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Document ID (ISN)52960
CIS number 89-1936
ISSN - Serial title 0829-0369 - Travail et santé
Year 1989
Convention or series no.
Author(s) Charbonneau M.
Title The study of toxicity mechanisms of chemical substances: a valuable tool in occupational risk assessment
Original title La connaissance du mécanisme d'action d'une substance toxique: un atout dans l'évaluation du risque en milieu de travail [in French]
Bibliographic information Spring 1989, Vol.5, No.1, p.S3-S7. Illus. 39 ref.
Abstract The environment, particularly the occupational setting, generates hazards that need to be identified and for which risk estimates have to be made. Quantitative risk assessment in humans is a difficult task. One crucial problem is related to the use of experimental animals as surrogates for humans, since epidemiological studies showing a definite dose response curve are rare. Selecting a proper animal model for risk assesment represents one of the greatest challenges in toxicology, in particular when the toxic response is not comparable across animal species, strains, or sexes. The study of the mechanism for a given toxic chemical in an animal model may indicate specific biological parameters to be evaluated in humans. An example is presented in order to illustrate this point. A group of hydrocarbons have been shown to cause, in male rats only, a specific type of nephropathy. A male rat specific low-molecular-weight protein has been demonstrated to be a major factor in the nephropathy. This example illustrates the importance of knowing the mechanism of toxic action of a substance when selecting an animal model for predicting hazards to human health.
Descriptors (primary) occupational hygiene; toxicology; risk factors; hazard evaluation; extrapolation animal man; toxic substances
Descriptors (secondary) case study
Document type D - Periodical articles
Subject(s) Occupational pathology
Broad subject area(s) Chemical safety
Browse category(ies) Risk evaluation