After prohibition of workplace smoking, improvement in mean FVC was observed and, to a lesser extent, mean FEV1. Complete cessation of workplace ETS exposure was associated with improved mean FVC and mean FEV1 after controlling for personal smoking and recent upper respiratory tract infections. Topics: California; cohort study; controlled smoking; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; maximal expiratory flow; one-second forced expiratory volume; passive smoking; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; smoking; spirometry; ventilatory capacity; waiters, waitresses and bartenders.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Dec. 1998, Vol.280, No.22, p.1909-1914. 65 ref.

CIS 99-1586 Deschamps F., Prevost A., Lavaud F., Kochman S.
Mechanisms of occupational asthma induced by isocyanates
Isocyanates are some of the most important low molecular weight compounds associated with occupational asthma. These compounds are often volatile and are highly reactive on the mucous membranes, especially the conjunctivae and the respiratory tract. The physiological causes of isocynate-induced asthma are reviewed. The main mechanisms are immunological, pharmacological and/or irritative. Topics: asthma; biological effects; immunology; irritation; isocyanates; literature survey; mucous membranes; pathogenesis; pharmacological anamnesis; symptoms; volatile substances.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 1998, Vol.42, No.1, p.33-36. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 99-1552 Liddell F.D.K., McDonald A.D., McDonald J.C.
Dust exposure and lung cancer in Quebec chrysotile miners and millers
A large cohort of men employed in the chrysotile producing industry of Quebec has been under study since 1966. The current study is of 488 cases of lung cancer among workers employed at three places: a major complex in the region of Thetford Mines, a mine and mill in the town of Asbestos and a small asbestos products factory in the same town. A case-referent study showed that lung cancer risks were negligible for years worked in dust categories 1 and 2 (averaging 0.5 and 2 million particles per cubic foot), regardless of the place worked. As the upper limit of category 1 is considerably higher than permitted nowadays, the lung cancer risk from exposure to chrysotile at permitted levels can be taken as extremely small. Patterns of exposure-response for higher categories were irregular. Main conclusions from this series of studies regarding lung cancer and mesothelioma are summarized. Topics: age; asbestos mining; asbestos processing industry; chrysotile; tremolite; cohort study; exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; length of exposure; lung cancer; Quebec; respirable dust; risk factors; smoking.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 1998, Vol.42, No.1, p.7-20, 18 ref.

