The Sectoral Activities Department is the ILO’s repository of knowledge on sector-specific labour and social issues. Research and studies conducted, in line with the ILO’s research policies, deal with emerging and priority issues of strong interest for ILO’s sectoral constituents.

Working Papers, vehicles for disseminating information on a range of topics related to the world of work and the evolution of social and labour policies and practices for a given sector, are regularly published and widely disseminated. Background reports and issues papers, which provide more in-depth analysis on specific issues, are also published for discussion at international tripartite meetings and global dialogue fora.


  1. Challenges and Opportunities of Teleworking for Workers and Employers in the ICTS and Financial Services Sectors

    03 October 2016

    Issues Paper for the Global Dialogue Forum on the Challenges and Opportunities of Teleworking for Workers and Employers in the ICTS and Financial Services Sectors (Geneva, 24-26 October 2016)

  2. Weak minimum wage compliance in Asia’s garment industry

    11 August 2016

    Minimum wages can be an important part of the policy toolkit to meet the needs of workers and their families. However, minimum wages do not adequately fulfill this role if non-compliance is widespread. This research note shows that a large proportion of workers in the garment, footwear, and textiles sector in seven garment-exporting countries in Asia are paid below the minimum wage.

  3. Sectoral Studies on Decent Work in Global Supply Chains

    27 May 2016

    Comparative Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges for Social and Economic Upgrading

  4. Sectoral Policies Department - Highlights 2014-15

    19 May 2016

    The Sectoral Policies Department (SECTOR) provides support to ILO constituents in addressing employment and labour issues in specific economic and social sectors at the global, regional and national levels.

  5. Labour Standards in Global Supply Chains: A Programme for Action in Asia and the Garment Sector (Project fact sheet)

    12 May 2016

    In collaboration with Germany’s GIZ, the ILO will take up challenges to labour standards and working conditions arising from globalized garment production, focusing on Cambodia, Indonesia and Pakistan. The ILO’s Pakistan Office will work with its tripartite social partners, the Government, Pakistan Workers’ Federation and Employers’ Federation of Pakistan to improve labour market governance and working conditions throughout the globalized supply chain.

  6. Gender pay gaps persist in Asia's garment and footwear sector

    07 April 2016

    Gender wage inequality remains a considerable challenge in developing Asia’s garment and footwear sector. Some of the pay gap can be attributed to differences in factors such as age and education, but discrimination also appears to be a contributing determinant. Women are also more likely to be at the lower end of the wage ladder.

  7. Sectoral Studies on Decent Work in Global Supply Chains

    06 April 2016

    Comparative Analysis of Good Practices by Multinational Enterprises in Promoting Decent Work in Global Supply Chains

  8. Cambodian Garment and Footwear Sector Bulletin Issue 3

    28 March 2016

    This issue of the Bulletin outlines the process and criteria used to adjust Cambodia’s minimum wage. The analysis is based on official statistics, mainly from the Ministry of Commerce, The Cambodia Investment Board, the National Institute of Statistics and the National Bank of Cambodia.

  9. Social Dialogue in the Railways Sector

    08 February 2016

    The scope of this manual is conflict prevention, thus involving the preparation and identification of different steps and processes for social dialogue with an emphasis on the railways sector.

  10. Working hours in the global garment industry

    20 January 2016

    This research note provides an overview of working hours in the garment sector in major apparel exporting economies. It shows that garment exporters have a range of different limits on normal working hours, overtime work, and penalty rates for overtime, as well as different annual leave and public holidays.