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Nuevas Publicaciones

El Programa de Inversiones Intensivas en Empleo ha publicado recientemente los siguientes documentos en español, inglés y francés, que se pueden descargar en formato PDF. Para cualquiera pregunta, contacte por favor al Programa de Inversiones Intensivas en Empleo: eiip@ilo.org.

Nuevas publicaciones en español

en inglés - en francés

PIAR - Planificación Integral del Acceso Rural - PDF 1,204 Kb
Serge Cartier van Dissel, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2005. ISBN 92-2-316533-4

La Planificación Integral del Acceso Rural (PIAR) es una herramienta cuyo objetivo es definir y priorizar los problemas y necesidades de acceso de la población rural con relación a los servicios sociales y económicos básicos que las familias requieren (agua, salud, educación, energía, insumos y producción agrícola, caminos, mercados, servicios de transporte, etc.). La PIAR está basada en el concepto que la falta de acceso de la población rural a los bienes y servicios es una de las restricciones fundamentales para su desarrollo y su integración en la economía nacional.

La PIAR es una herramienta que facilita la recopilación y el análisis de amplia información sobre la ubicación, condición y uso de infraestructura y servicios rurales, y la subsiguiente priorización participativa de intervenciones para mejorar este acceso. En este sentido, la PIAR presenta una base para identificar y planificar proyectos de creación y mejoramiento de infraestructura rural y así complementa los programas de empleo intensivos en mano de obra que la OIT viene promoviendo.

La guía ha sido desarrollada para el uso de instituciones que trabajan en temas de desarrollo rural integral, desarrollo económico local o en los sectores claves para el desarrollo rural (salud, educación, agua, transporte, etc.), tales como las instituciones gubernamentales nacionales, los gobiernos sub-nacionales y locales, los Fondos de Inversión Social, las agencias internacionales de cooperación, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y otras instituciones locales del sector privado. Por lo tanto, los hacedores de política, planificadores, ingenieros, servicios de asistencia técnica, instituciones de desarrollo y ONGs que trabajan en el ámbito local, reconocerán y apreciarán esta herramienta en su intento de desarrollo a nivel local.

Empleos para construir la sociedad - PDF 3,380 Kb
Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2004. ISBN 92-2-315505-3

Se inició el siglo veintiuno y sobresalen con absoluta prioridad dos problemas para la toma de decisiones económicas y político-sociales: la generación de empleo y la lucha contra la pobreza. Estas dos cuestiones están fuertemente interrelacionadas, y para que la creación de empleo sea sostenible y tenga un impacto duradero sobre la reducción de la pobreza, se requieren medidas de política coherentes, basados en opciones claras, que combinen inversiones dirigidas a las necesidades de los pobres con políticas sociales apropiadas y esfuerzos dirigidos a la generación de capacidades, organización y autoridad.

La política de inversiones es la clave para un crecimiento intensivo en empleo. Las inversiones en infraestructura y construcción - el objeto de este documento - constituyen más de las dos terceras partes de la inversión pública en los países en desarrollo, por lo que, en este contexto, son de máxima importancia, constituyéndose en un requisito para el desarrollo económico. Estas contribuyen a mejorar el acceso de la población-objetivo a recursos productivos y servicios sociales básicos. Además, si se hace una selección clara de política en favor de las tecnologías de construcción basadas en mano de obra, siempre cuando sean factibles y costo-efectivos, tiene el potencial para impulsar significativamente la creación de empresas, la promoción de empleo sostenible y la reducción de la pobreza.

Este documento presenta el Programa de Inversiones Intensivas en Empleo de la OIT, el cual ha estado promoviendo políticas y prácticas intensivas en empleo para la infraestructura en países en desarrollo a través del sector público, así como del sector privado.

Sobre redes y activos – Efectos e impactos de los programas intensivos en empleo - PDF 194 Kb
Willem Keddeman, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2004. ISBN 92-2-315517-7

Desde medianos de la década de 1970, la OIT ha estado promoviendo programas de obras públicas y comunales intensivos en mano de obra como un principal medio de creación de empleo y alivio de la pobreza en países en vías de desarrollo. Durante varios años, diferentes estudios han estado dirigidos a investigar el impacto socioeconómico de diferentes tipos de intervenciones dentro del marco de tales programas.

