Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entries found
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- Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar)
Laforest L., Luce D., Goldberg P., Bégin D., Guérin M., Demers P.A., Brugère J., Leclerc A.
Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and various dusts: A case-control study in France
To assess possible associations between occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx, a case-control study was carried out on 201 cases with hypopharyngeal cancers, 296 cases with laryngeal cancers and 296 controls (patients with other tumour sites). Detailed information on smoking, alcohol consumption, and lifetime occupational history was collected. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, leather dust, wood dust, flour dust, coal dust, silica dust and textile dust was assessed with a job exposure matrix. Hypopharyngeal cancer was found to be associated with exposure to coal dust (odds ratio (OR) 2.31), with a significant rise in risk with probability and level of exposure. Exposure to coal dust was also associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer (OR 1.67). A significant relation, limited to hypopharyngeal cancer, was found with the probability of exposure to formaldehyde, with a fourfold risk for the highest category (OR 3.78).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.57, No.11, p.767-773. 51 ref.
Vyas A., Pickering C.A.C., Oldham L.A., Francis H.C., Fletcher A.M., Merrett T., McL Niven R.
Survey of symptoms, respiratory function, and immunology and their relation to glutaraldehyde and other occupational exposures among endoscopy nursing staff
348 current endoscopy nurses from 59 endoscopy units within the United Kingdom and 18 ex-employees (who had left their job for health reasons) were surveyed. Symptom questionnaires, end of session spirometry, peak flow diaries, skin prick tests to latex and common aeroallergens, and measurements of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE specific to glutaraldehyde (GA) and latex were performed. Exposure measurements included personal airborne biocide sampling for peak (during biocide changeover) and background (endoscopy room, excluding biocide changeover) concentrations. A significant level of symptoms were reported in the absence of objective evidence of the physiological changes associated with asthma. Ex-employees and current workers with work-related symptoms warrant further study to elucidate the cause and mechanisms for their symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.57, No.11, p.752-759. 47 ref.
Borak J., Cohen H., Hethmon T.A.
Copper exposure and metal fume fever: Lack of evidence for a causal relationship
A systematic literature search was made on the topic of possible adverse health effects of inhalation exposure to copper fume and dust. Seven reports published over the past 88 years were identified that contain original human data and claim to document that exposure to copper dust or fume caused metal fume fever (MFF) or an MFF-like syndrome. Insufficient evidence was found to conclude that exposures to copper dust and copper fume cause MFF. Limitations included absence of exposure measurements, atypical symptoms and complaints, and lack of consistency among types of work associated with symptoms. Given the extensive use of copper in many industries and operations, it is evident that if copper-induced MFF does occur, it is a rare event.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.832-836. 52 ref.
Reporting, recognition and compensation of occupational respiratory diseases
Déclaration, reconnaissance, indemnisation des maladies respiratoires professionnelles [in French]
Current procedures for compensation for victims of occupational diseases in France are complex. Legislation has been progressively adapted as knowledge has improved and agreements have been reached between social partners. The reporting procedure is theoretically simple: the patient can report solely on the basis of a suspected occupational origin of the disease. Knowledge concerning the occupational cause of the disease is obtained either by presumption if all the medical and administrative criteria defined in the appropriate lists are met, or by the regional occupational diseases commission if certain administrative criteria are lacking or if the disease is severe. This recognition can lead to compensation and health care benefits within certain limits. Certain specific conditions due to inhalation of mineral or metallic particles or special situations concerning the different sections of the national health care insurance are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.8, p.536-544. 15 ref.
Marquet M., Legrand C., Furon D.
Interstitial lung fibrosis among coal miners
Fibrose interstitielle pulmonaire chez le mineur de charbon [in French]
The retired miners of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais coal fields with pneumoconiosis have been regularly followed up for twenty years in the context of a post-occupational medical surveillance program. These medical observations revealed an unusually-high number of cases of interstitial lung fibrosis evolving independently from pneumoconiosis. This larger study of 7,770 coal workers confirmed the high incidence of such cases (close to 1%) and allowed to validate the diagnostic approach based on commonly-practiced screening examinations (clinical examination, radiological examination and respiratory function testing). Results raise the issue of the acceptance of the occupational origin of this coal workers pathology, and suggest that special attention be paid to other occupational exposures to dust with free silica.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Nov. 2000, Vol.61, No.7, p.485-490. Illus. 13 ref.
Brooks syndrome - Irritant-induced asthma
Syndrome de Brooks - Asthmes induits par les irritants [in French]
The Brooks syndrome was originally defined as asthma occurring after a single high level of exposure to an irritant, without a latency period. Currently, the preferred term is "irritant-induced asthma". This article reviews the physiopathology of this syndrome, its prevalence, substances that cause it to occur, its diagnosis in an occupational setting and confirmation in a specialized medical establishment, its evolution and compensation entitlements.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.82, p.153-158. 49 ref.
Rodrígez V., Tardón A., Kogevinas M., Prieto C.S., Cueto A., García M., Menéndez I.A., Zaplana J.
Lung cancer risk in iron and steel foundry workers: A nested case-control study in Asturias, Spain
To examine the risk of lung cancer among iron and steel workers, a nested case-control study was conducted involving 144 male lung cancer cases and 558 controls, selected from a study base of 24,400 workers employed in a large foundry between 1952 and 1995. Workers were, on an average, heavy smokers and a very strong relation was observed for smoking (OR for "ever smoker" = 32.4). Workers having ever been employed in the blast furnace had an excess lung cancer risk (OR = 2.55) compared to a reference group of workers not employed in metal producing departments. A similar excess was observed for workers having their longest held job in the blast furnace. A two-fold risk was also observed for workers in the main foundry. A high risk was observed for workers employed in departments with high exposure to crystalline silica, PAHs, and various other carcinogenic chemicals.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.38, No.6, p.644-650. 41 ref.
