|Document ID (ISN)||108327|
|Convention or series no.
||IARC Monographs Volume 89
World Health Organization (WHO)
||IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines
||World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2007. ix, 626p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00 (CHF 38.50 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge
||http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol89/mono89.pdf [in English]
||This monograph considers the carcinogenic risks associated with the use of smokeless tobacco, including chewing tobacco and snuff. Some studies had suggested that smokeless tobacco may be used for smoking cessation, reducing exposure to carcinogens and risk for cancer. However, these claims are not supported by the available evidence. Occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco may occur during tobacco manufacture, particularly in bidi factories in India, which are often very small-scale industries that have poor working conditions. The workers, mainly women, are exposed to tobacco by dermal contact and to airborne tobacco dust and volatile substances by inhalation. Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the leading malignancies in India and many other countries in South-East Asia, and ranks first in incidence among men and third among women. Tobacco-specific N-nitroso compounds have been detected at high concentrations in snuff and chewing tobacco.
||WHO; IARC; carcinogenic effects; nitroso amines; hazard evaluation; tobacco
||India; literature survey; tobacco industry; criteria document; epidemiologic study; developing countries; glossary; oral cancer
||B - Chemical safety information sheets
|Country / State or Province||WHO|
||Toxic and dangerous substances
|Broad subject area(s)