Este documento presenta los hallazgos de una revisión sistemática encargada por el Programa de Inversiones Intensivas en Empleo (PIIE) para: (a) valorar las metodologías de evaluación de impacto aplicadas en los estudios mencionados; y (b) sacar algunas conclusiones generales sobre los efectos inmediatos, de largo plazo y durables de las actividades de los proyectos. Una gran cantidad de programas asistidos por la OIT, así como de experiencias intensivas en empleo ajenas a la OIT, fue considerada en un esfuerzo de identificar las mejores prácticas.

Este documento intenta hacer fácilmente accesibles a las organizaciones, instituciones e individuos interesados, la información sobre las implicaciones socioeconómicas de estrategias y programas de inversiones intensivas en empleo. Es de esperarse que contribuya a reforzar las prácticas de diseño y evaluación de políticas y programas de empleo e inversión.

La administración de obras intensivas en mano de obra hechas por contrato – Guía práctica – PDF 1,317 Kb
Philippe Garnier y Marc van Imschoot, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2004. ISBN 92-2-315507-X

Cada vez más frecuentemente, los países en vías de desarrollo han estado acudiendo a las pequeñas empresas de construcción, empresas consultoras locales, asociaciones de usuarios, ONG y comités de desarrollo local para llevar a cabo obras públicos e infraestructura comunitaria en pequeña escala. En general, y sobre todo cuando se usaron las técnicas de uso intensivo de mano de obra, surgió que los contratos preparados para estos trabajos y los procedimientos convencionales que controlan su adjudicación y administración, fueron a menudo inadecuados.

Esta guía proporciona pautas prácticas para aquellos responsables de proyectos de infraestructura rural y urbana intensivos en mano de obra. Está dirigido a facilitar a los departamentos gubernamentales o empresas consultoras en la preparación de licitaciones y documentos de contrato, así como en la administración de estos contratos, para la ejecución de obras de infraestructura intensivas en mano de obra por micro y pequeñas empresas de construcción u organizaciones basados en la comunidad.

La guía está diseñada para facilitar el trabajo de los departamentos gubernamentales y empresas consultoras, proponiendo la estandarización de los documentos de licitación y de contrato, ofreciendo pautas prácticas para el otorgamiento de los contratos y simplificando los procedimientos para la supervisión de los trabajos.

Microempresas asociativas de servicios: Manual de promoción - PDF 480 Kb
José Yeng, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2004. ISBN 92-2-315515-0

Este documento presenta la propuesta de la Oficina Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) para promover la formación y contratación de microempresas asociativas de servicios, con énfasis en aquellas vinculadas a la prestación de servicios públicos municipales y al mantenimiento de infraestructura urbana y rural de alcance local.

La promoción de este tipo de microempresas, forma parte de la estrategia de generación de empleo y lucha contra la pobreza, ya que permite establecer una forma de organización y gestión de los servicios locales con un doble impacto: a) generar empleo con la participación y responsabilidad social de los propios pobladores y comunidades; y b) facilitar e impulsar una cultura empresarial, allí donde antes no existía.

El presente manual se concibe como una herramienta operativa destinada a los equipos de promoción que serán encargados de la formación e implementación de las microempresas asociativas de servicios (MAS). En ese sentido, podrá ser adaptado y ajustado a las condiciones específicas de los sectores urbano o rural de cada país en el que se desee aplicar la metodología.

Tasas de productividad para la construcción basada en mano de obra – PDF 163 Kb
David Stiedl, Ulf Brudefors y Mike Shone, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2004. ISBN 92-2-315501-0

Todos los proyectos de ingeniería civil confían en la productividad de su equipamiento y en la de sus trabajadores para conseguir buenos resultados. En los proyectos con un alto componente de equipamiento, los manuales de rendimientos informan sobre los resultados producidos por el equipo (basados en la suposición de que son utilizados apropiadamente), y estas cifras forman la base de todas las estimaciones de costos y tiempos.

Los proyectos basados en mano de obra, sin embargo, son casi enteramente dependientes de la productividad de la mano de obra. Es esencial, entonces, hacer estimaciones realistas de la productividad esperada de la mano de obra con el fin de planificar y ejecutar un proyecto basado en mano de obra.

La estimación correcta de la productividad es probablemente la más importante decisión para el ingeniero en un proyecto basado en mano de obra. En base de las tasas de productividad y las cantidades de trabajo determinadas, el ingeniero puede determinar la fuerza de trabajo requerida y la duración y costo del proyecto.