Washko R.M., Day B., Parker J.E., Castellan R.M., Kreiss K.
Epidemiologic investigation of respiratory morbidity at a nylon flock plant
A cluster of biopsy-confirmed interstitial lung disease among workers at a nylon flock plant led to a request for a health hazard evaluation, involving a cross-sectional medical survey of current employees. The survey consisted of a questionnaire, spirometry and diffusing capacity testing, and chest radiography. Workers assigned to production and maintenance jobs reported frequent eye and throat irritation, respiratory symptoms and generalized aches and fevers. Most reported improvement when away from work. Frequent respiratory systemic symptom prevalence was significantly associated with departmental category, with days and hours worked per week, and with working on a flocking range. The findings implicate occupational exposure to flock-associated dust as a significant respiratory health hazard at this plant.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.38, No.6, p.628-638. 27 ref.
Bohadana A.B., Massin N., Wild P., Toamain J.P., Engel S., Goutet P.
Symptoms, airway responsiveness, and exposure to dust in beech and oak wood workers
To investigate the relationship between exposure to wood dust and respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, 114 male woodworkers from five furniture factories and 13 male unexposed controls were examined. Dust concentration was measured by personal sampling. Cumulative exposure to dust was calculated for each woodworker by multiplying the duration of the work by the intensity of exposure (years.mg/m3). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by the methacholine challenge test. Subjects were labelled methacholine challenge positive if forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) fell by ≥20%. The median cumulative exposure to dust was 110 years.mg/m3. Overall, no declines in FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were found with increasing exposures. A dose-response relation was found between intensity of exposure on one hand, and sore throat and increased prevalence of positive methacholine challenge tests on the other hand.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.57, No.4, p.268-273. 33 ref.
Health hazards due to oak- and beechwood dust
Gesundheitsgefahren durch Eiche- und Buchenholzstäube [in German]
Dusts from hard woods such as oak and beech produced during sawing, drilling, planing, milling or sanding operations may induce nasal cancer (adenocarcinoma). The mechanism for this cancer-inducing effect of hard wood dust is not understood, but a number of factors could play a role: mechanical irritation; natural wood components; chemicals applied to the wood and present on dust particles or inhaled as aerosols. The latency between exposure and incidence of the disease is around 40 years. In Germany, 311 cases of nasal cancer due to oak- and beechwood were recognized as occupational diseases between 1978 and 1997.
BAU-BG Aktuell, 2000, No.2, p.24-25. Illus.
Hodgson J.T., Darnton A.
The quantitative risks of mesothelioma and lung cancer in relation to asbestos exposure
Mortality reports on asbestos-exposed cohorts which gave information on exposure levels from which (as a minimum) a cohort average cumulative exposure could be estimated were reviewed. At exposure levels seen in occupational cohorts it is concluded that the exposure specific risk of mesothelioma from three principal commercial asbestos types is broadly in the ratio 1:100:500 for chrysotile, amosite and crocidolite, respectively. For lung cancer the conclusions are less clear cut. Cohorts exposed only to crocidolite or amosite record similar exposure specific risk levels, but chrysotile-exposed cohorts show a less consistent picture. An excess risk is recorded by cohorts with mixed fibre exposures (generally <1%). It is suggested that a best estimate lung cancer risk for chrysotile alone would be 0.1%, with a highest reasonable estimate of 0.5%. The risk differential between chrysotile and the two amphibole fibres for lung cancer is thus between 1:10 and 1:50. Based on these considerations, and a discussion of the associated uncertainties, a series of quantified risk summary statements for different levels of cumulative exposure are presented.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 2000, Vol.44, No.8, p.565-601. Illus. 73 ref.
Silica, silicosis, and lung cancer: A risk assessment
To investigate exposure-response relationships for silica, silicosis and lung cancer, a quantitative review of the literature identified in a computerized literature search was carried out. The findings of the most significant studies are that the risk of silicosis following a lifetime of exposure at the current OSHA standard of 0.1mg/m3 is likely to be at least 5-10% and lung cancer risk is likely to be increased by 30% or more. The exposure-response relationship for silicosis is nonlinear and reduction of dust exposures would have a greater than linear benefit in terms of risk reduction; available data suggests that 30 years exposure at 0.1mg/m3 might lead to a lifetime silicosis risk of about 25%, whereas reduction of the exposure to 0.05mg/m3 might reduce the risk to under 5%. In conclusion, the lifetime risk of silicosis and lung cancer at an exposure level of 0.1mg/m3 is high. Lowering exposures to the NIOSH recommended limit if 0.05mg/m3 may have substantial benefits.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.8-18. 26 ref.
Hessel P.A., Gamble J.F., Gee J.B.L., Gibbs G., Green F.H.Y., Morgan W.K.C., Mossman B.T.
Silica, silicosis, and lung cancer: A response to a recent working group report
On the basis of numerous studies on crystalline silica and lung cancer, IARC has determined that there was sufficient evidence to conclude that quartz and cristobalite were carcinogenic in humans. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent and, when positive, only weakly positive. Other, methodologically strong, negative studies have not been considered. Several studies viewed as providing evidence supporting the carcinogenicity of silica have significant methodological weaknesses. Silica is not directly genotoxic and is a pulmonary carcinogen only in the rat, a species inappropriate for assessing carcinogenesis in humans. Data on humans show a lack of association between lung cancer and exposure to crystalline silica. Studies in which silicotic patients were not identified from compensation registries, and in which enumeration was complete, did not support a causal association between silicosis and lung cancer, which further argues against the carcinogenicity of crystalline silica.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2000, Vol.42, No.7, p.704-720. Illus. 84 ref.
Pohlabeln H., Jöckel K.H., Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Möhner M., Ahrens W., Bolm-Audorff U., Arhelger R., Römer W., Kreienbrock L., Kreuzer M., Jahn I., Wichmann H.E.
