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Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entries found

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  • Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar)

1999

CIS 00-1056 Cipolla C., Belisario A., Sassi C., Auletti G., Nobile M., Raffi G.B.
Occupational asthma due to dioctyl phthalate in a bottle capsule production worker
Asma occupazionale da dioctil-ftalato in una addetta alla produzione di tappi per bottiglia [in Italian]
A case of occupational asthma caused by dioctyl phthalate, an agent that does not commonly induce asthma, in a worker close to equipment for the preparation and baking of sealant-lined bottle capsule is described. Clinical history, environmental monitoring and pulmonary function tests (bronchodilatation with salbutamol, ventilatory capacity) data, and work interruptions were analysed. A good correlation between work and the worker's asthma was found. Lack of ventilation during conveyor belt and oven malfunction produced excessive exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1999, Vol.90, No.3, p.513-518. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 00-1029 Fritschi L., Beach J., Sim M., Abramson M., Benke G., Musk A.W., de Klerk N., McNeil J.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function in two prebake aluminium smelters
This cross-sectional study examined work-related respiratory symptoms and lung function in different departments of aluminium smelters compared to administration employees. Multiple logistic regression was performed with each of four work-related symptoms as outcomes and multiple linear regressions were performed with FEV1 and FVC as outcomes. After adjusting for age and smoking, work-related respiratory symptoms were reported significantly more often among the ingot mill, anode and potroom groups in Smelter A. In Smelter B, ingot employees were more likely to report work-related wheeze and potroom employees were more likely to report work-related rhinitis. Symptoms tended to increase with increasing time in the potrooms but were more likely to occur in new employees in the ingot mill and anode process groups. After adjusting for age, height and smoking, there were no significant differences between the process groups for either FEV1 or FVC at Smelter A, and at Smelter B potroom employees had slightly greater FEV1 and FVC than the administration employees.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1999, Vol.35, No.5, p.491-498. 15 ref.

CIS 00-1016 Yelin E., Henke J., Katz P.P., Eisner M.D., Blanc P.D.
Work dynamics of adults with asthma
601 persons with asthma from samples of pulmonologists and allergy-immunologists were interviewed on the severity of disease, demographic characteristics and the extent of their employment. Their employment was then compared to that of a matched sample. 92% of the persons with asthma had worked at some point prior to enrolment in the study. Among persons with onset during adulthood, only 29% of those who were not employed at disease onset were working at the time of enrolment in the study, compared to 68% among those who were employed. Among the 420 persons interviewed three times, 75, 81 and 75%, respectively, were employed as of the three interviews, 66% were continuously employed and 15% were continuously not employed. The principal determinants of continuity of employment were demographic and employment characteristics, not medical ones. The employment rate and hours of work per week and per year of the persons with asthma were similar to the matched sample. Asthma has not substantially impeded the employment of persons with asthma with the exception that those who were not employed at disease onset continued to have low employment rates.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1999, Vol.35, No.5, p.472-480. 22 ref.

CIS 00-1006 Liss G.M., Tarlo S.M., Banks D., Yeung K.S., Schweigert M.
Preliminary report of mortality among workers compensated for work-related asthma
Subjects receiving compensation for occupational asthma (OA) or aggravation of asthma (AA) and a comparison sample of workers with claims for musculoskeletal injuries during the same period were identified from the Ontario Workers' Compensation Board, along with another comparison group of non-compensated asthmatic patients seen at a hospital clinic during the same period. Mortality of the three groups were compared with that of the general population. Of the 66 deaths identified, only 2 deaths were due to asthma, both in the work-related asthma group: one from the index cluster, and one not previously identified. A second index death was coded as dying from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease not elsewhere classified. There were fewer deaths than expected from most causes. In direct comparison of the work-related asthma claimants with the injury claimants, the risk of death appeared elevated from respiratory disease and ischaemic heart disease but the confidence intervals included unity. Excess deaths from respiratory disease, in particular asthma, may occur among those with work-related asthma even in the absence of re-exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1999, Vol.35, No.5, p.465-471. 32 ref.

CIS 00-1061 Doekes G., Kamminga N., Helwegen L., Heederik D.
Occupational IgE sensitisation to phytase, a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger
The aim of this study was to assess whether work-related respiratory symptoms among workers in a premix factory producing animal feed additives could be due to type I (mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE)) allergic sensitization to phytase. Strongest IgE reactions were found in four exposed workers who reported work-related respiratory symptoms, particularly wheezing, and in one internal control who possibly had become sensitized because the structure of the factory building did not preclude airborne exposure in the offices and corridors of the plant. Phytase is a potentially important new occupational allergen causing specific IgE immune responses among exposed workers. Such IgE sensitization could probably be the cause of work-related asthmatic and other respiratory symptoms if no effective measures are taken to prevent airborne occupational exposure at sites where phytase is handled, particularly during addition of enzyme preparations to animal feed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1999, Vol.56, No.7, p.454-459. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 00-1058 Levin J.L., O'Sullivan M.F., Corn C.J., Glenn Williams M., Dodson R.F.
Asbestosis and small cell lung cancer in a clutch refabricator
A case of asbestosis and small cell lung cancer in a clutch refabricator is described. Exposed surfaces of used clutches similar to those refabricated in the worker's workplace were rinsed, and the filtrate analysed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Tissue samples were also analysed by this technique. Numerous chrysotile fibres of respirable dimensions and sufficient length to form ferruginous bodies (FBs) were detected from rinsed filtrates of the clutch. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contained many FBs, characteristic of asbestos bodies. Necropsy lung tissue showed grade 4 asbestosis and a small cell carcinoma in the right pulmonary hilum. Tissue analysis by light and analytical electron microscopy showed tissue burdens of coated and uncoated asbestos fibres greatly exceeding reported environmental concentrations (3810 FBs/g dry weight and 2,080,000 structures ≥0.5µm/g dry weight respectively). 72% of the cores were identified as chrysotile. In conclusion, clutch refabrication may lead to exposure to asbestos of sufficient magnitude to cause asbestosis and lung cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.56, No.9, p.602-605. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 00-789 Bianchi C., Brollo A., Ramani L., Zuch C.
Asbestos exposure in lung carcinoma: A necropsy-based study of 414 cases
Occupational history, pleural plaques and lung asbestos bodies were investigated in 414 consecutive cases of lung carcinoma examined at necropsy at the Hospital of Monfalcone, Italy. The series included 353 men and 61 women, aged 38-97 years. The male patients had worked in industry in 74% of cases (60% in shipbuilding). Men showed pleural plaques in 82% of cases. Asbestos bodies were observed in routine lung sections in 34.8%, and in 31% exceeded the value of 5,000 bodies per gramme of dried tissue. Among women the principal features were: history or domestic exposure to asbestos in 36% of the cases, prevalence of pleural plaques 34% (moderate or large plaques 15%), asbestos bodies in routine lung sections in 3.3% and there was no case with an asbestos body burden over 5,000/g. The fraction of asbestos-related carcinomas among male patients varied between 24.7 and 61%, depending on the criteria used for attribution. Different criteria indicated that about 60% of the present lung carcinomas among men as plausibly attributable to asbestos.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.36, No.3, p.360-364. 22 ref.

