|Document ID (ISN)||69265|
|Convention or series no.
||Arbete och hälsa 1993:24
||Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits. 108. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates and ethylenethiourea
||Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 108. Etylenbisditiokarbamater och etylentiourinämne [in Swedish]|
||Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 44p. 165 ref.
||A critical survey of the literature relevant to the discussion of an occupational exposure limit for ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides (maneb, mancozeb and zineb) and ethylenethiourea (ETU) is given. The critical effects of exposure to EBDCs are toxic effects on the thyroid gland, and their sensitizing, cross sensitizing and cross-reactivity properties. Mancozeb is also a possible carcinogen. The critical effects of ETU are directed towards the thyroid gland, where ETU induces thyroid hyperplasia and follicular carcinomas at low doses. The occupational exposure limits for EBDCs are based on their sensitizing properties, on their effects on the thyroid gland and their possible carcinogenic effects in rodents. The main emphasis in the occupational exposure limit for ETU is on its goitrogenic and thyroid carcinogenic properties. There is a need to emphasize the significance of biological monitoring, and to reduce exposure to EBDCs and ETU rather than develop more detailed occupational exposure limits. It is important, therefore, to delineate dermal absorption, and the metabolic pathways of EBDC fungicides and ETU for the development of biological monitoring methods. Moreover, an understanding of the effects of these fungicides on the thyroid is crucial for adequate risk assessment.
||Sweden; maneb; fungicides; ethylenethiourea; zineb; manzeb
||threshold limit values; thyroid gland; sensitization; carcinogenic effects; criteria document; determination of exposure limits
||F - Information notes, codes of practice, standards
|Country / State or Province||Finland; Sweden|
||Toxic and dangerous substances
|Broad subject area(s)