CIS 99-1200 Gordon S.B., Curran A.D., Fishwick D., Morice A.H., Howard P.
Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle workers - Cough and airways irritancy syndrome?
In a study of a cohort of 69 glass bottle workers, symptoms, employment history and clinical investigations including radiology, spirometry and serial peak expiratory flow rate records were retrospectively analyzed from clinical records. The results showed a consistent syndrome of work-related eye, nose and throat irritation followed after a variable period by shortness of breath. The latent interval between starting work and first developing symptoms was typically 4 years. The interval preceding the development of dyspnoea was longer and much more variable. Spirometry was not markedly abnormal in the group, but 57% of workers had abnormal serial peak expiratory flow rate charts. Workers in this industry experience upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with irritant exposure. The long-term functional significance of these symptoms should be formally investigated. Topics: chest radiography; cohort study; eye irritation; glass industry; irritants; irritation; latency; maximal expiratory flow; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; spirometry; symptoms.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.48, No.7, p.455-459. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 99-1181 Luo J.C.J., Hsu K.H., Hiseh L.L., Wong C.J., Chang M.J.W.
Lung function and general illness symptoms in a semiconductor manufacturing facility
Pulmonary risk in a semiconductor plant was assessed by conducting pulmonary function tests and a symptoms survey. There was a borderline significance of higher prevalence of restrictive lung abnormality in male photolithographic workers than in male control workers. There was a significantly higher prevalence of restrictive lung abnormality in male ion-implantation workers than in male control workers. There were significantly higher prevalences of airway irritation, eye irritation, headache, stress, tiredness, and poor memory in female photolithographic or etch/diffusion workers than in control workers. Results suggest that restrictive lung abnormality is a potential health effect in male silicon-wafer fabrication workers in the semiconductor industry. Topics: chest radiography; electronics industry; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; fatigue; mental stress; migraine; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; risk factors; semiconductor devices; sex-linked differences.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.40, No.10, p.895-900. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1238 Barker R.D., van Tongeren M.J.A., Harris J.M., Gardiner K., Venables K.M., Newman Taylor A.J.
Risk factors for sensitisation and respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to acid anhydrides: A cohort study
A cohort of 506 workers exposed to phthalic, maleic and trimellitic anhydride was defined. Workers completed questionnaires relating to employment history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking habits. Skin prick tests were done with AA-ASA conjugates and common inhalant allergens. Current exposure to acid anhydrides was measured and past exposure was assessed. Results indicated that the intensity of exposure and cigarette smoking may be risk factors for sensitization to acid anhydrides. Exposure is also a risk factor for respiratory symptoms. As there was evidence for sensitization to trimellitic anhydride at full shift exposures within the occupational exposure standard, this standard should be reviewed. Topics: allergies; asthma; carboxylic acid anhydrides; maleic anhydride; trimellitic anhydride; phthalic anhydride; cohort study; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; long-term exposure; respiratory diseases; sensitization; skin tests; smoking.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.55, No.10, p.684-691. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 99-1179 Hessel P.A., Melenka L.S., Michaelchuk D., Herbert F.A., Cowie R.L.
Lung health among plumbers and pipefitters in Edmonton, Alberta
Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and radiographic changes among 99 actively employed plumbers and pipefitters with 20 or more years of union membership were compared to 100 telephone workers. Plumbers and pipefitters had increased prevalence of symptoms suggestive of an irritant effect with no evidence of bronchial responsiveness. The chest radiographs showed evidence of asbestos exposure, especially in the plumbers, but at lower levels than previously reported. Health screening programmes for these workers should be considered, although the logistical problems associated with screening in this group would be significant. Topics: asbestos; cross-sectional study; installation of pipe systems; lung tissue reaction; pleural thickening; plumbing; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; smoking; welders lung; welding and cutting.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.55, No.10, p.678-683. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1259 Nakadate T., Aizawa Y., Yagami T., Zheg Y.Q., Kotani M., Ishiwata K.
Change in obstructive pulmonary function as a result of cumulative exposure to welding fumes as determined by magnetopneumography in Japanese arc welders
In a study of 153 electric arc welders, the strength of the residual magnetic field of externally magnetized lungs was used as an estimate of welding fumes accumulated in the lungs. Spirometric measurements were also obtained. Obstructive changes in pulmonary function were found to be related to level of cumulative exposure to welding fume in male Japanese arc welders after controlling for age and smoking, assuming that lung magnetic field adequately reflects accumulation of welding fumes in the lungs. Topics: arc welding and cutting; epidemiologic study; long-term exposure; magnetopneumography; maximal expiratory flow; obstructive ventilatory impairment; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; smoking; spirometry; welding fumes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.55, No.10, p.673-677. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 99-1258 Simpson J.C.G., Niven R.M., Pickering C.A.C., Fletcher A.M., Oldham L.A., Francis H.M.
Prevalence and predictors of work related respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to organic dusts
In a study of 1032 workers in nine different industries, the highest prevalences of work-related lower respiratory tract symptoms, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and chronic bronchitis were found among poultry handlers. White workers were significantly more likely to complain of upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. An individual in the swine confinement industry had a symptom complex compatible with byssinosis. Increasing current personal exposures to dust or endotoxin were found to be predictive of upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, chronic bronchitis and byssinosis. In a univariate analysis, a relation between current exposures and organic dust toxic syndrome was found. Present smoking and previously documented respiratory tract illness were significantly predictive of work-related lower respiratory tract symptoms. Women were more likely to report work-related upper respiratory tract symptoms. People exposed to organic dusts may have a high prevalence of respiratory tract symptoms which are related to dust exposures and smoking habits. Topics: bacterial toxins; bronchitis; byssinosis; cross-sectional study; occupation disease relation; organic dust; poultry farming; race-linked differences; respiratory diseases; sex-linked differences; smoking; swine; textile industry; upper respiratory tract.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.55, No.10, p.668-672. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 99-1257 Albin M., Engholm G., Hallin N., Hagmar L.
Impact of exposure to insulation wool on lung function and cough in Swedish construction workers
Data from health checks of male construction workers were used to investigate cross sectional and longitudinal associations between lung volumes, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure to insulation wool by combining a job exposure matrix and self reported exposure. Data on 12 month prevalence of persistent cough not associated with the common cold was available for the period 1989-92. High exposure to insulation wool, asbestos or silica during the 12 months preceding the check up was associated with increased odds ratios for persistent cough of the same magnitude as current smoking. The results indicate no effects on VC or FEV from exposure to insulation wool. Recent exposure to insulation wool, asbestos and silica was associated with an increased prevalence of persistent cough. Topics: building industry; asbestos; silica; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; long-term exposure; mineral wool; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; respiratory impairment; smoking; thermal insulation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.55, No.10, p.661-667. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1252 Uitti J., Nordman H., Huuskonen M.S., Roto P., Husman K., Reiman M.
Respiratory health of cigar factory workers
In a cross sectional study of Finnish cigar workers exposed to raw tobacco and a group of unexposed matched referents, there were no significant differences between the groups in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chest radiography findings. No excess of prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the tobacco workers was found. According to the questionnaire episodes of allergic alveolitis may have occurred in the cigar factory workers. However, in the absence of impairments in lung function and radiological changes it was not possible to distinguish humidifier fever and allergic alveolitis. In exposure conditions that include humidification of the air humidifier, fever and allergic alveolitis constitute a risk for tobacco workers. No effects were shown of exposure to tobacco dust on lung function. Topics: air humidification; allergic alveolitis; chest radiography; cross-sectional study; individual susceptibility; pulmonary fibrosis; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; skin tests; tobacco industry; tobacco; ventilatory capacity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.55, No.12, p.834-839. 32 ref.