Lung cancer and exposure to man-made vitreous fibers: Results from a pooled case-control study in Germany
To investigate the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF), 3498 male patients with histologically- or cytologically-verified primary lung cancer were compared with 3541 male controls drawn at random from the general population and matched to cases by age and place of residence. A total of 304 cases and 170 controls reported to have worked with glass wool insulation or mineral wool mats. Coded as ever/never exposed, the odds ratio was 1.48 adjusted for smoking and asbestos. To exclude any confounding effect of asbestos, a group of cases and controls who insulated with glass wool or mineral wool mats only and never reported any asbestos exposure was identified, for which an odds ratio of 1.56 after adjustment for smoking was found. This study provides some indication for an excess risk of MMVF which persists after adjustment for smoking and asbestos.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2000, Vol.37, No.5, p.469-477. 38 ref.
Douwes J., Wouters I., Dubbeld H., van Zwieten L., Steerenberg P., Doekes G., Heederik D.
Upper airway inflammation assessed by nasal lavage in compost workers: A relation with bio-aerosol exposure
Exposure to microbial agents in the composting industry may cause work-related airway inflammation. Nasal lavage (NAL) has been proposed as a noninvasive method to assess such effects in population studies. Pre- and post-shift NAL were performed in the workers of a compost plant and in controls. Total cells, cytokines and other inflammation markers were measured in NAL fluid, and pre-shift levels and post/pre concentration ratios were compared with NAL results obtained in the controls. Job-title specific exposure levels ranged from 29 to 527EU/m3 for endotoxin and from 0.36 to 4.85µg/m3 for β(1,3)-glucan. Pre-shift NAL concentrations of total cells, myeloperoxydase, interleukin-8, NO and albumin and post/pre ratios for various markers were significantly higher in compost workers than in controls. NAL cells were mainly neutrophils. It is concluded that occupational exposure of compost workers may cause acute or chronic reactions in the upper airways induced by inflamatory agents such as endotoxins and β(1,3)-glucan.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2000, Vol.37, No.5, p.459-468. Illus. 21 ref.
Karjalainen A., Kurppa K., Virtanen S., Keskinen H., Nordman H.
Incidence of occupational asthma by occupation and industry in Finland
The objective of this study was to calculate the incidence of notified occupational asthma (OA) by occupation, industry and causative agent in Finland from 1989 to 1995. The numbers of cases of reported OA were retrieved from the Finnish Registry of Occupational Diseases for the population between 20 and 64 years of age, while the numbers of employed workers were retrieved from national statistics. Incidence rates were calculated for each occupation and industry, as well as for the total workforce. Altogether 2602 cases of OA were notified and the mean annual incidence rate was 17.4 cases/100,000 employed workers. The incidence rate was the highest among bakers, painters and lacquerers, veterinary surgeons, chemical workers, farmers, animal husbandry workers, food manufacturing workers, welders, plastic product workers, butchers and sausage makers, and floor layers. Cases caused by animal epithelia, hairs and secretions, or flour, grain and fodder accounted for 60% of the total.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2000, Vol.37, No.5, p.451-458. 30 ref.
Gilliland F.D., Hunt W.C., Pardilla M., Key C.R.
Uranium mining and lung cancer among Navajo men in New Mexico and Arizona, 1969 to 1993
Navajo men who were underground miners have excess risk of lung cancer. To further characterize the long-term consequences of uranium mining in this high-risk population, lung cancer incidence among Navajo men residing in New Mexico and Arizona was examined from 1969 to 1993 and a population-based case-control study was conducted to estimate the risk of lung cancer for Navajo uranium miners. It was found that uranium mining contributed substantially to lung cancer among Navajo men over the 25-year period following the end of mining for the Navajo Nation. Sixty-three (67%) of the 94 lung cancers among Navajo men occurred in former uranium miners. The relative risk for a history of mining was 28.6. Smoking did not account for the strong relationship between lung cancer and uranium mining. The Navajo experience with uranium mining is a unique example of exposure in a single occupation accounting for the majority of lung cancers in an entire population.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.42, No.3, p.278-283. 23 ref.
Donham K.J., Cumro D., Reynolds S.J., Merchant J.A.
Dose-response relationships between occupational aerosol exposures and cross-shift declines of lung function in poultry workers: Recommendations for exposure limits
Previous dose-response research on swine workers has resulted in US exposure limit recommendations of 2.5mg/m3 for total dust, 0.23mg/m3 for respirable dust, 100EU/m3 for endotoxin and 7ppm for ammonia. No similar recommendations had been reported previously for poultry workers. Therefore, a study was conducted to examine dose-response relationships of bioaerosol exposures and worker respiratory health in this industry. 257 poultry workers were studied for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function and exposure to dust (total and respirable), endotoxins and ammonia. The relationships between exposures and response were studied by correlation and multiple regression. Significant dose-response relationships were observed between exposures and pulmonary function decrements over a work shift. Exposure concentrations associated with significant pulmonary function decrements were 2.4mg/m3 for total dust, 0.16mg/m3 for respirable dust, 614EU/m3 for endotoxins and 12ppm for ammonia.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.42, No.3, p.260-269. Illus. 36 ref.
Langseth H., Andersen A.
Cancer incidence among male pulp and paper workers in Norway
Cancer incidence was investigated among 23,718 male pulp and paper workers employed continuously for at least 1 year between 1920 and 1993 in Norway. Six sub-cohorts were established (sulfite pulp mill, sulfate pulp mill, paper mill, maintenance department, administrative staff and other departments). Data were compared with those of the Norwegian Cancer Register. An excess of lung cancer was found among both short- and long-term employees (Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) 1.5 and 1.2, respectively), especially for workers with the longest latency (SIR 1.3) and for sulfite mill workers (SIR 1.5). There were increased risks for pleural mesothelioma (SIR 2.4), especially among maintenance workers, and for malignant melanoma (SIR 1.3). Almost all the increased risk for lung cancer can be explained by a combination of smoking habits and asbestos exposure, although an effect of other work-related exposures (for example sulfur and chloride compounds or wood dust) cannot be excluded.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.26, No.2, p.99-105. 39 ref.
