ILO publications


  1. Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Casebook of Court Decisions

    06 May 2009

    This training manual for judges, prosecutors and legal practitioners


  1. Forced labour and human trafficking: A toolkit for trade unions in Zambia

    01 November 2008

    This toolkit was developed in collaboration with trade unions in Zambia. It aims to provide practical guidance and suggestions that will allow trade union officers and members to recognize forced labour and to take action to prevent it and assist its victims.

  2. Forced labour and human trafficking: Guidelines for labour officers in Zambia

    01 November 2008

    To win the war on forced labour, labour inspectors and other law enforcement officers need the right tools. They need to have a stronger grasp of the concepts, and indicators of possible forced labour situations. This is the role that these guidelines will play.

  3. Combating forced labour: A handbook for employers and business

    22 October 2008

    This handbook provides guidance material and tools for employers and business to strengthen their capacity to address the risk of forced labour and human trafficking in their own operations and in global supply chains.

  4. Investigating forced labour and trafficking: Do they exist in Zambia?

    24 September 2008

    This research project was undertaken in response to an approach by the Zambian Ministry of Labour and Social Security (MLSS) to the International Labour Office (ILO) to request assistance to look into the possible existence of forced labour practices in Zambia. In particular, MLSS had become concerned about the practices of some recruitment agencies, which were acting as ‘labour brokers’ in the mining sector. These agencies were thought to be exploiting jobseekers after they had been placed into employment, by retaining a significant part of their wages as a placement fee. MLSS’ concern arose following the lodging of complaints by workers over non-payment of terminal benefits, with neither the client company nor the recruitment agency accepting responsibility for the payment.

  5. Forced labour and human trafficking: handbook for labour inspectors

    01 August 2008

    The handbook is a tool for training. It seeks both to inform labour inspectors of the facts and trends of modern forced labour and the challenges before them, and to promote discussion as to how labour inspectorates worldwide could be harnessed more effectively to global efforts against forced labour and trafficking.

  6. Human Trafficking And Forced Labour - Case studies and responses from Portugal

    01 May 2008

    The objective of the book is to study the phenomena of labour exploitation and forced labour to which immigrants and, in particular, victims of human trafficking, are subjected in Portugal. It also sheds light on the treatment of Portuguese emigrants in select destination countries.

  7. Forced labour and trafficking in Europe: how people are trapped in, live through and come out

    11 February 2008

    The paper is based on ILO research carried out between 2003 and 2007. It summarizes largely qualitative research from ten European source, transit and destination countries. It is therefore the result of a collective effort of researchers from many countries. The purpose of this project was to close a gap in current research that exists up to today: Most trafficking-related research, in particular primary research, focuses on trafficking of women for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Other forms of trafficking, such as those linked to forced labour in labour-intensive economic sectors, are still under-researched and under-theorized.


  1. General Survey concerning the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), and the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)

    01 May 2007

    The Survey by the Committee of Experts of the national legislation and practice on forced labour. In spite of the universal condemnation of forced labour and the adoption of constitutional and legislative provisions abolishing it, forced or compulsory labour practices unfortunately continue to exist and many people around the world are still subjected to it.

  2. Methodologies for global and national estimation of human trafficking victims: current and future approaches

    02 January 2007

    This paper provides a detailed comparison of the methodologies used by the ILO and the US government for computing global estimates, discussing strengths and weaknesses of both methods.

  3. Directions for national and international data collection on Forced Labour

    02 January 2007

    This paper provides some ideas and directions as to how the existing gaps in our understanding of the quantitative dimensions of forced labour could be reduced.


  1. Globalization and the illicit market for human trafficking: an empirical analysis of supply and demand

    12 January 2006

    This working paper studies the determinants of trafficking for forced sexual exploitation, at a cross-country econometric analysis.

  2. Legal aspects of trafficking for forced labour purposes in Europe

    04 January 2006

    With numerous case examples of law and judicial practice from Europe, and some other countries, Rohit Malpani painstakingly reviews the present gaps in identification and prosecution of trafficking for forced labour cases, as well as deficiencies in approaches to prevention and to compensation for the abuses suffered by the victims of trafficking.

  3. Review of legislation and policies in Nigeria on Human Trafficking and Forced Labour

    01 January 2006

    An essential part of the Action Programme against Trafficking and Forced Labour in West Africa (PATWA) is to advocate for a legislative and policy framework in Nigeria and Ghana that enables the government and other national stakeholders to effectively combat trafficking in men, women and children for purposes of labour or sexual exploitation.


  1. Forced labour in the Russian Federation today: irregular migration and trafficking in human beings

    01 November 2005

    Throughout the world, more and more attention is given to the problem of trafficking in human beings. The trade in human beings and the use of slave labour are serious and burning issues which are relevant for Russia at present.

  2. Trafficking for labour and sexual exploitation in Germany

    01 November 2005

    Germany is an important destination contry for migrant workers from all over the world. Many of them work on the basis of mutually beneficial agreements made with their employers, but many are forced into submission by deception, threats, abuse, fraud and coercion.

  3. ILO Minimum Estimate of Forced Labour in the World

    01 April 2005

    The present technical document provides a detailed account of the methodology used in the estimate of forced labour in the world, published in the 2005 Global Report called "A Global Alliance against Forced Labour".

  4. A global alliance against forced labour. Global report under the follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. Report of the Director-General, 2005

    01 March 2005

    This report is the most comprehensive account of contemporary forced labour to date. It provides the first global and regional estimates by an international organization of forced labour in the world today.

  5. Trafficking of migrant workers from Ukraine: Issues of labour and sexual exploitation

    11 January 2005

    This paper, prepared by a team of Ukrainian researchers and ILO consultants, argues that trafficking for labour exploitation is an emerging issue affecting labour migration from Ukraine. It also promotes a holistic approach to the eradication of trafficking with the active participation of labour market institutions in national action plans.

  6. Forced Labour outcomes of migration from Moldova: rapid assessment

    11 January 2005

    This Working Paper on trafficking for forced labour exploitation was prepared by a team of Moldovan researchers and ILO consultants.