CIS 99-1251 Zock J.P., Heederik D., Doekes G.
Evaluation of chronic respiratory effects in the potato processing industry: Indications of a healthy worker effect?
Self reported chronic respiratory symptoms and spirometric lung function were assessed in a cross sectional study among 135 potato processing workers. Evident relations between current exposure indices and respiratory health in the entire group were not found. Workers employed ≤5 years showed a two-fold higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, lower lung function, and higher endotoxin exposure than workers employed for >5 years. Also, atopy was more prevalent in workers employed ≤5 years. After stratification for duration of employment, negative effects of endotoxin on lung function among workers employed ≤ 5 years were suggested. This study does not show chronic respiratory effects of exposure to organic dust in the potato processing industry. A likely explanation for not detecting apparent effects might be that many symptomatic workers drop out of this industry a few years after starting the job, suggesting a healthy worker effect. Topics: antigens; bacterial toxins; chronic respiratory diseases; cross-sectional study; exposure evaluation; food industry; healthy worker effect; immunoglobulins; individual susceptibility; length of exposure; organic dust; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; spirometry.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.55, No.12, p.883-827. 39 ref.

CIS 99-914 Talini D., Monteverdi A., Benvenuti A., Petrozzino M., Di Pede F., Lemmi M., Carletti A., Macchioni P., Serretti N., Viegi G., Paggiaro P.
Asthma-like symptoms, atopy, and bronchial responsiveness in furniture workers
In a study of 296 furniture workers, the prevalence of attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing and of dyspnoea was higher in spray painters than in woodworkers or assemblers. The difference in prevalence of respiratory symptoms among job titles was due to the atopic subjects, who showed a higher prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in spray painters than in the other groups. The prevalence of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity showed no significant differences among groups. Painters in the furniture industry, particularly atopic subjects, are at higher risk of asthma-like symptoms than other job titles. In these workers, asthma-like symptoms are more sensitive than non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity in detecting a negative effect of exposure. Topics: asthma; tolylene diisocyanate; dyspnoea; epidemiologic study; furniture industry; hypersensitivity; individual susceptibility; occupation disease relation; organic solvents; paint spraying; respiratory impairment; ventilatory capacity; wood dust.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.786-791. 31 ref.