Soutar C.A., Robertson A., Miller B.G., Searl A., Bignon J.
Epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of silica: Factors in scientific judgement
In view of the extended debate and differing opinions on whether crystalline silica is a human carcinogen, a selection of epidemiological reports was reviewed in order to identify the areas of uncertainty and disagreement. Papers which in a recent review were considered to provide the least confounded examinations of an association between silica exposure and cancer risk have been examined together with a study of the mortality of coalminers. It has been found that parts of the evidence were coherent but there were contradictions. On examination, this resolved mostly into differences between types of studies. The three types of epidemiological study included were: exposure-response studies, studies in which incidence of disease in an exposed population is compared with that in a reference population and studies of incidence of disease in subjects on silicosis case-registers. Scientific uncertainties in the evidence (confounders, bias, false assumptions) are discussed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2000, Vol.44, No.1, p.3-14. 69 ref.
Nijem K., Kristensen P., Al-Khatib A., Rabbá J., Takrori F., Bjertness E.
Prevalence of self-reported health complaints among shoe workers of small workshop exposed to organic solvents in Hebron City, West Bank: A cross-sectional survey
To estimate the prevalence of neurological disorders and mucous membrane irritation complaints among workers of shoe workshops, a group of 103 male workers from 30 workshops in Hebron City, exposed to organic solvents for more than one year were studied in 1996-1997. Data on neurological and mucous irritation symptoms were obtained by questionnaire. The overall prevalence of painful tingling of limbs was high (40%) and was significantly associated with long term exposure to organic solvents in gluing tasks (PR 2.8). Breathing difficulty showed a moderate non-significant association with long term exposure in cleaning tasks (PR 1.9), while sore eyes also, showed a moderate, non-significant association with exposure to organic solvents for 25-72 months in the gluing tasks. Long term exposure to n-hexane could be the main cause of polyneuropathy, possibly made worse by the absence of effective ventilation systems and personal protective equipment.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2000, Vol.91, No.3, p.206-216. 29 ref.
Sprince N.L., Lewis M.Q., Whitten P.S., Reynolds S.J., Zwerling C.
Respiratory symptoms: Associations with pesticides, silos, and animal confinement in the Iowa Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project
A population-based study was carried out in the state of Iowa (United States) in order to assess associations between symptoms of airway disease and several farm exposures, including to pesticides, grain dust, substances encountered in connection with animal confinement and in silos. A total of 385 farmer participants provided questionnaire responses concerning demographic, respiratory symptom, smoking and exposure information. The most frequently reported respiratory symptoms were flu-like symptoms in connection with dusty work (22%), dyspnoea (21%) and phlegm (15%). Applying pesticides to livestock was associated with significantly increased odds of phlegm (OR=1.91), chest ever wheezy (OR=3.92) and flu-like symptoms (OR=2.93). Conventional vertical silos were significantly associated with increased odds of chest ever wheezy (OR=2.75) and flu-like symptoms (OR=2.40). There were also significant associations between several respiratory symptoms and the presence of animal confinement facilities on the farm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.455-462. 19 ref.
Larkin E.K., Smith T.J., Stayner L., Rosner B., Speizer F.E., Garshick E.
Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer: Adjustment for the effect of smoking in a retrospective cohort study
The extent that cigarette smoking may confound the relationship between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer was assessed in a retrospective cohort study of 55,395 U.S. railroad workers followed from 1959 to 1976. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer due to diesel exhaust was indirectly adjusted using job-specific smoking data from a case-control study of railroad workers who died between 1981-1982 and from a survey of 514 workers who had responded to a mail survey in 1982. Adjustment factors were developed based on the distribution of job-specific smoking rates. The unadjusted RR for lung cancer was 1.58 for workers aged 40-44 in 1959, who experienced the longest possible duration of exposure, and the smoking adjusted RR was 1.44. After considering differences in smoking rates between workers exposed and unexposed to diesel exhaust in a relatively large blue-collar cohort, there were still elevated risks of lung cancer in workers in jobs with diesel exhaust exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.399-409. 33 ref.
Roggli V.L., Sanders L.L.
Asbestos content of lung tissue and carcinoma of the lung: A clinicopathologic correlation and mineral fiber analysis of 234 cases
The aim of this study was to investigate the asbestos content of lung tissue in patients with lung cancer and asbestos exposure. This information was then correlated with demographic information, occupational and smoking history, presence or absence of pathologic asbestosis or pleural plaques, and features of lung cancer. Asbestos body counts were performed in 229 cases and fibre analysis by scanning electron microscopy in 221 cases. Asbestos content was recorded as total asbestos fibres, commercial amphibole fibres, noncommercial amphibole fibres and chrysotile fibres 5µm or longer in length. The study group included 70 patients with asbestosis (group I), 44 patients with parietal pleural plaques (group II) and 120 patients with neither (group III). The median asbestos body content of group I was more than 35 times greater than group II and more than 300 times greater than group III. The total asbestos fibre count for group I was nearly 20 times that of group II and more than 50 times that of group III. In a series of primary lung cancer cases with some history of asbestos exposure, a markedly elevated asbestos content was identified among those with pathologic asbestosis as compared with patents with pleural plaques alone or with neither plaques nor asbestosis.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2000, Vol.44, No.2, p.109-117. 35 ref.
Jang A.S., Choi I.S., Koh Y.I., Moon J.D., Lee K.J.