CIS 00-726 Amre D.K, Infante-Rivard C., Dufresne A., Durgawale P.M., Ernst P.
Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India
To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers, a case-control study was conducted in six hospitals in predominantly sugar cane farming districts. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence and timing of diagnosis. Adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of lung cancer was found for workers ever employed on a sugar cane farm. Increased risks were round for work involving preparation of the farm and burning of the farm after harvesting. Non-significant increases in risks were round for harvesting the crop and processing the cane in the mills. Exposure to fibres of biogenic amorphous silica (BAS) formed from silica absorbed from the soil and deposited in the leaves of the sugar cane crop or crystalline silica formed as a result of conversion of BAS to cristobalite at high temperatures may account for the increased risks of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.56, No.8, p.548-552. 25 ref.

CIS 00-712 Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen R., Slater T., Cheng S., Fishwick D., Bradshaw L., Kimbell-Dunn M., Dronfield L., Pearce N.
Two years follow up of pulmonary values among welders in New Zealand
A two-year follow up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms was carried out among 54 welders and 38 non-welders in eight New Zealand welding sites. No overall differences were noted in the changes of pulmonary function variables between the two study groups. However, when the comparison was restricted to smokers, welders had a significantly greater annual decline in FEV1 than non-welders, who had a slight non-significant annual increase. Also, welders without respiratory protection or local exhaust ventilation while welding had a greater annual decline both in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) than welders with protection. Among welders a significant association was found between the acute across shift change and the annual decline in FEV1. Chronic bronchitis was more common among welders than non-welders. Only one welder but eight non-welders reported having asthma. Welders who smoked and welders working without local exhaust ventilation or respiratory protection have an increased risk of accelerated decline in FEV1.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.56, No.5, p.328-333. 26 ref.

CIS 00-711 Droste J.H.J., Weyler J.J., Van Meerbeeck J.P., Vermeire P.A., van Sprundel M.P.
Occupational risk factors of lung cancer: A hospital based case-control study
To investigate the relation between lung cancer and exposure to occupational carcinogens, cases and controls were recruited from 10 hospitals. Cases were male patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer; controls were male patients without cancer or primary lung diseases. A job history in the categories manufacturing of transport equipment other than automobiles (for example, shipyard workers), transport support services (for example, dockers), and manufacturing of metal goods (for example, welders) was significantly associated with lung cancer (Odds Ratios (ORs) 2.3, 1.6, and 1.6 respectively). These associations were independent of smoking, education, civil and economic status. When assessed by a job-task exposure matrix, exposure to molybdenum, mineral oils and chromium was significantly associated with lung cancer. The study has shown a significant excess risk of lung cancer among workers in manufacturing of metal goods, manufacturing of transport equipment (other than automobiles) and transport support services. Assessment of exposure to specific carcinogens resulted in significant associations of chromium, mineral oils and molybdenum with lung cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.56, No.5, p.322-327. 35 ref.

CIS 00-782 Wang X., Yano E.
Pulmonary dysfunction in silica-exposed workers: A relationship to radiographic signs of silicosis and emphysema
To compare the contribution of silicosis and emphysema with pulmonary dysfunction, radiographic signs of silicosis and emphysema in workers at a Chinese refractory plant were analysed. Radiographic hyperinflation was detected in 9% of the workers without silicosis and in 33% of the workers with silicosis. Silicosis was significantly associated with hyperinfiation after adjusting for exposure duration, age and smoking. Respiratory symptoms were more frequent in the more severe cases of silicosis. Silicosis was significantly associated with decreases in the parameters of pulmonary function, but the significance disappeared when the hyperinflation term was added to the models. Radiographic hyperinflation was strongly associated with decreases in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC while relevant factors were controlled. Comparison between workers with and without hyperinflation showed that the former had significantly lower pulmonary function values. Emphysema associated with silicosis is likely to be responsible for pulmonary obstruction and decreased diffusing capacity occurring in silica-exposed workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.299-306. 29 ref.

CIS 00-768 Lentz T.J., Rice C.H., Lockey J.E., Succop P.A., Lemasters G.K.
Potential significance of airborne fiber dimensions measured in the U.S. refractory ceramic fiber manufacturing industry
To determine dimensions of airborne fibres in the U.S. refractory ceramic fibre (RCF) manufacturing industry, fibres collected through personal air sampling for employees at RCF manufacturing and processing operations were measured. Data were derived from transmission electron microscopy analyses of 118 air samples collected over a 20-year period. Characteristics of sized fibres include: diameter measurements of < 0.19 to 1.0µm, of which 75% are less than 0.6µm; and length ranging from < 0.6 to > 20µm, with 68% of fibres between 2.4 and 20µm. Exposures in RCF manufacturing include airborne fibres with dimensions (diameter < 0.1-0.4µm, length < 10µm) historically associated with biological effects in pleural tissues. Air sampling data and a review of studies relating fibre size to pleural effects in animals and humans support the belief that information on fibre dimensions is essential for studies with synthetic vitreous fibres.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.286-298. Illus. 69 ref.

