|Document ID (ISN)||103860|
|ISSN - Serial title
||0019-8366 - Industrial Health
|Convention or series no.
||Cancer risk assessment of toxaphene
||July 2004, Vol.42, No.3, p.321-327. 5 ref.
||http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2004/pdf/42-3-3.pdf [in English]
||The cancer risk of toxaphene was assessed using the four steps of risk assessment proposed by the United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) namely hazard identification, dose-response relationship, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Toxaphene was the most heavily used insecticide in many parts of the world before it was banned in 1982. It increased the incidence of neoplasms of the liver and uterus in mice and the incidence of neoplasms of endocrine organs, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, mammary glands, and reproductive systems in rats. The slope factor in studies on mice and rats is 0.8557 (mg/kg/day)-1. Lifetime average daily dose of toxaphene from ambient air, surface water, soil and fish were 1.08x10-6, 5.71x10-6, 3.43x10-7, and 7.96x10-5 mg/kg/day, respectively. Cancer risk of toxaphene for average exposure was 7.42x10-5. This study indicates that toxaphene might present a carcinogenic risk to humans.
||toxaphene; carcinogenic effects; hazard evaluation; insecticides
||exposure evaluation; ecotoxicology; neoplasms; dose-response relationship; animal experiments
||D - Periodical articles
|Country / State or Province||Thailand|
Toxic and dangerous substances
|Broad subject area(s)
||Occupational medicine, epidemiology