Increase in airway hyperresponsiveness among workers exposed to methylene diphenyldiisocyanate compared to workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate at a petrochemical plant in Korea
To investigate airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methylene diphenyldiisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), questionnaires, allergic skin test results and nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) test results were studied in 64 exposed workers and 27 controls at a petrochemical complex in the Republic of Korea. Methacholine challenge tests were done, and the Bronchial Responsiveness Index (BRindex) calculated. Prevalence of AHR was higher in MDI-exposed workers than in TDI-exposed workers (20% vs. 4.7%). 23 workers of all subjects had respiratory symptoms. MDI-exposed workers had higher BRindex (0.73 vs. 0.62 for controls). Workers exposed to TDI or MDI with respiratory symptoms, in comparison with exposed workers without respiratory symptoms, had a significantly higher BRindex (0.82 vs. 0.60). There was a significant negative correlation between FEV1 and Brindex. Workers exposed to MDI are at a higher risk of asthma in comparison with TDI-exposed workers and control subjects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.663-667. Illus. 29 ref.
Jöckel K.H., Pohlabeln H., Bolm-Audorff U., Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Wichmann H.E.
Lung cancer risk of workers in shoe manufacture and repair
A total of 4,184 people with primary lung cancer and 4,253 controls, matched for sex, age and region of residence were interviewed in Germany with respect to their occupational and smoking history. Individuals who had worked in shoe manufacturing or repair for at least half a year were identified. Based on 76 cases and 42 controls having worked in shoe manufacture or repair, a significant risk was noted (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.89). After adjustment for smoking, this risk was lowered to 1.69. The smoking-adjusted OR among men was 1.50 and 2.91 among women. Regression modelling showed a positive dose-effect relationship between duration of exposure in shoe manufacture and repair and lung cancer risk. The OR for 30 years of exposure varied between 1.98 and 2.24. The study shows an increased lung cancer risk for shoemakers and workers in shoe manufacturing, doubling after being 30 years in these occupations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.575-580. 20 ref.
Sorahan T., Harrington J.M.
Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers, 1972-97
The mortality of a cohort of 1,087 chrome platers from 54 plants situated in the United Kingdom was investigated for the period 1972-97. All subjects had been employed as chrome platers for over 3 months and all were alive at the beginning of the study period. Mortality data were also available for a cohort of 1,163 comparison workers with no known occupational exposure to chrome compounds. Information on duration of chrome work and smoking habits collected for a cross sectional survey carried out in 1969-72 were available for 916 of the chrome platers; smoking habits were available for 1,004 comparison workers. Based on serial mortality rates for the general population of England and Wales, significantly increased mortality from lung cancer was observed but not in male comparison workers. Occupational exposures to hexavalent chromium may be responsible for the increased mortality from lung cancer in this cohort.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.385-389. 24 ref.
Kanerva L., Alanko K.
Occupational allergic contact urticaria from maleic anhydride
A 32-year-old non-atopic process operator presented rhinitis, dyspnoea, conjunctivitis and whealing, the respiratory symptoms preceding the skin symptoms. He had worked as a carpenter and with cement, and for 3 years in a firm manufacturing polyester resin prior to onset. His job was to pour maleic anhydride granules from 25kg bags into a 1000kg vessel. He used a fresh-air helmet because of the dust. His skin symptoms were itchy wheals. Based on anamnestic data, prick tests, RASTs and a provocation test, it was concluded that the patient had occupational allergic IgE-mediated rhinoconjunctivitis and contact urticaria from maleic anhydride. Because of the risk of occupational asthma, he was advised not to continue his job.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2000, Vol.42, No.3, p.170-172. 15 ref.
Radon K., Garz S., Schottky A., Koops F., Hartung J., Szadkowski D., Nowak D.
Lung function and work-related exposure in pig farmers with respiratory symptoms
To evaluate characteristics of pigsties associated with the development of respiratory morbidity among 100 pig farmers with work-related respiratory symptoms, a standardized questionnaire was used, and lung function assessed immediately before and after pigs feeding. Exposure to dust and endotoxins was determined by personal sampling. Among these farmers, baseline lung function results were shown to be negatively associated with duration of employment, number of pigs on the farm, manual feeding and ventilation. The decrease in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second over the feeding period was negatively correlated with air velocity, whereas respirable dust concentrations were shown to be significant predictors of maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF25/75) decline. In conclusion, among symptomatic pig farmers, those with higher numbers of pigs and longer duration of employment are at highest risk for developing functional impairment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.814-820. Illus. 22 ref.
Vanhanen M., Tuomi T., Tiikkainen U., Tupasela O., Voutilainen R., Nordman H.
Risk of enzyme allergy in the detergent industry
To assess the prevalence of enzyme sensitization in a detergent factory, 40 workers in manufacturing, packing and maintenance, and 36 non-exposed persons in the management and sales departments were subjected to skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests. Nine workers were sensitized to enzymes in the exposed group of 40, whereas none were sensitised in the non-exposed group. All the sensitized workers had symptoms at work; all had rhinitis and one had asthma. Airborne protease concentrations were generally <20ng/m3, but occasional peak values up to 80ng/m3 were detected in the packing and maintenance tasks, and high values of >1µg/m3 in the mixing area. Despite the use of encapsulated enzyme preparations, high enzyme concentrations in workplace air are possible, resulting in a higher risk of sensitization than expected.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2000, Vol.57, No.2, p.121-125. 24 ref.
Franklin P.J., Goldenberg W.S., Ducatman A.M., Franklin E.
Too hot to handle: An unusual exposure of HDI in specialty painters
Between November 1993 and May 1994, seven painters and one boilermaker who were working at three different power plants were examined following complaints of asthma, dyspnoea or rash. At their respective work sites, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was applied to the hot surfaces of boilers that were shut down but not allowed sufficient time to cool. Consequently, these workers were exposed to volatile HDI and its thermal decomposition products. All of these workers underwent a complete physical examination, spirometry and methacholine challenge testing. All 8 workers complained of dyspnoea, while 4 of the 8 also complained of rash. On examination, 3 workers were methacholine challenge positive and 2 had persistent rash. At follow-up 4 years later, 5 workers still had to use inhalation medication and one had progressive asthma and dermatitis. All 8 workers, by the time of the follow-up, had gone through economic and occupational changes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.431-437. 39 ref.