CIS 00-764 Müller-Wening D., Neuhauss M.
Investigation of the efficacy of the protective effect of respiratory devices in farmers with occupational asthma
Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Atemschutzgeräten bei Landwirten mit berufsbedingtem Asthma bronchiale [in German]
Farmers have an above-average frequency of bronchitis and bronchial asthma attributable to the inhalation of specific organic dusts. As in other professions, filters of respiratory devices do not offer complete protection. This was demonstrated in 26 farmers suffering from occupational asthma, who were challenged by exposure to work-related dust, first without and then, about 20 weeks later, with the respiratory device. The increases in airway resistance and thoracic gas volume were statistically significant in both challenges, but 50-80% smaller when respiratory devices in the second challenge. This experiment shows that the use of a respirator in farmers suffering from occupational asthma reduces the development of bronchial obstruction but does not prevent it.
Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten, Nov. 1999, Vol.25, No.11, p.635-638. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 00-487 Cullen R.T., Tran C.L., Buchanan D., Davis J.M.G., Jones A.D., Searl A., Donaldson K.
Health and Safety Executive
Investigations into pulmonary effects of low toxicity dusts - Parts I and II
The aim of this study was firstly to assess the relative toxicities of a panel of nine low-toxicity respirable dusts in in-vitro and in-vivo assays in rats. Lung instillation and inhalation tests provoked inflammatory response and particulate accumulation in the lungs. Data show differences in pulmonary responses to inhalation of the dusts and in the distribution of macrophage. In a second part, two dusts (titanium dioxide and barium sulfate) were used to evaluate the dose-response relationship between lung burden and specific biologically adverse effects (retardation of alveolar clearance and pulmonary inflammation), to validate a predictive mathematical model and to estimate the NOAEL level.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. xii, 280p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 70.00.

CIS 00-485 Burgess J.L., Kovalchick D.F., Kyes K.B., Thompson J.N., Barnhart S.
Hyperventilation following a large-scale hazardous-materials incident
Actual or perceived exposure to hazardous materials may result in physiological and psychological effects. However, hyperventilation following such exposures has not previously been reported. After a large-scale industrial release of oxides of nitrogen, five of 17 patients evaluated at a major trauma center were hyperventilating, as defined by arterial PCO2 < 33mm Hg, and nine patients had arterial PCO2 < 37mm Hg. First responders (rescue team members and paramedics) had a higher rate of hyperventilation than other occupational groups. Age, sex, marital status, decontamination and mode of arrival were not significantly associated with hyperventilation, although marital status was close to being significant. This study suggests that hyperventilation may be a common reaction after hazardous-materials incidents, and that certain populations may be at increased risk for this condition.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.194-197. 17 ref.

CIS 00-421 Wilson J.R., Raven P.B., Morgan W.P.
Prediction of respiratory distress during maximal physical exercise: The role of trait anxiety
Industrial respirators offer protection for men and women who are required to work in toxic or oxygen-deficient environments. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm an earlier finding, using a simplified protocol that an individual's tendency to experience respiratory distress during exercise can be predicted. In the present experiment, an independent sample of 38 subjects underwent a maximal exercise test. It was predicted that subjects with elevated trait anxiety scores would experience respiratory distress when required to perform heavy physical exercise using a full-facepiece, air-line supplied, pressure-demand respirator. The prediction of respiratory distress was accurate in 34 of 38 cases (89.5%). It was concluded that an objective measure of trait anxiety can be used to identify those individuals who are most likely to experience distress while performing maximal physical exercise and using a pressure-demand respirator.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.60, No.4, p.512-517. 21 ref.

CIS 00-182 Posgay M., Mándi A., Ungváry G., Vadász P., Major K., Németh L.
Frequency of occupational asbestos exposure among lung cancer patients in Hungary. A preliminary report
According to the literature, historical occupational exposures to asbestos can be proved in about 5% (1-20%) of lung cancer patients. Based on a lung cancer incidence of 6,126 in Hungary in 1996, about 300 (60-1,200) work-related asbestos cancers would have been expected. However, the number of observed cases - apart from mesothelioma - is very small. Therefore the occupational history of 300 lung cancer patients was explored using a questionnaire and already available chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans which were re-evaluated for signs of asbestos exposure, especially the presence of pleural plaques. On the basis of this preliminary data it is highly probable that the majority of asbestos-related cancers in Hungary remain undetected and that a similar percentage to other countries can be proved also in Hungary.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.66-71. 15 ref.