CIS 99-913 Cherry N.M., Burgess G.L., Turner S., McDonald J.C.
Crystalline silica and risk of lung cancer in the potteries
In a cohort of 5,115 men employed in the pottery, refractory and sandstone industries of Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) calculated against mortalities for the region were raised for all causes, for lung cancer and for non-malignant respiratory diseases. Average concentration and duration of exposure to silica were, taken together, significantly related to the presence of small opacities. The association between risk of lung cancer and quantitative estimates of silica exposure supports the SMR analysis and implies that crystalline silica may well be a human carcinogen. Topics: silica; cohort study; confounding factors; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; lung cancer; mortality; opacities; pottery industry.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.779-785. 12 ref.

CIS 99-912 Järvholm B., Sandén Å.
Lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum among Swedish insulation workers
Cancer morbidity and cause of death was investigated in 248 Swedish insulation workers some years after their exposure to asbestos had stopped. Although exposure to asbestos of all types had almost ended in Sweden in the mid-1970s, these workers still had a highly increased risk of diseases related to asbestos in the 1980s and early 1990s. The attributable risk for death and cancer was about 50%. Results also confirm the previous finding that mesothelioma in insulation workers seems to be situated in the peritoneum more often than in the pleura. Topics: asbestos; cohort study; insulating work; lung cancer; mesothelioma; morbidity; mortality; peritoneal mesothelioma; pleural mesothelioma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.766-770. 15 ref.

CIS 99-852 Massin N., Toamain J.P., Bohadana A., Héry M., Wild P.
Swimming instructors and life guards: A high rate of ocular and respiratory irritation signs
Maîtres nageurs: un taux élevé de signes d'irritations oculaires et respiratoires [in French]
Topics: chlorine and compounds; chronic respiratory diseases; exposure evaluation; eye irritation; irritants; maximal expiratory flow; nitrogen chlorides; nitrogen trichloride; questionnaire survey; swimming pools; ventilatory capacity.
Travail et sécurité, May 1998, No.572, p.36-39. Illus.