Woodin M.A., Liu Y., Neuberg D., Hauser R., Smith T.J., Christiani D.C.
Acute respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to vanadium-rich fuel-oil ash
To determine whether occupational exposure to fuel-oil ash may cause respiratory illness, a prospective study was undertaken on 18 boilermakers overhauling an oil-fired boiler and 11 utility worker controls. Subjects completed a respiratory symptom diary five times per day. Daily symptom severity was calculated and respiratory symptom frequency and severity was analysed. Boilermakers had more frequent and more severe upper and lower respiratory symptoms than utility workers, and this difference was greatest during interior boiler work. A statistically significant dose-response pattern for frequency and severity of both upper and lower respiratory symptoms was seen with vanadium and PM10 for lower exposures. However, there was a reversal in the dose-response trend in the highest exposure quartile, reflecting a possible healthy worker effect.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.353-363. Illus. 32 ref.
de Zotti R., Muran A., Negro C.
Follow-up of allergic symptoms among nurses sensitised to latex
Follow-up dei sintomi allergici in un gruppo di operatori sanitari sensibilizzati al lattice [in Italian]
Hospital workers sensitized to latex and complaining of respiratory symptoms at work were studied. All 28 subjects were women who had worked for 12 years in departments with high, moderate or low exposure to rubber gloves; 20 also complained of latex skin symptoms; 25 were atopical. The specific inhalation test with latex gloves confirmed the diagnosis of asthma in 4 cases and of rhinitis in 13 cases. The workers were reinvestigated 14 months later. Overall, improvement of skin symptoms were observed in 74% and of respiratory symptoms in 56% of the cases. The persistence of symptoms was significantly higher among workers who continued to work in departments with high or moderate latexglove exposure. The results show that skin and respiratory symptoms were related to the use of powdered latex gloves and confirm the importance of primary prevention.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.91, No.1, p.53-60. 24 ref.
Respiratory risks of wood production processes
Riesgos respiratorios en los procesos productivos de la madera [in Spanish]
Respiratory risks due to various wood production processes are listed. Exposure to wood dust is associated with sinusitis, asthma, infectious respiratory diseases and irritation of the respiratory tract leading to rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. Exposure to wood impregnation or treatment products (ammonia, phenolic resins, organic solvents and fungicides) induces a series of disorders. The importance of wearing protective gloves and clothes as well as respirators is emphasized.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.45, No.268, p.24-29. Illus. 5 ref.
Bernstein I.L., Chan-Yeung M., Malo J.L., Bernstein D.I.
Asthma in the workplace
Second edition of the manual abstracted as CIS 93-779. It is organized into four main sections: Section I covers general considerations including definitions and classification of asthma, historical background, epidemiology, genetic aspects, pathophysiology, animal models of the disease, and its natural history. Section II covers assessment and management (clinical aspects, immunological evaluation, non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, physiological assessment by serial measurement of lung function, occupational challenge tests, environmental monitoring of protein aeroallergens and other chemical agents, medico-legal and compensation aspects, evaluation of impairment/disability and surveillance and prevention). Section III provides detailed information on specific disease entities covering a variety of aetiological agents. Section IV contains compendia including a comprehensive list of the major protein and chemical inducers of occupational asthma, relevant information from the US National Occupational Exposure Survey, and a description of a national online information system on occupational asthma in France.
Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA and Marcel Dekker AG, Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, 4001 Basel, Switzerland (www.dekker.com), 2nd ed. (rev. and expanded), 1999. xix, 742p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 235.00.
BaP-Jahre [in German]
Lung cancer caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized as an occupational disease in Germany on condition that claimants can demonstrate a cumulative exposure of at least 100µg/m3 x years of benzo[a]pyrene (or benzo[a]pyrene years). This report provides insurance institutions with guidelines on the probable PAH exposure at workplaces for the purpose of establishing the occupational case history. Based on data from recent studies and from literature, tables provide estimated exposure levels by occupation, task and historical period.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Oct. 1999. 132p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Låstbom L., Camner P., Ryrfeldt Å.
Acute lung function impairment by hexamethylene diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate - A comparative study using isolated guinea pig lungs
Isolated, perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs were exposed, through the airways, to two concentrations of toluene diisocyanate, TDI (21.7 and 25.2mg/m3) and hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI (12 and 26.3mg/m3). At the low concentrations, both TDI and HDI caused a moderate decrease in conductance, Gaw (approx. 17%) and compliance, Cdyn (approx. 8%) after one hour of exposure. However, at the high concentrations, HDI caused a much sharper decrease in lung function (approx. 84% for Gaw and approx. 73% for Cdyn) than TDI (approx. 28% for Gaw and approx. 22% for Cdyn). Neither TDI nor HDI caused any effect on the perfusion flow. It is concluded that HDI is 2-3.5 times more potent than TDI to induce bronchoconstriction in the isolated perfused guinea pig lung.
Occupational Hygiene, 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.111-120. Illus. 20 ref.
Alvear-Galindo M.G., Mendez-Ramirez I., Villegas-Rodriguez J.A., Chapela-Mendoza R., Eslava-Campos C.A., Laurell A.C.
Risk indicator of dust exposure and health effects in cement plant workers
A frequent problem in developing countries is the lack of reliable records on occupational hazards. This article proposes and evaluates a two-phase method for estimating particle exposure. The first phase uses the focal group technique to reconstruct the production process and estimate the level of dust exposure. The second phase applies the technique of individual history of exposure to hazards at work, an index that accumulates current and previous exposure. This method was introduced in a cement plant to assess the dust-exposure levels of workers and to evaluate its usefulness in the association between estimated exposure levels and the frequency of health effects. Results obtained showed that it is possible to reconstruct the history of exposure to cement dust during each worker's occupational history. The results also showed that estimated exposure is related to respiratory damage; higher exposure resulted in more serious diseases. This supports the usefulness of the suggested methodology.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.654-661. Illus. 26 ref.