CIS 00-117 Burge P.S., Pantin C.F.A., Newton D.T., Gannon P.F.G., Bright P., Belcher J., McCoach J., Baldwin D.R., Burge C.B.S.G.
Development of an expert system for the interpretation of serial peak expiratory flow measurements in the diagnosis of occupational asthma
A computer-assisted diagnostic aid (Oasys) which has been developed to separate occupational from non-occupational causes of airflow obstruction, of which asthma is the most common cause, is described. Oasys-2 achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of at least 94%; therefore peak expiratory flow monitoring combined with Oasys-2 analysis is better to confirm rather than to exclude occupational asthma. Both have been based on expert interpretation of peak flow measurements plotted as daily maximum, mean, and minimum, with the first reading at work taken as the first reading of the day. Oasys has been evaluated with independent criteria against measurements made in a wide range of occupational situations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1999, Vol.56, No.11, p.758-764. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 00-179 Radon K., Nowak D., Heinrich-Ramm R., Szadokwski D.
Respiratory health and fluoride exposure in different parts of the modern primary aluminium industry
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 78 potroom workers, 24 foundry workers, 45 carbon-plant workers and 56 control workers (watchmen, craftsmen, office workers, laboratory employees) of a modern aluminium plant to investigate possible acute and long-term respiratory health effects of work at different working places. The survey consisted of pre- and postshift spirometric and urinary fluoride measurements. In a multiple regression model a small but significant negative correlation was found between postshift urinary fluoride concentrations and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Across-shift spirometric changes were observed only in FVC among carbon-plant workers. The results suggest that lung function impairment in the modern primary aluminium industry may be only partly due to fluoride exposure and that working in aluminium carbon plants may cause acute lung function changes.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 1999, Vol.72, No.5, p.297-303. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 00-173 Bernstein D.I., Jolly A.
Current diagnostic methods for diisocyanate induced occupational asthma
Accurate diagnosis of diisocyanate asthma requires a systematic approach that combines information obtained from the occupational history, immunologic tests and physiologic studies. Recommended methods for evaluation of diisocyanate asthma are similar to approaches for other causative agents. Serologic assays of specific IgE are specific but insensitive diagnostic markers of diisocyanate asthma. If possible, workers should be evaluated, while at work, in order to demonstrate work-related changes in lung function associated with diisocyanate exposures. Specific bronchoprovocation challenge testing with diisocyanates, is reserved for situations where the diagnosis cannot be confirmed at work. Such tests can be performed safely but should be conducted exclusively at specialized centres by experienced personnel. Published diagnostic guidelines for occupational asthma are directly applicable to the evaluation of diisocyanate asthma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.459-468. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 00-134 Radon K., Opravil U., Hartung J., Szadkowski D., Nowak D.
Work-related respiratory disorders and farming characteristics among cattle farmers in Northern Germany
1,735 farmers were visited on their farms in Northern Germany and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire on work-related respiratory symptoms and farming details. 84.6% of the farmers were cattle farmers. The prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms was 40.3%. A low prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms were shown to be significantly associated with ventilation via the wall of the cattle house (dds ratio = 0.57), feeding of cattle once daily (OR = 0.53), and plant crop (OR = 0.75). Farmers living inland showed a significantly higher prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.34). The use of ventilation via the wall might be recommended for new cattle houses in regions with warm winters.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.444-449. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-110 Pezzotto S.M., Poletto L.
Occupation and histopathology of lung cancer: A case-control study in Rosario, Argentina
Possible causes for the high male age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rate in Rosario City, Argentina (62.7 per 100,000) was investigated through a case-control study of 367 male lung cancer patients and 576 controls. The histological distribution detected was: squamous cell carcinoma 39%, adenocarcinoma 34%, small cell carcinoma 13%, and other or no specified cell type 14%. Comparison with the group unlikely to be exposed to occupational carcinogens revealed a 60% increase in risk for the remaining occupations. Risks were high for drivers (odds ratio = 1.9), construction (OR = 2.5) and agricultural workers (OR = 1.8). Concerning squamous cell carcinoma, increased risks were observed in the metal industry, particularly in welders (OR = 2.9) and mechanics (OR = 1.8). Smoking was not a substantial confounding factor. In conclusion, occupational exposures partly account for the high lung cancer mortality rate among male residents of Rosario City.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.437-443. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 00-171 Säverin R., Bräunlich A., Dahmann D., Enderlein G., Heuchert G.
Diesel exhaust and lung cancer mortality in potash mining
The association between lung cancer mortality and exposure to diesel exhaust was investigated in a cohort of 5,536 male potash miners who were followed from 1970 to 1994. Quantitative exposure was assessed from concentration measurements of the total carbon in personal dust samples, multiplied by years of exposure. Work histories and smoking habit data were obtained from medical company records. During the follow-up period, 424 deaths were recorded, including 133 of cancer, 38 of lung cancer. The relative risk of lung cancer between groups with high and low exposure was 2.2. With Cox regression, a relative risk of 1.7 for lung cancer after twenty years of exposure was found. Smoking was not a confounding factor. The principal finding is a doubling of relative lung cancer risk after twenty years of exposure in the workplaces with highest exposure. However, the observed elevation is nonsignificant even at a 90% level. Further follow-up is intended to enhance the study power.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.415-422. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-170 Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Möhner M., Ahrens W., Pohlabeln H., Heinrich J., Kreuzer M., Jöckel K.H., Wichmann H.E.
Lung cancer risk in male workers occupationally exposed to diesel motor emissions in Germany
The association between occupational exposure to diesel motor emissions (DME) and lung cancer risk was studied by comparing cases with histologically or cytologically ascertained lung cancer in Germany and corresponding controls. Information about lifelong occupational and smoking history was obtained by questionnaire. Drivers of lorries, buses, taxis, diesel locomotives and forklift trucks, bulldozers, graders, excavators, and tractors were considered as exposed to DME and their cumulative exposure was estimated. The evaluation of lung cancer risk for all jobs with DME-exposure combined showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.43. Most pronounced was the increase in lung cancer risk in heavy equipment operators (OR = 2.31). The risk of tractor drivers increased with length of employment and reached statistical significance for exposures longer than 30 years (OR = 6.81). The group of professional drivers showed an increased risk in West Germany (OR = 1.44), but not in East Germany (OR = 0.83). DME exposure in other traffic-related jobs was associated with an odds ratio of 1.53.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.405-414. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 99-1986 Skin and respiratory sensitisers: Reference chemicals data bank
Topics: allergens; allergic asthma; allergic reactivity; allergic respiratory disorders; allergic rhinitis; allergy tests; classification systems; control substances; dermatitis; list of chemical substances; sensitization; skin allergies.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1999. 85 p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1962 Kyono H., Serita F., Toya T., Kubota H., Arito H., Takahashi M., Maruyama R., Homma K., Ohta H., Yamauchi Y., Nakakita M., Seki Y., Ishihara Y., Kagawa J.
A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter
An attempt was made to establish a useful animal model that simulates human sensitivity to inhaled particulate matter (PM). A new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) was developed by exposing animals to aerosols containing nickel. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Pathological changes in the lungs and clearance of particles in exposed Br rats were compared to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. Delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, and reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions were observed in Br rats. Results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, particulate matter at concentrations lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation. Topics: animal experiments; bronchiolitis; vanadium pentoxide; titanium dioxide; nickel(II) chloride; inflammations; light microscopy; lung deposition; respirable dust; toxic effects.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.37, No.1, p.47-54. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 99-1870 Henneberger P.K., Kreiss K., Rosenman K.D., Reilly M.J., Chang Y.F., Geidenberger C.A.
An evaluation of the incidence of work-related asthma in the United States
The incidences of physician-diagnosed cases of work-related asthma (WRA) in Michigan and the entire USA were estimated. For the entire USA, the product of a national incidence rate for asthma among adults and estimates of the proportion that is work-related was used. A total of 933 cases of WRA was reported to the Michigan surveillance programme during 1988-1995, of which 904 were reported by at least one of the three main sources and equalled an average incidence of 27 cases/106/year. This estimate was less than the range of estimates 58 to 204 cases/106/year in Michigan arrived at using the capture-recapture methods. The national estimates of WRA ranged from 63 to 441 cases/106/year. The authors' indirect estimates are closer to estimates from Canada, Sweden, and Finland than most existing direct estimates in the USA, but probably still underestimate the magnitude of WRA incidence because of the limitations of physician recognition of the work-relatedness of asthma among adults. Topics: asthma; Canada; compilation of statistics; Finland; frequency rates; Michigan; statistical evaluation; statistics; Sweden; USA.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 99-1591 Irsigler G.B., Visser P.J., Spangenberg P.A.L.
Asthma and chemical bronchitis in vanadium plant workers
The cause of cough and breathlessness in vanadium plant workers was examined after variable periods of exposure. Twelve of 40 subjects had bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR), and these were compared to 12 age-matched companion subjects whose BHR was normal. In ten, BHR was diagnosed by histamine inhalation, and in six of these the abnormality was severe. A further two had BHR by exercise challenge. After removal from exposure, 9 of the 12 subjects returned for follow-up 5 to 23 months later. BHR was worse in one, still present although less severe in five, and was no longer found in one subject. Baseline spirometry measurements were normal in seven subjects and only mildly impaired in the remaining five of the 12 subjects with BHR. The study provides strong supporting evidence that inhaled V2O5 induces BHR and asthma in subjects previously free of lung disease; the abnormality may persist for up to 23 months following exposure; routine spirometry will not detect affected subjects. Topics: allergic reactivity; allergy tests; asthma; vanadium pentoxide; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; hypersensitivity; inhalation tests; irritants; maximal expiratory flow; mining industry; respiratory function tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.35, No.4, p.366-374. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 99-1514 Baur X., Isringhausen-Bley S., Degens P.
Comparison of lung-function reference values
Case histories and lung function values of 139 healthy subjects were recorded and differences of measured values minus predicted values as recommended by different authors were computed. Results indicate that the ERS values of FVC, FEV1, and FEV1%FVC mainly applied in Europe should be verified. The much better-evaluated formulas of other authors are recommended. Furthermore, the age range between 60 and 70 years should be extrapolated from these formulas until better epidemiological data on lung function are available. Topics: age-linked differences; asthma; comparative study; farmer's lung; lung diseases; medical supervision; one-second forced expiratory volume; pneumoconiosis; pneumotachography; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; respiratory volume; spirometry; statistical evaluation; ventilatory capacity; vital capacity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1999, Vol.72, No.2, p.69-83. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 99-1579 Love R.G., Waclawski E.R., Maclaren W.M., Wetherill G.Z., Groat S.K., Porteous R.H., Soutar C.A.
Risks of respiratory disease in the heavy clay industry
Little information is available on the quantitative risks of respiratory disease from quartz in airborne dust in the heavy clay industry. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to determine among workers in the industry (a) their current and cumulative exposures to respirable mixed dust and quartz; (b) the frequencies of chest radiographic abnormalities and respiratory symptoms; (c) the relations between cumulative exposure to respirable dust and quartz, and risks of radiographic abnormality and respiratory symptoms. Although most quartz concentrations at the time of this study were currently below regulatory limits in the heavy clay industry, high exposures regularly occurred in specific processes and occasionally among most occupational groups. There are small risks of pneumoconiosis and respiratory symptoms in the industry, although frequency of pneumoconiosis is low in comparison to other quartz exposed workers. Topics: air sampling; brick and tile industry; quartz; chest radiography; clay products; cross-sectional study; dust measurement; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; non-metallic mineral products industries; opacities; pneumoconiosis; respirable dust; respiratory diseases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.56, No.2, p.124-133. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 99-1578 Tunnicliffe W.S., O'Hickey S.P., Fletcher T.J., Miles J.F., Burge P.S., Ayres J.G.
Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in a population of airport workers
A cross-sectional survey of a sample of employees of Birmingham International Airport, United Kingdom, was carried out by questionnaire and on-site measurement of lung function, skin prick tests, and exhaled carbon monoxide concentrations. Occupational exposure was assigned by job title; between group comparisons were made by logistic regression analysis. The findings support an association between high occupational exposures to aviation fuel or jet stream exhaust and excess upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, in keeping with a respiratory irritant, in male airport workers. It is more likely that these effects reflect exposure to exhaust rather than to fuel, although the effects of an unmeasured agent cannot be discounted. Topics: airports; allergic respiratory disorders; carbon monoxide; cross-sectional study; determination in exhaled air; exhaust gases; fuels; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; skin tests; symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.56, No.2, p.118-123. 19 ref.

