ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations


We do not aim to provide an exhaustive list of external publications. Please note that SAP-FL is not responsible for the content of these publications, therefore the views expressed should not be taken to represent ILO’s views and policies.


  1. A Trade Union Perspective on Combating Trafficking and Forced Labour in Europe, by Jeroen Beirnaert

    27 May 2011

    The paper is part of the book published by the University of Tilburg "Combating Trafficking in Human Beings for Labour Exploitation", Conny Rijken (ed.), 2011, Wolf Legal Publishers

  2. Human Trafficking and Business: An eLearning course on how to prevent and combat human trafficking

    15 February 2011

    The United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) and the End Human Trafficking Now! Campaign (EHTN!) have developed an eLearning course which is a modular training programme for business leaders, managers and employees of business companies.


  1. Combating Trafficking as Modern-Day Slavery: a Matter of Rights, Freedoms and Security

    15 December 2010

    2010 Annual Report of the OSCE Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings

  2. Rights on the Line - Human Rights Watch

    11 December 2010

    HRW documented labour exploitation and barriers to redress for migrants in agriculture, domestic work, and construction in Indonesia, Malaysia, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States. Immigration sponsorship systems in many countries give employers immense control over workers and lead to migrants being trapped in abusive situations or unable to pursue redress through the justice system.

  3. The International Law of Human Trafficking

    15 November 2010

    This book presents the first-ever comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the international law of human trafficking. Anne T. Gallagher calls on her direct experience working within the United Nations to chart the development of new international laws on this issue. She links these rules to the international law of state responsibility as well as key norms of international human rights law, transnational criminal law, refugee law, and international criminal law, in the process identifying and explaining the major legal obligations of states with respect to preventing trafficking, protecting and supporting victims, and prosecuting perpetrators.

  4. United Nations Global Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons

    30 July 2010

    On 30 July, the General Assembly adopted the United Nations Global Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons (resolution A/64/L.64)

  5. Well Made campaign and report "Help Wanted: Hiring, Human Trafficking and Slavery in the Global Economy”

    16 July 2010

    Verité is launching the Well Made campaign to demonstrate how all stakeholder groups can make a difference through impactful programs in their supply chains, starting with looking for work across borders and how hiring traps can lead to human trafficking, slavery and debt bondage for so many migrant workers.

  6. UN.GIFT Guide - Human Trafficking and Business: Good practices to prevent and combat human trafficking

    12 July 2010

    Guide published by the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, with the collaboration of the UNODC, ILO, IOM, UNGC, as well as the International Cocoa Initiative (ICI), Manpower, Apparel Export Promotion Council, The Code, The Body Shop International and ECPAT International.

  7. Map "Workers’ Alliance against Forced Labour and Trafficking"

    08 July 2010

    This map designed by the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), with the support of the ILO Special Action Programme to combat forced labour provides information on the workers' alliance against forced labour and trafficking and examples of good practices.

  8. ITUC Guide - How to Combat Forced Labour and Trafficking

    08 July 2010

    Guide published by the International Trade Union Confederation, with the support of the ILO Special Action Programme to combat forced labour.

  9. US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report

    22 June 2010

    The 10th annual Trafficking in Persons Report outlines the continuing challenges across the globe, including in the United States, for the first time. This year’s report highlights several key trends, including the suffering of women and children in involuntary domestic servitude, the challenges and successes in identifying and protecting victims. The Department of State prepared this report using information from U.S. embassies, government officials, NGOs and international organizations, published reports, research trips to every region.


  1. Combating trafficking in Persons - A Handbook for Parliamentarians

    08 April 2009

    Parliamentarians have an essential role to play in the fight against human trafficking. The present Handbook, published by the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT), suggests some practical ways in which Parliamentarians can develop and promote the comprehensive frameworks needed to do so.


  1. "Focus on forced labour - Union action to protect the world’s most marginalised workers" International union rights

    05 October 2008

    Special edition on forced labour of the Journal "International union rights", Volume 14 Issue 4 2008


  1. “I Forzati del Mare” (The Forced labourers of the sea), Valter Zanin (In Italian only)

    01 December 2007

    This book is about forced labour in maritime carg osector and about the difficulties to estimate the numbers of active seafarers within the complex patterns if multinational merchant crews in the XX and XXI centuries. The author tries to calculate the minimum estimate of seafarers compelled in various ways to work, according (and sometimes discussing) the ILO definition of forced labour. The blacklisting in the shipping sector is a form of forcing workers to accept degrading jobs and not only an attack to freedom of association. He explains that the problem of forced labour is not so easily related to the flagging out and the expansion of the flags of convenience.

  2. "The International Labour Organization and the Struggle against Forced Labour from 1919 to the Present", Daniel Roger Maul, Labor History

    01 November 2007

    Since its foundation in 1919 the International Labour Organization (ILO) has regarded the worldwide eradication of forced labour as one of its basic aims. This article looks at the ILO's role both as a forum for public discourse on the historically shifting boundaries that separated free labour from coercion, and as an independent actor in the struggle against forced labour throughout the twentieth century. Examining the ILO's efforts in three distinct phases (the inter-war period, the Cold War years and the age of decolonization / postcolonial nation-building) will also shed light and contribute to the discussion on the influence of international organizations in the making of the modern world.

  3. “Trafficking in Human Beings”, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces

    01 November 2007

    This report brings answers to the following questions: What is and how to identify a trafficked person? How and why does trafficking occur? What are the links between trafficking and organised crime? What are the main challenges to address trafficking? What are the regional and international instruments?

  4. “COLLATERAL DAMAGE - The Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights around the World”, Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women GAATW

    01 November 2007

    This anthology reviews the experience of eight countries (Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, India, Nigeria, Thailand, UK and USA) and attempts to assess what the impact of anti-trafficking measures have been, specifically on people’s human rights. Each chapter mentions numerous examples of laws or government policies which have negative consequences for some of the very people they are intended to benefit, focusing on the impact of three different types of measure: policies to assist and protect trafficked persons provided they cooperate with law enforcement officials; anti-trafficking measures affecting migrants and others; and thirdly, the misuse of the concept of ‘trafficking’ to further the political agendas of governments.

  5. Poverty,Development and the Elimination of Slavery, Anti Slavery International

    01 October 2007

    This paper highlights the existing links between poverty, social exclusion and the different contemporary forms of slavery and the potential for development projects to reduce both slavery and poverty internationally. We argue that development assistance which is targeted at those in slavery or at risk of becoming slaves may be particularly effective in helping to achieve the millennium development goals as well contributing towards the reduction of slavery from the world.

  6. “Ending Slavery", Kevin Bales

    01 June 2007

    The book stresses that slavery is not a matter of duration, as it is not necessarily a permanent condition. It’s characterized by the control of a person, through restriction of housing, food supply and movement and by the use or threat of violence. Slavery has grown because it means cheap labour, cheaper than former slaves, because the victims have no other survival options and because corruption allows it to take place. The author praises SAP-FL action against forced labour and researches which "helped to bring the subject to the notice of governements".

  7. "Slave and forced labour in the 21st century", TUC

    12 March 2007

    This TUC fact file and activities pack is intended for individuals and trade unions for eduction courses. It deals with the development of slavery and the different forms of forced labour today, and some of the actions that can be taken to face up to forced labour.

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