Tabka F., Mrizek N., Tabka Z., Choudat D., Conso F.
Respiratory diseases related to cereal dust exposure - Study in the region of Sousse, Tunisia
Pathologie respiratoire liée à la poussière de céréales - Etude dans la région de Sousse (Tunisie) [in French]
Dusty environment in cereal and grain processing is known to induce non specific respiratory diseases, cutaneous and oculo-nasal irritation and/or allergy. A cross-sectional study was performed in Tunisia among grain workers to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. 70 exposed workers to 70 non-exposed subjects matched for age, sex and smoking habits were compared. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and obstructive impairment was significantly higher in the exposed group (34.3% vs 14.3%, and 47% vs 15%, respectively). Symptoms of bronchial hyperreactivity was found in 30% of the exposed workers. Smoking was a risk factor for chronic bronchitis and lung function impairment in exposed and non-exposed subjects. The study highlights the usefulness of lung function monitoring in the prevention and detection of the effect of dust on the respiratory tract.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.101-106. Illus. 17 ref.
Occupational respiratory latex allergy
Allergie respiratoire professionnelle au latex [in French]
Latex allergy is linked to the presence of specific IgEs directed towards proteins present in natural latex and its derived manufactured products. In the occupational setting, evidence of rhinitis or asthma in subjects wearing gloves for carrying out their tasks, or involved in the manufacture of rubber objects suggests a diagnostic of allergy. Contact urticaria is often associated with respiratory symptoms when the sensitization is due to rubber gloves. The diagnostic includes the search for evidence of atopy, ear, nose and throat examinations, functional respiratory testing, immunological testing (skin tests, RAST or prick tests) and nasal and bronchial provocation tests. Pre-hiring interviews to identify individuals at risk and annual medical surveillance are among the preventive measures proposed. Use of non-powdered gloves reduces the incidence of respiratory sensitization. In the manufacture of latex products, efficient ventilation and an aspiration of dust at the source are recommended.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1999, No.80, p.381-387. 45 ref.
Hemminki K., Veidebaum T.
Environmental pollution and human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the east Baltic region
Environmental contamination and human exposure due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were surveyed in the east Baltic region. Polluted and heavily industrialized areas are upper Silesia in Poland, northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic, and the northeast part of Estonia. In Estonia the pollution is in a defined geographic area, where lung cancer incidence is higher than elsewhere. DNA adduct levels in white blood cells are increased in groups of residents with apparently only environmental exposure. By extrapolation, some 150 annual cancer cases could be predicted due to PAH in Silesia. Air levels of benzo[a]pyrene were increased in northern Bohemia. Further studies are needed to assess health risks of PAH exposures in central and eastern Europe.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.33-39. Illus. 24 ref.
Ambient air pollution and respiratory health in the east Baltic region
Air pollutants of primary concern to human health in the east Baltic region include particulate matter and sulfur dioxide. Exposure to elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide and ozone is also widespread. Coal-fired power and heavy industrial plants constitute major sources of air pollution. Domestic heating with coal causes high local levels in some areas. The rapid growth of motor vehicle traffic results in increased emissions. Several epidemiologic studies performed in the east Baltic region, mainly in Poland, have documented an association between air pollution exposure and adverse health effects, primarily in the respiratory tract. The associations were mainly seen for particulates or sulfur dioxide, and thus they confirmed the findings from other parts of Europe and the United States.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.5-16. Illus. 29 ref.
da Silva C.S.
Ministério do Trabalho
Critical study of the health of electroplating workers based on relationships between ambient measurements, biological measurements and ENT examinations
Um estudo crítico sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores de galvânicas, por meio das relações entre as avaliações ambientais, biológicas e otorrinolaringológicas [in Portuguese]
The objective of this study was to examine the working environment and health of electroplating workers, and to establish relationships between the concentration in air of various chemicals, their urinary concentrations and observed nasal injuries. 461 workers employed at 22 electroplating plants using various coating processes were studied. Ambient concentrations of acid vapours as well as of chromium, zinc and nickel were measured, together with the urinary concentrations of these metals among exposed workers. Although the ambient levels were far below the threshold values accepted in Brazil, rhinoscopic examination revealed that 35.5% of workers showed moderate or serious injury of the upper respiratory tract (ischaemia, ulcerations or perforations of the nasal septum) and 40.1% showed signs of initial phases of injury or non-specific injury. These results show that the accepted limits in Brazil are insufficient to ensure adequate protection of workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1999. 196p. Illus. 127 ref.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Work-related lung disease: Surveillance report 1999
This report is a summary of statistical data for various occupational respiratory diseases on work-related lung diseases in the United States. The data are presented in a series of figures and tables and cover asbestosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, byssinosis, exposure to cotton dust, pneumopathy due to inhalation of other dust, neoplasms of the pleura, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data are given on mortality, morbidity, and exposure by state, industry, occupation and causative agent.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 1999. xvii, 202p. Illus.
Zanella Penteado R., Teixeira Bicudo Pereira I.M.
The voice of the teacher: Relationship between work, health and quality of life
A voz do professor: Relações entre trabalho, saúde e qualidade de vida [in Portuguese]
This study concerns the professional use of voice by teachers for establishing the relationship between vocal health and speech dysfunction (dysphonias), conditions of work and quality of life of the teacher. These relationships are presented based on the analysis of the most common types of dysfunction and the predisposing factors and aggravating circumstances present in the teacher's routine. This paper provides guidance to health professionals by pointing out the specific needs of teachers and that vocal problems and dysfunctions must be taken into consideration and treated as a disease.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 1999, Vol.25, No.95/96, p.109-130. 32 ref.
