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Document ID (ISN)110675
CIS number 10-0270
ISBN(s) 978-92-4-157238-5
Year 2007
Convention or series no. Environmental health criteria No.238
Title Extremely low frequency fields
Bibliographic information World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xxiv, 519p. Illus. Approx. 1000 ref. Price: CHF 50.00, USD 50.00; CHF 35.00 in developing countries; downloadable version free of charge.
Internet access [in English]
Abstract This report addresses the possible health effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. It reviews the physical characteristics of ELF fields as well as the sources of exposure and measurement. However, its main objectives were to review the scientific literature on the biological effects of exposure to ELF fields, to assess any health risks from exposure to these fields to make recommendations to national authorities on health protection programmes. The frequencies under consideration range from above 0Hz to 100kHz. By far the majority of studies have been conducted on power-frequency electric fields. In addition, there have been a number of studies concerning very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) fields, switched gradient magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging, and the weaker VLF fields emitted by visual display units and televisions. The main conclusions and recommendations from each section as well as the overall conclusions of the health risk assessment process are summarized. Key gaps in knowledge were also identified and the research needed to fill these gaps has been summarized in the section entitled "Recommendations for research". Summaries in French, Russian and Spanish are included.
Descriptors (primary) WHO; non-ionizing radiation; health hazards; risk factors
Descriptors (secondary) limitation of exposure; research; biological effects; literature survey; glossary; criteria document
Document type F - Information notes, codes of practice, standards
Country / State or ProvinceWHO
Subject(s) Radiation
Broad subject area(s) Physical hazards
Browse category(ies) Electromagnetic fields
Non-ionizing radiation