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Document ID (ISN)111920
CIS number 11-0548
ISSN - Serial title 1351-0711 - Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Year 2009
Convention or series no.
Author(s) Fullerton D.G., Semple S., Kalambo F., Suseno A., Malamba R., Henderson G., Ayres J.G., Gordon S.B.
Title Biomass fuel use and indoor air pollution in homes in Malawi
Bibliographic information Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.777-783. Illus. 47 ref.
Abstract Air pollution from biomass fuels in Africa is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity both in adults and children. This study describes the nature and quantity of smoke exposure from biomass fuel in Malawian homes. Markers of indoor air quality were measured in 62 homes (31 rural and 31 urban) over a typical 24h period by means of a gravimetric device, two photometric devices and a carbon monoxide monitor. Gravimetric samples were analysed for transition metal content. Data on cooking and lighting fuel type together with information on indicators of socioeconomic status were collected by questionnaire. Respirable dust levels in both the urban and rural environment were high with the mean 24h average levels being 226 μg/m3. Data from real-time instruments indicated respirable dust concentrations were >250 μg/m3 for >1h per day in 52% of rural homes and 17% of urban homes. Average carbon monoxide levels were significantly higher in urban compared with rural homes (6.14 ppm vs 1.87 ppm). The transition metal content of the smoke was low, with no significant difference found between urban and rural homes. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Descriptors (primary) Malawi; atmospheric pollution; fuels; cooking; exposure evaluation; heating
Descriptors (secondary) carbon monoxide; charcoal; respirable dust; sampling and analysis; questionnaire survey
Document type D - Periodical articles
Subject(s) Toxic and dangerous substances
Environmental pollution
Broad subject area(s) Chemical safety
Browse category(ies) Air pollution