Publications and tools

2004

  1. The impact of tax-financed pensions on poverty reduction in Latin America. Evidence from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay.

    01 January 2004

  2. Financing social protection

    01 January 2004

    Designing social protection systems that are effective and equitable as well as fiscally, financially and economically efficient has been a challenge for many countries. Offers a comprehensive overview of the many financing options available while also provides a thorough analysis of their advantages and disadvantages and their financial and economic implications. The most important task of social protection systems is to alleviate and prevent poverty.

  3. Actuarial practice in social security

    01 January 2004

    Presents technical material on valuation covering a wide-range of risks including old age, survivors, disability, sickness, maternity, employment injury, and unemployment. Provides concrete examples of work done by actuaries. It discusses the valuation of pensions, short-term cash benefits like sickness, maternity and unemployment insurance and examines the valuation of employment injury benefits as well. In addition, the book devotes special attention to what should be included in the actuarial report and presents a practical exercise to illustrate the important points discussed in the volume.

  4. Extension of social security coverage for the informal economy in Indonesia. Surveys in the urban and rural informal economy. Working Paper N° 11

    01 January 2004

    There is no single solution to extend the coverage of social security to the informal economy workers. To this goal, the report proposes a combination of the following three options: Extending the existing statutory social security schemes; Creating a special scheme for the informal economy workers; and Encouraging the development of micro-insurance schemes.

  5. Needs assessment survey: identifying the social protection priority needs of cooperative societies' members in Karnataka

    01 January 2004

  6. Thailand social security priority and needs survey

    01 January 2004

  7. Technical Note on the Extension of Social Security to the Informal Economy in Thailand

    01 January 2004

  8. Topics in Quantitative Analysis of Social Protection Systems

    01 January 2004

    The objectives of the actuarial valuation of social security pension schemes is to set out the future contribution rates which ensure the long-term solvency of the schemes. This paper examines the implications of three financial indicators and develop premium formulae which satisfy the required financial conditions.

2003

  1. The Welfare Fund for Construction Workers in Tamil Nadu

    06 November 2003

    Although there are some social security schemes of national application in India, such as the Employees Provident Fund Scheme, they focus on the organized sector, whereas there is a need for a national social security policy. Some states, however, have given greater priority to social security through the establishment of non-contributory social assistance schemes, and the national government has in recent years tried to reinforce these efforts through the National Social Assistance programme. Some states such as Tamil Nadu and Kerala have also given priority to providing social security to unorganized workers through the development of welfare funds based on occupational groups.

  2. The Bono Solidario in Ecuador. An exercise in targeting

    06 November 2003

    The goal of social protection systems is to promote equal opportunities by granting benefits to the vulnerable segments of society who lack access to basic goods and services. This is an ongoing function, since the risk of marginalization and exclusion is always present, and may even increase during economic crises. These systems must ensure that situations of temporary poverty do not become permanent, thereby avoiding losses of human and material capital. They must also guarantee a basic level of consumption to the poor and indigent, while at the same time ensuring that these segments of the population are targeted by programmes and policies aimed at changing their living conditions in the long term. In 1999, the budget items "Total Social Spending", "Solidarity Fund" and "Other Specific Programmes" together accounted for 6.2 per cent of the country's GDP.

  3. Social protection and crises in the Congo. From humanitarian aid to sustainable development

    06 November 2003

    The objective of providing emergency aid for needy people must not suffer from trial and error, strategies for integrating people into the economy must be devised and implemented by creating jobs and providing training and social protection in an integrated manner. This approach would help recipients to evolve beyond the dependency on welfare inherent in humanitarian programmes and empower them in a programme for development.

  4. Social programmes, food security and poverty in Peru

    06 November 2003

    Recommendations are aimed mainly at improving targeting by going beyond the isolated concept of poverty and by encouraging intersectoriality. In terms of how the programmes respond to public demand, there is a need to incorporate the perception of poverty and extreme poverty by the poor, as well as the means for overcoming these, as objectives and mechanisms of the social programmes.

