|Document ID (ISN)||78596|
|ISSN - Serial title
||1219-1221 - Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
|Convention or series no.
||Breton R.A., Vyskocil A.
||Smoking and blood cadmium concentrations in young pre-employees
||2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.22-25. 7 ref.
||Smoking is the main source of cadmium, a known human carcinogen, among young adults. The objective of this study was to determine blood and urine cadmium levels of young adults occupationally exposed to cadmium in relation to number of cigarettes smoked and sex. Data were gathered for 132 young adults (smokers and non-smokers, men and women) by means of a questionnaire and blood and urine analyses. There were no statistical differences between smokers and non-smokers in urine cadmium concentrations, whereas blood cadmium levels in young adult smokers were 11 times higher than in non-smokers. An increase in blood cadmium without any changes in urine cadmium could be explained by the accumulation of cadmium in tissues. After 20 to 40 years of smoking, and without exposure to any other source of cadmium, it is expected that smokers would reach the urinary level of 5µg/g creatinine that would warrant job reassignment away from cadmium exposure. Further thought needs to be given to reassignment policies and work practices for smokers and non-smokers with respect to cadmium exposure.
||smoking; limitation of exposure; smelting plants; young persons; cadmium; exposure evaluation
||creatinine; determination in urine; determination in blood; change of employment
||D - Periodical articles
|Country / State or Province||Canada|
||Toxic and dangerous substances
|Broad subject area(s)
Smelting and refining operations
Cadmium and compounds