CIS 99-1577 Järvholm B., Englund A., Albin M.
Pleural mesothelioma in Sweden: An analysis of the incidence according to the use of asbestos
The annual incidence of pleural mesothelioma attributable to occupational exposure to asbestos is today larger than all fatal occupational accidents in Sweden. The first asbestos regulation was adopted in 1964 and in the mid 1970s imports of raw asbestos decreased drastically. Yet there is no obvious indication that the preventive measures have decreased the risk of pleural mesothelioma. The long latency indicates that the effects of preventive measures in the 1970s could first be evaluated around 2005. Topics: asbestos; cohort study; hazard evaluation; latency; morbidity; pleural mesothelioma; prohibition of use; statistical trends; Sweden.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.56, No.2, p.110-113. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 99-1267 Finkelstein M.M.
Maintenance work and asbestos-related cancers in the refinery and petrochemical sectors
Topics: asbestos; blue-collar workers; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; literature survey; lung cancer; maintenance and repair; mesothelioma; mortality; petrochemical industry; petroleum refining; radiographic testing; smoking; thermal insulation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.201-205. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1241 Milby T.H., Baselt R.C.
Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: Clarification of some controversial issues
Data on the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide are reviewed. It is concluded that: certain neurotoxic effects of exposure are probably due to a direct toxic effect on the brain, while others are almost certainly a result of hypoxia secondary to H2S-induced respiratory insufficiency; pulmonary oedema is a common consequence of poisoning and there is suggestive evidence of hyperactive airway responses in some individuals following brief H2S-induced unconsciousness (knockdown); criteria for acceptable community levels are very different than those governing occupational standards; urinary thiosulfate determinations can be useful for monitoring occupational exposure; and determination of sulfide ion concentrations in blood or major organs can be useful in corroborating a diagnosis of fatal H2S toxicity, but there are many pit-falls in collecting, storing, and analyzing tissue and fluid samples. Topics: acute poisoning; hydrogen sulfide; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure tests; hypoxia; limitation of exposure; lung diseases; neurotoxic effects; pulmonary function; pulmonary oedema; thiosulfates; urine monitoring.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.192-195. 34 ref.