Bellmann B., Muhle H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Investigation of the in vivo solubility of fibrous vitreous silica dust samples
Untersuchung der in-vivo-Löslichkeit von glasigen silicatischen Faserstäuben [in German]
This research report examines the elimination of mineral fibres from the lungs of rats and the transposition of the results to man. Such fibres disappear either by chemical dissolution or through a macrophage-mediated lung-clearance process, the latter being however much slower in man than in the rat. The objective of this study was to establish whether by slowing down of the lung-clearance process through additional instillation of poorly soluble plastic (such as toner powder), one could alter the mineral fibre dissolution process. The elimination of ceramic fibres was delayed by the addition of plastic particles, while the elimination of rock fibres was not modified. It was observed that in the presence of plastic particles, glass fibres were eliminated more rapidly. This could be due to a slowing down of fibre phagocytosis by macrophages, which could favour a more rapid dissolution of the fibres, the pH inside the macrophages being less acidic. The application of this experimental model will enable a better understanding of the kinetics of lung elimination of different types of mineral fibres. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. vii, 65p. Illus. 16 ref.
Macchioni P., Kotopulos C., Talini D., De Santis M., Masino E., Paggiaro P.L.
Hairdresser's asthma: Five case reports
Asma dei parrucchieri: descrizione di 5 casi [in Italian]
This paper reports five cases of bronchial asthma in hairdressers exposed to bleaching dusts containing potassium and ammonium persulfate. All subjects complained of asthmatic symptoms and were examined for nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. They also underwent skin prick tests for common allergens, maximal expiratory volume monitoring during two weeks at work, specific bronchial challenge (SBC) test with bleaching dust, and assessment of airway inflammation by induced sputum tests. None of the subjects were atopic and all subjects were negative for skin prick tests. All were hyperreactive to methacholine and positive to SBC. Pharmacological treatments in combination with reduced occupational exposure reduced symptoms.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.90, No.6, p.776-785. Illus. 17 ref.
Wang M.L., Pestonk E.L., Beekman L.A., Wagner G.R.
Clinically-important FEV1 declines among coal miners: An exploration of previously unrecognized determinants
The relation between occupational exposure to dust and loss of ventilatory lung function is well established. However, other exposures may also be important. This study was performed in 264 underground coal miners whose lung function had been followed up for an average of 11 years. They were asked by questionnaire about their occupational and non-occupational exposures, smoking, personal and family medical history, and living conditions during childhood. Several variables of the mining environment were found to be associated with excess decline in FEV1, including work in roof bolting, exposure to explosive blasting, and to water sprayed for dust control. Other factors included smoking, body mass, weight gain, childhood pneumonia, and childhood exposure in the home to passive tobacco smoke and smoke from wood and coal fuels. These additional risk factors may be useful in developing approaches to the prevention of chronic respiratory disease.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.56, No.12, p.837-844. Illus. 26 ref.
Merget R., Topcu M., Friese K., Vormberg R., Fuchs T., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Breitstadt R.
A cross-sectional study of workers in the chemical industry with occupational exposure to hexamethylenetetramine
To assess the health effects of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) on the airways and skin of workers in the chemical industry, a cross-sectional study was performed with 17 employees of a HMT-producing chemical plant and 16 control subjects from the plant, as well as 4 subjects who had left the production for medical reasons. A high proportion of exposed subjects and controls reported symptoms during the previous year, most of them were not related to work. Work-related symptoms and objective parameters did not show differences between groups. No cases of sensitization to HMT as assessed by skin prick tests or patch tests were found. Among those who had left the HMT production for medical reasons, 2 former workers showed sensitization to HMT by patch tests. These reported eczema during exposure but lost symptoms after removal from exposure. High exposures to HMT may cause allergic contact dermatitis. There was no evidence of an increased risk for occupational asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1999, Vol.72, No.8, p.533-538. Illus. 11 ref.
Kirchhoff R., Schäcke G., Kirchhoff G., Lüth P.
Application of article 9 paragraph 2 of the German Social Code Book 7 to cases involving small-cell bronchial carcinoma following exposure to ethylene oxide
Kleinzelliges Bronchialkarzinom nach Ethylenoxidexposition unter Anwendung von § 9 Absatz 2 SGB VII [in German]
A bronchial carcinoma developed in a worker of a sterilization facility after about ten years of discontinuous exposure to ethylene oxide. Exposure levels in 1975 were significantly higher than they are today. Experimental examinations in human lymphocytes establish that persons who are non-conjugators, namely persons having a low glutathione-S transferase activity, show significantly enhanced formation of sister chromatid exchanges, which is an indication for mutagenic effects of ethylene oxide. Article 9 paragraph 2 of the German Social Code Book 7 (SGB VII) is applicable to the case of this worker, and his small-cell bronchial carcinoma has been recognised as an occupational disease.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, July 1999, Vol.49, No.7, p.227-234. 25 ref.
Cipolla C., Belisario A., Sassi C., Auletti G., Nobile M., Raffi G.B.
Occupational asthma due to dioctyl phthalate in a bottle capsule production worker
Asma occupazionale da dioctil-ftalato in una addetta alla produzione di tappi per bottiglia [in Italian]
A case of occupational asthma caused by dioctyl phthalate, an agent that does not commonly induce asthma, in a worker close to equipment for the preparation and baking of sealant-lined bottle capsule is described. Clinical history, environmental monitoring and pulmonary function tests (bronchodilatation with salbutamol, ventilatory capacity) data, and work interruptions were analysed. A good correlation between work and the worker's asthma was found. Lack of ventilation during conveyor belt and oven malfunction produced excessive exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1999, Vol.90, No.3, p.513-518. Illus. 20 ref.
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