CIS 99-906 Brisman J., Torén K., Lillienberg L., Karlsson G., Ahlstedt S.
Nasal symptoms and indices of nasal inflammation in flour-dust exposed bakers
In a study of 12 flour-exposed bakers, 10 reported at least one nasal symptom. Bakers with nasal symptoms had higher concentrations of markers of inflammation in nasal lavage tests compared with nonsymptomatic bakers. Results indicate that flour dust exposure in bakers at levels below the current occupational exposure limit may cause a nonallergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa characterized by activation of neutrophils and fibroblasts. This inflammation causes nasal symptoms. In some cases, the exposure will lead to sensitization to flour and an allergic inflammation involving nasal eosinophils and also causing nasal symptoms. Topics: allergic rhinitis; bakery products industry; case-control study; diseases of nose and sinuses; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; flour; inflammations; respirable dust; rhinitis; sensitization; symptoms.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1998, Vol.71, No.8, p.525-532. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 99-932 Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Kanceljak B., Kern J., Macan J., Ebling Z.
Respiratory function and immunological status in paper-recycling workers
In a study of 101 paper recycling workers, significantly higher prevalences of all chronic respiratory symptoms were found in these workers compared with controls. Maximum expiratory flow rates were significantly decreased. 15.8% of workers had positive skin-prick reactions to at least one of the paper extracts and 21% had increased serum IgE levels. Work in the paper recycling industry is associated with respiratory impairment and sensitive workers may be at particular risk of developing chronic respiratory abnormalities. Topics: allergy tests; asthma; chronic bronchitis; chronic respiratory diseases; dyspnoea; epidemiologic study; immunoglobulins; paper and paper products industry; pulmonary function; recycling of materials; respirable dust; respiratory diseases; respiratory impairment; smoking; ventilatory capacity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.40, No.11, p.986-993. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 99-483 Chiyotani K., Hosoda Y., Aizawa Y.
Advances in the prevention of occupational respiratory diseases
Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Occupational Respiratory Diseases held in Kyoto, Japan, 13-16 October 1997. Topics: aetiology; allergic respiratory disorders; asbestosis; asthma; byssinosis; carcinogenic effects; asbestos; chest radiography; coal mining; conference; construction industry; diagnosis; dose-response relationship; dust control; dust measurement; epidemiological aspects; information of personnel; lung cancer; medical supervision; medical treatment; occupation disease relation; organic dust; pathogenesis; pathology; pleural mesothelioma; pneumoconiosis; pulmonary function; radiological classifications; respirable dust; respirators; respiratory diseases; silicosis.
Elsevier Science B.V., P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1998. xxviii, 1236p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 99-588 Rosenman K.D., Reilly M.J.
Asbestos-related X-ray changes in foundry workers
From 1985 to 1996, 115 cases reported to the Michigan State Surveillance System as silicosis, non-specified pneumoconiosis, or pulmonary fibrosis, were reclassified as having asbestos-related radiological changes after a B-reader interpretation of each case's chest X-rays. Among the 115 reclassified reports 57 had worked in foundries. Only 7 (14.8%) of these had their primary work in maintenance in the foundry; 40 (85.1%) had their primary foundry work in a production job; and for 10 individuals the occupation was not known. Clinicians caring for foundry workers need to be aware that asbestos-related radiological changes are not uncommon in this population and asbestos exposure should be considered as one of the carcinogens contributing to the known increased risk of lung cancer among foundry workers. Topics: asbestos; asbestosis; chest radiography; epidemiologic study; foundries; job-exposure relation; length of service; lung diseases; Michigan; opacities; pleural thickening; radiological changes; silicosis; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.34, No.2, p.197-201. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 99-587 Schwarz Y., Kivity S., Fischbein A., Abraham J.L., Fireman E., Moshe S., Dannon Y., Topilsky M., Greif J.
Evaluation of workers exposed to dust containing hard metals and aluminum oxide
Fourteen workers exposed to hard metals and aluminium oxide were evaluated by bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage or by transbronchial biopsy. Microchemical analysis of transbronchial biopsies showed a high lung burden of exogenous particles, especially metals related to their hard metals exposure. Lung tissue and cellular changes which were associated with exposure to hard metals and aluminium oxide corresponded well with the microanalytic test results.Three workers had diffuse interstitial inflammatory changes at biopsy, two of whom were asymptomatic with normal chest X-ray films and one who had clinically evident disease with severe giant cell inflammation. Two other workers showed focal inflammation. The worker showing clinical disease and one asymptomatic worker with interstitial inflammatory changes had elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid-eosinophilia counts. Topics: airborne dust; aluminium oxide; bronchoscopy; chest radiography; epidemiologic study; hard metal pneumoconiosis; Israel; lung biopsy; lung deposition; lung diseases; metals; pulmonary fibrosis; respiratory function tests; smoking.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.34, No.2, p.177-182. 29 ref.

CIS 99-589 De Raeve H., Vandecasteele C., Demedts M., Nemery B.
Dermal and respiratory sensitization to chromate in a cement floorer
A 48-year-old floorer, occupationally exposed to cement and with a documented chromate contact dermatitis, reported dyspnoea and wheezing after work. These conditions were demonstrated by self-measured sequential peak expiratory flows. A first bronchial provocation test (BPT) with potassium dichromate led to pronounced and sustained decreases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity, accompanied by pruritis, a decrease in arterial PO2, a slight rise in temperature, and peripheral blood leukocytosis. Two years later, a BPT with a lower dose of potassium chromate led to an "early late" reaction accompanied by pruritis. A BPT with dry cement containing 12ppm hexavalent chromium was borderline, and a similar result was obtained after smoking 5 cigarettes laced with 10mg of cement per cigarette. The report shows that a subject with allergic contact dermatitis to chromates may develop a respiratory allergic reaction to an airborne source of this metal. Smoking of cigarettes contaminated with cement may have been a significant factor in the causation or elicitation of these reactions. Topics: allergic respiratory disorders; allergy tests; asthma; Belgium; potassium dichromate; case study; chromates; construction work; eczema; pulmonary function; sensitization dermatitis; sensitization; skin allergies; smoking.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.34, No.2, p.169-176. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 99-476 Nouthe Djubgang J., Fayomi E.B.
Effectiveness of systematic lung radiography during periodic medical examinations of workers in Cameroon
Intérêt de la pratique de la radiographie pulmonaire systématique lors des visites médicales périodiques des travailleurs au Cameroun [in French]
Topics: Cameroon; chest radiography; cost-benefit analysis; emphysema; heart diseases; lobar pneumonia; lung diseases; medical supervision; pulmonary tuberculosis; questionnaire survey.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 1998, Vol.XXV, No.2, p.95-98. 6 ref.

