CHEMICAL AND BY-PRODUCT PRODUCTION
George Astrakianakis, Judith Anderson
Because many bleaching chemicals are reactive and hazardous to transport, they are produced on-site or nearby. Chlorine dioxide (), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and peracids are always produced on-site, while chlorine () and sodium hydroxide or caustic (NaOH) are usually produced off-site. Tall oil, a product derived from the resin and fatty acids that are extracted during kraft cooking, may be refined on- or off-site. Turpentine, a lighter fraction kraft by-product, is often collected and concentrated on-site, and refined elsewhere.
Chlorine dioxide () is a highly reactive greenish-yellow gas. It is toxic and corrosive, explodes at high concentrations (10%) and is quickly reduced to and in the presence of ultraviolet light. It must be prepared as a dilute gas and stored as a dilute liquid, making bulk transport impossible.
is generated by reducing sodium chlorate () with either methanol, salt or hydrochloric acid. The gas leaving the reactor is condensed and stored as a 10% liquid solution. Modern generators operate at 95% efficiency or greater, and the small amount of that is produced will be collected or scrubbed out of the vent gas. Side reactions may occur depending on the purity of the feed chemicals, the temperature and other process variables. By-products are returned to the process and spent chemicals are neutralized and sewered.
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is produced by combining with a dilute solution of NaOH. It is a simple, automated process that requires almost no intervention. The process is controlled by maintaining the caustic concentration such that the residual in the process vessel is minimized.
Chlorine and Caustic
Chlorine (), used as a bleaching agent since the early 1800s, is a highly reactive, toxic, green-coloured gas which becomes corrosive when moisture is present. Chlorine is usually manufactured by the electrolysis of brine (NaCl) into and NaOH at regional installations, and transported to the customer as a pure liquid. Three methods are used to produce on an industrial scale: the mercury cell, the diaphragm cell, and the most recent development, the membrane cell. is always produced at the anode. It is then cooled, purified, dried, liquefied and transported to the mill. At large or remote pulp mills, local facilities may be constructed, and the can be transported as a gas.
The quality of NaOH depends on which of the three processes is used. In the older mercury cell method, the sodium and mercury combine to form an amalgam that is decomposed with water. The resulting NaOH is nearly pure. One of the shortcomings of this process is that mercury contaminates the workplace and has resulted in serious environmental problems. The NaOH produced from the diaphragm cell is removed with the spent brine and concentrated to allow the salt to crystallize and separate. Asbestos is used as the diaphragm. The purest NaOH is produced in membrane cells. A semi-permeable resin-based membrane allows sodium ions to pass through without the brine or chlorine ions, and combine with water added to the cathode chamber to form pure NaOH. Hydrogen gas is a by-product of each process. It is usually treated and used either in other processes or as fuel.
Tall Oil Production
Kraft pulping of highly-resinous species such as pine produces sodium soaps of resin and fatty acids. The soap is collected from black liquor storage tanks and from soap skimming tanks that are located in the evaporator train of the chemical recovery process. Refined soap or tall oil can be used as a fuel additive, dust control agent, road stabilizer, pavement binder and roofing flux.
At the processing plant, soap is stored in primary tanks to allow the black liquor to settle to the bottom. The soap rises and overflows into a second storage tank. Sulphuric acid and the decanted soap are fed into a reactor, heated to 100°C, agitated and then allowed to settle. After settling overnight, the crude tall oil is decanted into a storage vessel and allowed to sit for another day. The top fraction is considered dry crude tall oil and is pumped to storage, ready for shipment. The cooked lignin in the bottom fraction will become part of the subsequent batch. The spent sulphuric acid is pumped to a storage tank, and any entrained lignin is allowed to settle to the bottom. The lignin left in the reactor is concentrated for several cooks, dissolved in 20% caustic and returned to the primary soap tank. Periodically, the collected black liquor and the residual lignin from all sources are concentrated and burned as fuel.
Gases from the digesters and condensate from black liquor evaporators may be collected for recovery of turpentine. The gases are condensed, combined, then stripped of turpentine, which is recondensed, collected and sent to a decanter. The top fraction of the decanter is drawn off and sent to storage, while the bottom fraction is recycled to the stripper. Raw turpentine is stored separately from the rest of the collection system because it is noxious and flammable, and is usually processed off-site. All the non-condensable gases are collected and incinerated either in the power boilers, the lime kiln or a dedicated furnace. The turpentine can be processed for use in camphor, synthetic resins, solvents, flotation agents and insecticides.