|Document ID (ISN)||108326|
|Convention or series no.
||IARC Monographs Volume 91
World Health Organization (WHO)
||IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy
||World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2007. ix, 528p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00 (CHF 38.50 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge.
||http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol91/mono91.pdf [in English]
||Combined estrogen-progestogens used in oral contraceptives and hormonal therapy have many similarities. Consequently, there is a possibility that women who use both during their lifetime may experience risks that are greater than women who use either contraceptives or hormonal therapy but not both. The conclusion that the increased risk for breast cancer returns to background levels 10 years after cessation of use of contraceptives may therefore not apply to women who have begun to use hormonal therapy. Further epidemiological studies of women who have used both contraceptives and hormonal therapy are necessary. Oral contraceptives can increase the risk for cervical cancer in women who have a human papillomavirus infection. Women who use this form of contraception over long periods of time should be encouraged to participate in cervical cancer screening programmes.
||WHO; IARC; oestrogens; hormone therapy; women; carcinogenic effects; hazard evaluation
||literature survey; osteosclerosis; menopause; criteria document; breast cancer; epidemiologic study; glossary; uterine cancer
||B - Chemical safety information sheets
|Country / State or Province||WHO|
||Toxic and dangerous substances
|Broad subject area(s)