CIS 99-1275 Larsson B.M., Larsson K., Malmberg P., Mĺrtensson L., Palmberg L.
Airway responses in naive subjects to exposure in poultry houses: Comparison between cage rearing system and alternative rearing system for laying hens
34 previously non-exposed subjects were exposed for 3h in confined poultry houses in three groups: one in a building with a cage rearing system and two in buildings with a cage-less system with either young hens and fresh bedding material or with older hens and old bedding material. Inhalable dust levels were approximately 4mg/m3 in the buildings with the cage-less system and 2mg/m3 in the building with cage rearing system; the endotoxin concentration was approximately 100ng/m3 in both systems. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine increased approximately fivefold in all groups following exposure. The concentration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 increased in nasal lavage fluid and in peripheral blood as a result of exposure. The number of leukocytes in peripheral blood increased only in the groups exposed among loose laying hens. Results indicate that among previously non-exposed subjects, that 3h exposure in confined buildings for egg production induces an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airways and increased bronchial responsiveness. Topics: airborne dust; bacterial toxins; bronchial diseases; confined spaces; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; inflammations; interleukins; organic dust; poultry farming; pulmonary function; upper respiratory diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.142-149. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 99-1182 Wang X., Yu I.T.S., Wong T.W., Yano E.
Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in coal miners: Looking into the effects of simple pneumoconiosis
Pulmonary function was measured in 205 miners with simple coal workers' pneumonconiosis (CWP) and in 289 without X-ray evidence of pneumoconiosis. A questionnaire on occupational history and respiratory symptoms including breathlessness, chronic cough, and phlegm was administered. The presence or absence of emphysema on X-ray films was also evaluated. On average, the miners with CWP had lower values of pulmonary function and higher prevalences of respiratory symptoms and emphysema than did those without. The simple CWP was associated with increased risk of the respiratory symptoms after adjusting for age, smoking, and years underground. Even when the effects of emphysema and respiratory symptoms indicating chronic bronchitis were taken into consideration, the significant relationship between CWP and decrements in forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity remained. Findings are consistent with simple CWP being a contributor to significant decrements in pulmonary function, and to increased risk of respiratory symptoms. Topics: age-linked differences; chest radiography; China; chronic respiratory diseases; coal dust; coal mining; coalworkers pneumoconiosis; emphysema; epidemiologic study; length of exposure; pulmonary function; smoking; spirometry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.124-131. 38 ref.

CIS 99-826 Chatzis C., Danaka G., Linos A., Kales S.N., Christiani D.C.
Lung cancer and occupational risk factors in Greece
This study estimated the proportion of lung cancer in Greece that was attributable to occupational exposure. 282 patients with lung cancer and 494 controls were interviewed about their socioeconomic characteristics: sex, age, and occupational, smoking, and residential histories. Each subject was classified as exposed or unexposed to known occupational lung carcinogens. Because of the small number of females exposed, only males were included in the multivariate analyses. After adjustment for smoking, the relative risk for lung cancer was 2.9. If 5% to 10% of the Greek population were occupationally exposed, the attributable risk would be 9.9% to 16.6%, respectively. Occupational exposures conferred an additional risk that was approximately threefold that of smoking alone. Risks increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing cigarette consumption. Topics: age-linked differences; carcinogens; case-control study; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; Greece; lung cancer; occupation disease relation; risk factors; smoking.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.29-35. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 99-1009 Godnic-Cvar J., Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Kanceljak B., Macan J., Ilic Z., Ebling Z.
Respiratory and immunological findings in brewery workers
Occupational exposure of 97 brewery workers to organic dust such as hops, barley, and brewery yeast and their respiratory function and immunological status were studied. There was a significantly higher prevalence of most chronic respiratory symptoms in brewery workers compared to controls, although occupational asthma was recorded in only 2 of the brewery workers. Smoking was the major factor responsible for the high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. A large number of brewery workers complained of acute symptoms that developed during the work shift. Lung function was decreased compared to predicted, suggesting the importance of workplace exposure in explaining lung function abnormalities. Significantly higher prevalence of positive skin prick tests were recorded in 37 brewery workers for moulds, hops, and barley than in controls. The data suggest that both smoking and dust exposure in the brewery industry may be responsible for the development of respiratory impairment and immunological reactions. Topics: allergens; breweries; case-control study; grain dust; immunology; organic dust; respirable dust; respiratory diseases; smoking; ventilatory capacity; yeast.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.35, No.1, p.68-75. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 99-1008 Kimbell-Dunn M., Bradshaw L., Slater T., Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen R., Fishwick D., Pearce N.
Asthma and allergy in New Zealand farmers
The prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergy was studied in 1,706 farmers from different farming groups throughout New Zealand. The 12-month period prevalence of current asthma was 11.8% overall, compared with 15% in the general population. Asthma prevalence was higher for horse breeders/groomers, pig farmers, poultry farmers, and those working with goats. Asthma was also significantly elevated among those working with cleaning powders. Women were more likely to report current asthma than were men. Hay fever was significantly higher in deer and crop farmers, and farmers working with horses and goats; eczema was higher for goat and deer farmers. The lower overall prevalence of asthma in farmers may be due to the healthy worker effect. Topics: agriculture; allergic respiratory disorders; allergies; asthma; eczema; frequency rates; grain dust; handling of animals; healthy worker effect; livestock rearing; New Zealand; poultry farming; questionnaire survey; sex-linked differences; swine.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.35, No.1, p.51-57. 40 ref.

