Working papers

2017

  1. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 92

    Migrant and cities: Research report on recruitment, employment, and working conditions of domestic workers in China

    20 June 2017

  2. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 90

    The International Labour Organization and the Living Wage: A Historical Perspective

    09 June 2017

  3. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 87

    Sectoral collective bargaining, productivity and competitiveness in South Africa’s clothing value chain: manufacturers between a rock and a hard place

    16 May 2017

    This working paper focusses on the role of sectoral collective bargaining in wage setting and the different factors that might account for the link between wage and productivity growth. It examines various initiatives to improve productivity in the South African clothing sector. These include sectoral framework agreements on the adoption of productivity schemes at the enterprise level, the introduction of ‘world class manufacturing techniques’, consultant-led productivity schemes, and management-designed incentive schemes introduced in consultation with workers. The study finds that sectoral-level bargaining is effective in establishing a common wage floor for the industry that also rewards more productive firms (and workers). Moreover, during a period of liberalization and industry restructuring, wage have been rising alongside increases in labour productivity. However, this link between wages and productivity was not achieved through “organized decentralization” (i.e. enterprise-level productivity bargaining within a sectoral framework agreement). Rather, it was the outcome of a “complex package of competitive strategies pursued by firms”. These included, notably, management capability and capacity and relations between retailers (‘buyers’) and manufacturers. The paper also examines the challenges experience by some manufacturers in respect of compliance with wages and the manner in which the gains are distributed in the value chain. It concludes with some ideas about the need for a new approach to collective bargaining in light of the restructuring of the clothing value chain in South Africa.

  4. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 86

    Purchasing practices and low wages in global supply chains: Empirical cases from the garment industry

    15 May 2017

2016

  1. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 85

    Evaluating the effects of the structural labour market reforms on collective bargaining in Greece

    15 December 2016

    The present report assesses the social and economic impact of the changes in the regulatory framework of collective bargaining in Greece.

  2. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 83

    Redistributing value added towards labour in apparel supply chains: Tackling low wages through purchasing practices

    07 October 2016

  3. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 59

    The (missing) link between wages and productivity in the Philippines: What role for collective bargaining and the new two-tier wage system?

    07 October 2016

  4. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 80

    Coverage of employment protection legislation

    31 August 2016

  5. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 79

    Initial effects of Constitutional Amendment 72 on domestic work in Brazil

    01 August 2016

  6. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 78

    Remembering rest periods in law: Another tool to limit excessive working hours

    29 July 2016

  7. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 77

    Firms' demand for temporary labour in developing countries: Necessity or strategy?

    21 June 2016

  8. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 75

    Non-standard forms of employment in Latin America: Prevalence, characteristics and impacts on wages

    31 May 2016

  9. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 74

    Income security in the on-demand economy: Findings and policy lessons from a survey of crowdworkers

    01 May 2016

  10. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 73

    Productivity, wages and unions in Japan

    31 March 2016

  11. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 72

    The introduction of a minimum wage for domestic workers in South Africa

    31 March 2016

  12. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 70

    Non-standard forms of employment in Uganda and Ghana

    29 March 2016

  13. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 62

    What Does the Minimum Wage Do in Developing Countries? A Review of Studies and Methodologies

    14 January 2016

  14. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 71

    The rise of the "just-in-time workforce": On-demand work, crowdwork and labour protection in the "gig-economy"

    14 January 2016

  15. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 67

    The effects of non-standard forms of employment on worker health and safety

    14 January 2016

  16. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 69

    Non-standard forms of employment in some Asian countries: A study of wages and working conditions of temporary workers

    02 January 2016