CIS 99-470 Von Essen S.G., Scheppers L.A., Robbins R.A., Donham K.J.
Respiratory tract inflammation in swine confinement workers studied using induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide
In a study of 24 swine confinement workers and 14 urban normal control subjects, the swine confinement workers were significantly more likely to report wheezing, cough and sinusitis symptoms than were controls. Macrophages were significantly elevated in the induced sputum samples of the swine confinement workers compared to controls, while there was no difference in numbers of neutrophils. A small elevation in mean exhaled nitric oxide was seen in the swine confinement worker compared tocontrols. Spirometry values did not differ between the two groups. These two techniques, induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide, may be used to study airway inflammation in swine confinement workers. Topics: agriculture; nitric oxide; cross-sectional study; determination in exhaled air; livestock rearing; respiratory diseases; sinusitis; sputum cytology; swine; ventilatory capacity.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, Oct. 1998, Vol.36, No.6, p.557-565. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 99-570 Vacek P.M.
Effects of the intensity and timing of asbestos exposure on lung cancer risk at two mining areas in Quebec
Analysis of mortality data from 9609 workers at two asbestos mining areas in Quebec revealed a non-linear relationship between intensity of asbestos exposure and risk of lung cancer at both areas, but risk was greater at one area than the other. At the mine with lower risk, exposure occurring more than 30 years prior to death had little effect, while at the other mine, risk did vary with time since exposure and men starting employment before 1924 were at elevated risk. Results point to differences in dust composition at the two areas and illustrate the difficulties in estimating risk. Topics: airborne dust; asbestos mining; asbestos; chrysotile; cohort study; exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; length of exposure; long-term exposure; lung cancer; mortality; risk factors; statistical evaluation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.40, No.9, p.821-828. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 99-487 Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Kern J., Doko-Jelinic J., Godnic-Cvar J.
Respiratory findings in workers employed in the brick-manufacturing industry
In a study of 233 brick-manufacturing workers and 149 matched controls, there was a significantly higher prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm and chest tightness in exposed workers than in the controls. A high prevalence of acute symptoms during the work shift was also recorded for the brick workers. Lung function, as measured by forced vital capacity (FVC), was significantly lower than predicted for the brick workers and suggested a restrictive pattern. There was a relationship between exposure and FVC. Significant chest roentgenographic abnormalities were not observed. Findings suggest early interstitial disease in these brick workers; a bronchitic component may also be present. Topics: airborne dust; brick and tile industry; bronchitis; carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; case-control study; chest radiography; functional respiratory disorders; maximal expiratory flow; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; restrictive ventilatory impairment; smoking; ventilatory capacity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.40, No.9, p.814-820. 33 ref.