Este documento presenta una síntesis de las tasas de productividad preponderantes, las cuales que permitirán al ingeniero planificar y manejar mejor su proyecto. Está dirigido a profesionales, tanto ingenieros como técnicos, quienes tienen experiencia en la construcción de obras y actividades de mantenimiento, así como conocimientos básicos de los conceptos y la aplicación de tecnologías basadas en mano de obra.

Empleo y fondos de inversión social en América Latina - PDF 113 Kb
Gabriel Siri, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2004. ISBN 92-2-315503-7

Desde que el primer Fondo Social fue lanzado en Bolivia en 1986, tales instituciones se han convertido en poderosas herramientas para encauzar hacia los pobres, las obras rurales y urbanas así como los servicios sociales. Su primer enfoque fue responder a la creciente crítica de los efectos de los programas de ajuste estructural en los grupos más vulnerables. Estos fondos constituyen una alternativa atractiva de corto y mediano plazo y configuran una red de seguridad social para aquellos afectados particularmente por los procesos de reformas económicas.

Este documento de trabajo revisa la experiencia de 15 años de los Fondos de Inversión Social y de Empleo en América Latina. Es parte de una serie de documentos del Programa de Inversiones Intensivas en Empleo sobre Fondos Sociales. El propósito de estos estudios es examinar íntegramente el cumplimiento y las limitaciones de los Fondos en áreas de particular interés para la OIT.

El autor argumenta que los Fondos Sociales en América Latina han sido capaces de instalar una capacidad operativa para entregar rápidamente una gran cantidad de proyectos económicos y sociales de pequeña escala. Sin embargo, diferentes evaluaciones han expresado dudas respecto al éxito de los Fondos en llegar a los más pobres. Finalmente, también se argumenta que, si los Fondos Sociales permanecen como instituciones autónomas, ellos deben orientarse directamente a combatir la pobreza en áreas en las que los ministerios de línea no pueden intervenir.

Políticas de contratación pública y modalidades legales de organización para la pequeña empresa en los países andinos - Acceso de las micro y pequeñas empresas a los contratos públicos para obras y servicios en Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador – PDF 264 Kb
José Yeng y Serge Cartier van Dissel, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315202-X

El sector de la micro y pequeña empresa es responsable por una gran parte de la generación de empleo en los países en vías de desarrollo, en los que se notan altos porcentajes de desempleo y subempleo. Esto ha generado diversas y variadas políticas y estrategias de fortalecimiento, consolidación y desarrollo del sector.

Sin embargo, la falta de políticas y legislación adecuadas para la formalización de las diferentes modalidades de organización legal hace que la informalidad siga siendo la opción más atractiva para las micro y pequeñas empresas, cubriendo solo un mínimo de formalidad para realizar sus actividades económicas formales.

En su acceso a la economía formal, específicamente la de la contratación pública, la situación de formalidad de las micro y pequeñas empresas no representa muchas ventajas para una mayor participación en este mercado, lo cual se ve restringido por otras políticas y legislaciones desfavorables. La contratación pública esta generalmente diseñada para las medianas y grandes empresas, sin tener en cuenta la realidad distinta de las micro y pequeñas empresas.

Los aspectos mencionados resultan en un conjunto de barreras legales que dificultan y hasta imposibilitan el acceso de las micro y pequeñas empresas a la contratación pública en muchos países. La OIT espera que este documento servirá como base para el mejoramiento del acceso de las micro y pequeñas empresas a la contratación pública, y para el ajuste de la legislación pertinente para dotarlas de alternativas de organización legal más eficaces y adecuadas a su tipo de gestión. En ambos casos, se trata de fortalecer instrumentos y mecanismos que faciliten la formalización de las micro y pequeñas empresas y la generación de empleo mediante las inversiones públicas en obras y servicios.

Buenas políticas y prácticas laborales en programas intensivos en empleo - Breves referencias sobre la guía - PDF 3,914 Kb
Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315206-2

En base de la guía mencionada en la lamina anterior, se ha desarrollado una carpeta con 13 fascículos. Cada fascículo se concentra en uno de los temas considerados clave sobre los diversos aspectos de gestión laboral tratados en la guía. La carpeta presenta la experiencia actual sobre el tratamiento de aspectos laborales en programas de infraestructura intensivos en empleo, proporcionando orientación en como implementar normas y condiciones laborales con la participación de los socios sociales.