CIS 99-820 Megret R., Schulte A., Gebler A., Breitstadt R., Kulzer R., Berndt E.D., Baur X., Schultze-Werninghaus G
Outcome of occupational asthma due to platinum salts after transferral to low-exposure areas
A cross-sectional study of 83 workers with diagnosed occupational asthma (OA) due to platinum (Pt) salts was carried out in 2 platinum refineries and 2 catalyst production plants. In all, 9 workers continued to be exposed at the time of examination, 16 had been transferred to other workplaces within the production building, 39 had been transferred to areas outside the building but inside the plant, and 19 had left the plant. A clear-cut exposure-effect relationship existed concerning sensitization. For the majority of subjects with OA due to Pt salts transfer to low exposure areas as defined in this study may not be associated with a more unfavorable outcome as compared with complete removal from exposure sources after a period of about 4 years. Topics: asthma; cross-sectional study; immunoglobulins; job-exposure relation; platinum and compounds; sensitization; skin tests; smelting plants; transfer to other work.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.72, No.1, p.33-39. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 99-882 Yokota K., Johyama Y., Yamaguchi K., Takeshita T., Morimoto K.
Exposure-response relationships in rhinitis and conjunctivitis caused by methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride
Workers from 2 condenser plants using epoxy resin with methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) underwent a questionnaire survey and serology investigations. In all, 65% of workers studied in plant A and 66% in plant B had positive MTHPA-specific IgE. IgE-sensitized workers in each plant had significantly more eye and nasal complaints than did unsensitized workers, suggesting that there is an IgE-mediated mechanism in most of these symptoms. 15% of symptomatic workers in plant B often displayed work-related symptoms, as compared with 73% of the symptomatic workers in plant A. These results can be explained by the difference in MTHPA levels measured in the two plants. In plant B the minimum level of MTHPA that was associated with work-related symptoms was 15-22µg/m3, which was lower than the geometric mean levels detected in assembly and inspection lines in plant A. These levels suggest that MTHPA exposure at levels above 15µg/m3 should be avoided to prevent occupational allergic diseases. Topics: capacitors; methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride; conjunctivitis; dose-response relationship; immunoglobulin changes; immunoglobulins; limitation of exposure; rhinitis; threshold limit values.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.72, No.1, p.14-18. 17 ref.

1998

CIS 04-563 Villarrubia V.G., Dominguez Carmona M.
Recurrent acute infections of the respiratory tract in the chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome in occupational settings and their prevention with immunoferon
Las infecciones agudas recidivantes del tracto respiratorio (IARTR) en la EPOC en el medio laboral y prevención con inmunoferón [in Spanish]
This article on recurrent acute infections of the respiratory tract and chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome begins with an introduction on the aetiology of these diseases, their treatment and their prevention. It next presents a comparative study aimed at highlighting the effectiveness of an immunoferon-based preventive treatment. The study involved 683 workers presenting risks of recurrent acute infections of the respiratory tract during the winter period and having a history of respiratory pathologies. Subjects were divided into three groups. The first group was administered anti-flu vaccination, the second group was vaccinated and given immunoferon, while the third group was not treated (control group). Results show that the immunoferon treatment is efficient. It significantly reduces the percentage of subjects presenting recurrent acute infections of the respiratory tract, the length of the bouts, absenteeism rates and absenteeism duration. It also reduces the need for recourse to antibiotics.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1998, Vol.XLV, No.177, p.1-20. Illus. 103 ref.

CIS 03-218 Kim J.H.
Atlas of respiratory disease mortality, United States: 1982-1993
This document presents maps showing geographic distribution (by health service area) of mortality associated with selected respiratory conditions that together represent nearly all respiratory diseases. For categories of traditional occupational lung diseases mapped in this atlas (i.e. pneumoconioses, including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, silicosis, byssinosis, and other and unspecified pneumoconioses), nearly all cases are attributable to hazardous exposure. For other respiratory disease categories, cases frequently occur in the absence of hazardous occupational exposure, with a small proportion of cases attributable, for some diseases, to occupational exposure. Nevertheless, occupational causes have been documented for each of the disease categories.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Aug. 1998. vii, 75p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/98-157pd.html [in English]

