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Document ID (ISN)105194
CIS number 06-663
ISSN - Serial title 0340-0131 - International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Year 2005
Convention or series no.
Author(s) Vermeulen R., J÷nsson B.A.G., Lindh C,H., Kromhout H.
Title Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide and phthalate exposure in the contemporary rubber industry
Bibliographic information Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.663-669. 22 ref.
Internet access [in English]
Abstract Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxyl acid (TTCA), a metabolite of carbon disulfide (CS2), and phthalic acid (PA), a metabolite of phthalates, were studied across factories and departments in the rubber industry. Spot urine samples from 101 rubber workers employed in nine factories were collected on different days. Levels of both biomarkers increased significantly during the working week compared to Sunday. Levels of both biomarkers did not differ markedly between working days. Increases seemed to be restricted to specific factories and or departments, such as moulding and curing. Findings confirm that rubber workers are exposed to various levels of phthalates and CS2 depending on the specific conditions of the factories and departments. Biological monitoring appears to be a reliable means of evaluating exposures to these substances.
Descriptors (primary) rubber industry; exposure tests; phthalates; carbon disulfide
Descriptors (secondary) phthalic acid; 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid; determination in urine; cross-sectional study; urinary metabolites; exposure evaluation
Document type D - Periodical articles
Country / State or ProvinceNetherlands; Sweden; USA
Subject(s) Chemicals, plastics and rubber
Toxic and dangerous substances
Broad subject area(s) Chemical safety
Browse category(ies) Biological monitoring
Inorganic substances
Inorganic sulfur compounds
Esters and salts
Rubber industry