CIS 99-585 Zacharisen M.C., Kadambi A.R., Schlueter D.P., Kurup V.P., Shack J.B., Fox J.L., Anderson H.A., Fink J.N.
The spectrum of respiratory disease associated with exposure to metal working fluids
In a study of 30 workers at an automobile parts engine manufacturing plant, hypersensitivity pneumonitis affected seven workers, with six exhibiting serum precipitins to Acinetobacter lwoffii. Occupational asthma and industrial bronchitis affected 12 and six workers respectively. Oil mist exposures were below current recommendations. Gram-negative bacteria, but no fungi, Thermophiles or Legionella, were identified. Although specific agents responsible for each individual case could not be identified, probably both specific sensitizing agents and non-specific irritants from metalworking fluids, additives or contaminants contributed to this spectrum of occupational respiratory illness. Topics: aerosols; asthma; bacteria; bronchitis; chest radiography; cutting fluids; determination in air; extrinsic allergic alveolitis; irritants; metalworking industry; motor vehicle industry; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; sensitization.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1998, Vol.40, No.7, p.640-647. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 99-123 Gassert T.H., Hu H., Kelsey K.T., Christiani D.C.
Long-term health and employment outcomes of occupational asthma and their determinants
Results of a study of 55 occupational asthma patients indicate that the disease is disabling and probably irreversible for most patients, despite prolonged removal from causative agents. Women, industrial workers and those with severe asthma or lack of a college degree appear to be at risk for worse outcomes. Topics: asthma; degree of disability; handicapped workers; high-risk groups; occupation disease relation; sex-linked differences; sickness absenteeism; state of health; statistical evaluation; unemployment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1998, Vol.40, No.5, p.481-491. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 99-283 Archer V.E., Renzetti A.D., Doggett R.S., Jarvis J.Q., Colby T.V.
Chronic diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lung in uranium miners
Topics: radon; case study; chest radiography; literature survey; mortality; pulmonary fibrosis; uranium mining.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1998, Vol.40, No.5, p.460-474. Illus. 107 ref.

CIS 99-165 Thorn J., Beijer L., Rylander R.
Airways inflammation and glucan exposure among household waste collectors
Topics: bacterial toxins; blood count; determination in air; dose-response relationship; epidemiologic study; expectoration; garbage collectors; glucans; inflammations; refuse collection; respirable dust; spirometry; upper respiratory diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1998, Vol.33, No.5, p.463-470. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 99-119 Baur X., Degens P., Weber K.
Occupational obstructive airway diseases in Germany
Topics: allergens; asthma; chronic bronchitis; compensation of occupational diseases; emphysema; flour; functional respiratory disorders; Germany; irritants; isocyanates; legal aspects; obstructive ventilatory impairment; respiratory diseases; statistical trends; statistics.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1998, Vol.33, No.5, p.454-462. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 99-118 Wagner G.R., Wegman D.H.
Occupational asthma: Prevention by definition
Topics: allergic asthma; allergic reactivity; asthma; diagnosis; irritants; job-exposure relation; limitation of exposure; sensitization.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1998, Vol.33, No.5, p.427-429. 10 ref.

CIS 99-117 Ebihara I., Kawami M.
Lung cancer and immunopathologic diseases among copper miners in a small copper mine, stone masons and pneumoconiotic patients in Japan
Topics: cohort study; Goodpasture's syndrome; immunobiological changes; Japan; long-term study; lung cancer; lupus erythematosus; mineral dust; mining industry; mortality; occupation disease relation; pneumoconiosis; respirable dust; rheumatoid arthritis; smoking; stone dressing.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 1998, Vol.74, No.3 (Part II), p.1-14. Illus. 68 ref.

CIS 99-195 De Stefani E., Boffetta P., Oreggia F., Ronco A., Kogevinas M., Mendilaharsu M.
Occupation and the risk of laryngeal cancer in Uruguay
Topics: alcoholism; carcinogenic effects; asbestos; case-control study; dose-response relationship; harmful substances; inorganic acids; laryngeal cancer; occupation disease relation; pesticides; smoking; Uruguay.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1998, Vol.33, No.6, p.537-542. 29 ref.

CIS 99-308 Zock J.P., Hollander A., Heederik D., Douwes J.
Acute lung function changes and low endotoxin exposures in the potato processing industry
Topics: bacterial toxins; determination in air; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; food industry; functional respiratory disorders; job-exposure relation; maximal expiratory flow; organic dust; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.33, No.4, p.384-391. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 99-163 Di Giacomo G.R., Boschetto P., Maestrelli P., Moro G.
Asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis from exposure to rape-seed flour: A clinical case report
Asma e rinocongiuntivite da farina di colza: descrizione di un caso clinico [in Italian]
Topics: allergic asthma; allergic rhinitis; allergy tests; case study; conjunctivitis; flour; grain and seed processing; maximal expiratory flow.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1998, Vol.89, No.3, p.226-231. Illus. 10 ref.

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