CIS 01-1433 Wolf J., Fengel D., Klein R.G., Scheithauer M., Schmezer P., Schroeder H.G., Woeste W.
Aetiology of nasal cancer in the woodworking industry
Zur Frage der Ätiologie von Nasentumoren in der Holzwirtschaft [in German]
In order to be able to differentiate between the effects on nasal tissue of oak- and beechwood dust from those of lacquers, solvents, wood preservatives and glues used in the woodworking industry, the following studies were conducted: the changes of the nasal tissue of workers exposed to oak- and beechwood dust with and without additional exposure to other substances were determined and compared with those in an unexposed control group. Hyperplasias of the cylindrical cells were significantly more frequent in woodworkers than in the non-exposed group. Of the 144 woodworkers examined, 105 were found to be also exposed to wood preservatives. The latency period for the development of adenocarcinoma of the nose was found to be 40-44 years. In animal testing, malignant tumours were observed only in animals exposed to solvents-containing wood preservatives in addition to oakwood dust.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft, Nov.-Dec. 1998, Vol.58, No.11-12, p.455-461. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 01-159 Merget R., Baur X.
Prevention of platinum salt asthma
Prävention des Platinsalzasthmas [in German]
This literature survey on the occurrence, diagnosis and prevention of platinum salt asthma reveals that between 1978 and 1996, a total of 104 cases of platinum salt asthma occurred in precious metal refineries and catalyst production plants in Germany. For diagnosis, a highly specific skin prick test is available. Strategies to reduce incidences of the disease include lowering the exposure and annual medical supervision. Very few studies exist on the efficiency of these measures in preventing platinum salt asthma. Published studies of the dose-response relationships reveal an association between the exposure level and sensitization. The World Health Organization recommends a ceiling of 2µg/m3 for soluble platinum.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Nov. 1998, Vol.48, No.11, p.488-490. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 01-108 Vancraeynest D., Lardot C., Huaux F., Lison D.
Evaluation of nasal lavage as a possible tool in occupational medicine for the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system
Evaluation du lavage nasal comme outil possible pour le dépistage de pathologies inflammatoires du systčme respiratoire en médecine du travail [in French]
Occupational exposure to laboratory animals can cause an inflammatory reaction of the respiratory tract. The present study assessed the value of nasal lavage (NAL) to detect an early inflammatory reaction. NAL was performed in 10 volunteers from a research laboratory; five of them had been repeatedly exposed to laboratory animals and five others had not. Except for one subject who did not participate in the last examination, all subjects were lavaged on four different occasions over a period of 3 months. Analysis of NAL fluid included cellular parameters and inflammatory mediators. Before each lavage the main factors that may have influenced nasal inflammation were recorded. Cellular parameters showed large inter- and intra-individual variability and were barely contributive. Inflammatory mediators were more influenced by smoking and upper airway diseases than by exposure to laboratory animals. The heterogeneity of the studied population, which is comparable to what is commonly encountered in occupational settings, together with the variability of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract render the interpretation of the results difficult. It is concluded that NAL cannot be recommended for the periodical examination of workers potentially exposed to irritants and/or sensitising agents.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 1998, Vol.35, No.4, p.169-182. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 00-1604 Gustavsson P., Jakobsson R., Johansson H., Lewin F., Norell S., Rutkvist L.E.
Occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and oesophagus: A case-control study in Sweden
This community-based case-referent study was initiated to investigate aetiological factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The study was based on all Swedish men aged 40-79 living in two regions of Sweden during 1988-90. Exposure to asbestos was associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, and a dose-response relation was present. The RR was 1.8 in the highest exposure group. More than eight years of exposure to welding fumes was associated with an increased risk of pharyngeal cancer (RR=2.3 (1.1 to 4.7)), and laryngeal cancer (RR=2.0). There were indications of a dose-response for duration of exposure. Associations were also found for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oesophageal cancer (RR=1.9). Exposure to wood dust was associated with a decreased risk of cancer at the studied sites. The study indicates that welding may cause an increased risk of pharyngeal as well as laryngeal cancer. The findings corroborate an association between exposure to PAHs and oesophageal cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1998, Vol.55, No.6, p.393-400. 27 ref.

CIS 00-1608 Grimsrud T.K., Langseth H., Engeland A., Andersen A.
Lung and bladder cancer in a Norwegian municipality with iron and steel producing industry: Population based case-control studies
To investigate the influence of occupation on lung and bladder cancer among men in a Norwegian municipality where an iron and steel plant constitutes the major industry, a population-based case-control study was performed based on lung and bladder cancer cases. Information on occupations and smoking habits was collected through interviews and from personnel files. An odds ratio for lung cancer of 2.9 was associated with exposure to PAHs. Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with work experience in the pig iron department at the ironworks. A non-significant OR of 1.8 was associated with exposure to asbestos. Bladder cancer was not associated with exposure to PAHs at the iron, steel and coke plant, or with experience at any of the production departments at the plant. One fifth of the lung cancer cases were attributed to exposure to PAHs or asbestos. More than 80% of the cases of lung cancer were attributed to tobacco smoking. The cancer risk in the pig iron department may have been due to a combination of exposures to PAH, asbestos and dust of mixed composition.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1998, Vol.55, No.6, p.387-392. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 00-1650 Grosjean R., Ackermans H., de Ridder M., de Meester M.
Determination of free silica in a set of toners
A recent publication suggests a link between occupational exposure to toners (e.g. in a photo-copying shop) and a pneumoconiosis-type of disease. A set of toners used for printing or photo-copying was analysed to identify the presence of crystalline silica. The results of this survey indicate that the use of the analysed toners does not represent a risk of silicosis.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1998, Vol.42, No.3, p.219-220. 8 ref.

CIS 00-1386 Marcuccilli A., Perdrix A., Metras E., Costa Salute C., Gary Y., Saenz F., de Gaudemaris R.
Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function related to wood dust exposure in industrial woodworking shops
Evaluation des symptômes et de la fonction respiratoire en relation avec les expositions aux poussičres de bois dans les ateliers de menuiserie industrielle [in French]
The risks of ear-nose-throat (ENT) and respiratory complaints of workers exposed to industrial wooddust were analysed in a cross-sectional study of carpenters and controls with the same socio-economic status. Occupational risks were measured by means of an enquiry carried out by qualified social security staff plus collection of personal respirable dust samplings of < 5µm. The statistical analysis was based on odds ratio (O.R.) of ENT and respiratory complaints adjusted for atopy, age, smoking and professional activity. The analysis of the questionnaire showed significantly increased O.R. for most irritative conditions. Multivariate analysis showed the importance of occupational activities together with atopy and smoking in the development of symptoms and also confirmed that selection of personnel on the basis of such tests would not resolve all problems. As regards occupational exposure, the study shows the prevalence of high exposure levels to dust, with the problem exacerbated by exotic timbers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Aug. 1998, Vol.59, No.5, p.305-314. 36 ref.

CIS 00-1331 Laraqui C.H., Caubet A., Harourate K., Mehdaoui Z., Laraqui O., Verger C.
Prevalence of respiratory disorders among poultry retailers
Prévalence des troubles respiratoires chez les marchands de volailles [in French]
A retrospective cohort survey was used to evaluate the prevalence of clinical symptoms, skin reactions and respiratory disorders among subjects exposed to poultry in comparison with unexposed individuals. Among the exposed cohort, 77% had clinical symptoms compared with 46% among the unexposed controls. Rhinitis, asthma, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, cough and bronchitis were significantly more frequent among those exposed than the controls. The cause of respiratory disorders was exposure to poultry, as shown by the fact that its prevalence was 1.8-fold higher among non-smokers exposed to poultry than among non-smokers unexposed to poultry. A variable degree of respiratory obstruction was found among 40% of the exposed individuals versus 14% in the unexposed individuals. Skin tests were positive in 22 % of the exposed compared with 15% of the unexposed. Among the 22 exposed individuals with positive skin tests, 6 had allergic reactions to feathers, 7 to moulds and 1 to cereals. These alarming results emphasize the importance of adopting medical and technical prevention measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1998, Vol.59, No.8, p.574-580. Illus. 16 ref.

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