  5. Linking community initiatives to national institutions. Ghana.

    01 January 2003

  6. From reform to crisis. Argentina's pension system.

    01 January 2003

  7. Non-contributory pensions and social protection

    01 January 2003

    Examines non-contributory pension schemes found in a small number of countries, paying particular attention to the large cash transfer programmes in Brazil and South Africa. It evaluates the effectiveness of these programmes, and considers the feasibility of establishing similar schemes in other developing countries. This evaluation is complex both because non-contributory pension programmes have multiple objectives, and because there is considerable diversity of socio-economic and cultural conditions across the developing world.

2002

  1. Social protection and crises in the Congo: from humanitarian aid to sustainable development

    06 November 2002

    The two Congos have been through a number of crises,which have given rise to a whole host of humanitarian problems. Using the experiences of the two countries as a basis, the report considers to what extent and under what conditions the distribution of humanitarian aid contributes to the development of sustainable social protection. In reality the impact of the crises on the statutory social security system has been extremely adverse, because the latter is at a loss how to cope with thw new challenges and the present state of the manegement of the system does not facilitate the establishement of appropriate solutions. The humanitarian agencies take action in isolated cases, with no overall strategy or vision for overcoming the crisis, and thus there is no interlinking of humanitarian aid and development. What will be the future role of NGOs and social security agencies in the development of sustainable systems of social protection? In view of the widespread poverty that exists, the development of sustainable social protection systems depends not only on interlinking micro credit, micro enterprise and micro healht insurance, but also on new social protection systems, in particular humanitarian social protection, which organizes allocations in kind to healthcare coverage, and temporary mutual health insurance, which covers individuals who do not yet have their own socio-occupational mutual health insurance.

  2. Towards the universalization of social security: The experience of Tunisia

    06 November 2002

    In Tunisia, the number of persons liable to be covered under a social security scheme was estimated in 1999 as 85.5 per cent of the population in employment. The 16.5 per cent of the employed population not yet covered by social security legislation include the following: casual and seasonal agricultural workers, workers on development sites, domestic employees, home helpers, religious officials, the unemploed. The two social security schemes governing the formal sector have registered the best social coverage. However, coverage of other sectors such as self-employed, agricultural and non-agricultural workers and agricultural labourers have not experienced equal success. In order to increase coverage in these schemes measures have been taken with varying success. The objective is to extend and improve coverage of social security by conducting studies and adapting schemes to the needs and financial capacities of the categories of persons; modifying the conditions for determining and recovering contributions taking into account the specific characteristics of the populations concerned; and consulting the representatives of the target population and of employers at all stages during the establishment of the system.

  3. The Non-Contributory Pension programme in Argentina: Assessing the impact on poverty reduction

    06 November 2002

    There is increasing acknowledgement of the need to extend the scope of social protection to those segments of the population that have traditionally been excluded from social security. Non-contributory pension programmes constitute an excellent alternative that merits examination. This report will describe and evaluate numerous aspects of the Non-Contributory Pension (NCP) programme in Argentina. The NCP programme - much like other social security programmes in this country - developed in a disorganized manner, involving the grant of various categories of benefits.

  4. The extension of social security coverage: The approach of the International Labour Office

    06 November 2002

    Without the introduction of effective measures to extend coverage, the proportion of the population excluded from all protection will increase considerably in the coming years. To meet this challenge, the ILO has developed a new strategy for improving and extending social security coverage. This consists in implementing three complementary forms of action: extension based on "classical" social security mechanism: social insurance, universal benefits and systems and social assistance programmes; the promotion of and support for the development of decentralized systems deriving from local initiatives, in particular micro-insurance; the design of linkages and bridges between decentralized systems and other forms of social protection and public initiatives.

  5. Public-private partnerships in the health sector. Experiences from developing countries

    06 November 2002

    Theoretical foundations of the concept of public-private-partnership (PPP) are briefly discussed and different forms of cooperation are described. The major part of the paper discusses PPP health sector experiences in developing countries in different regions of the world. Following that, the case studies and the insights from the theoretical overview are presented in order to derive determinants for a successful PPP. The identification of conditions under which PPP can contribute to an increase in access to social protection at lower cost is helpful to design appropriate social policies. The paper closes with open questions for discussion and future research needs.