 

Condiciones de trabajo decente en programas basados en mano de obra - Una estrategia de desarrollo al alcance de la mano - PDF 830 Kb
Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315204-6

En base de la guía mencionada en anteriormente, se ha desarrollado un folleto que presenta en forma resumida los diversos aspectos de gestión laboral tratados en la guía. Presenta la experiencia actual sobre el tratamiento de aspectos laborales en programas de infraestructura intensivos en empleo, proporcionando orientación en como implementar normas y condiciones laborales con la participación de los socios sociales.

Desarrollo de capacidades para la contratación en el sector de la construcción – Breves referencias de la guía
Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315661-0

En base de la guía mencionada en la lamina anterior, se ha desarrollado una carpeta con 14 fascículos. Cada fascículo se concentra en uno de los temas considerados clave sobre los diversos aspectos del desarrollo de capacidades para la contratación en el sector de la construcción tratados en la guía. La carpeta presenta la experiencia actual de los programas de desarrollo de contratistas que apuntan a introducir enfoques costo efectivos intensivos en empleo para obras de infraestructura, respetando siempre las normas laborales y las buenas condiciones de trabajo.

 

Mantenimiento rutinario de caminos con microempresas: Guía conceptual – PDF 243 Kb
Emilio Salomón, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315260-7
Mantenimiento rutinario de caminos con microempresas: Manual de promoción – PDF 565 Kb
Maria González y Emilio Salomón, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315260-7
Mantenimiento rutinario de caminos con microempresas: Manual técnico – PDF 1,199 Kb
Rafael Menéndez, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315513-4

Este documento forma parte de una serie de publicaciones que ha realizado la OIT a través de su proyecto RLA/97/M08/DAN "Promoción de Tecnologías Intensivas en Mano de Obra en la Inversión Pública en Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú". Dicho proyecto tiene como finalidad estudiar y divulgar metodologías de uso intensivo de mano de obra y se inscribe dentro de una política más amplia de la OIT que se implementa a través del Programa de Inversiones Intensivas en Empleo (PIIE).

Las Guías y Manuales de la serie "Mantenimiento Rutinario de Caminos con Microempresas" se orientan específicamente a promover la gestión del mantenimiento rutinario de caminos secundarios y vecinales en base a microempresas, entre los gobiernos o administraciones regionales y municipales responsables de cumplir ésta función. Esta política se implementa considerando que en estos tres países se están asignando responsabilidades sobre el mantenimiento de caminos a estos niveles de gobierno o administración, como parte de sendas políticas de descentralización política y administrativa, impulsadas por los gobiernos desde finales de la década de 1990.

La serie consiste de los siguientes documentos: una Guía Conceptual, que desarrolla los conceptos de la moderna gestión vial; un Manual de Promoción, en el cual se señalan los lineamientos básicos y distintos pasos del proceso de promoción para la constitución de las microempresas; un Manual de Sensibilización Empresarial, que se orienta a brindar metodologías de capacitación-acción para la transferencia de nociones básicas del quehacer empresarial; un Manual Técnico, donde se indican los aspectos técnicos del mantenimiento rutinario de caminos; y un Manual Empresarial, que explica el proceso de acompañamiento empresarial a ser brindado a la microempresa durante los primeros meses de su operación.

Mantenimiento y revestimiento de caminos con uso intensivo de mano de obra (ROMAR): Manual - PDF 1,815 Kb
Claes-Axel Andersson, Andreas Beusch y Derek Miles, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315264-X
Mantenimiento y revestimiento de caminos con uso intensivo de mano de obra (ROMAR): Cuaderno de Trabajo - PDF 395 Kb
Claes-Axel Andersson, Andreas Beusch y Derek Miles, Oficina Subregional de la OIT para los Países Andinos, Lima. 2003. ISBN 92-2-315266-6

ROMAR es la sigla de Labour-Based ROad MAintenance and Regraveling, lo que traducido al español significa Revestimiento y Mantenimiento de Caminos con Uso Intensivo de Mano de Obra. El ROMAR extiende el enfoque de Mejore Su Negocio de Construcción (MESUNCO) al desarrollo del pequeño contratista en ésta área técnica.

Los libros de ROMAR serán particularmente útiles para los contratistas generales experimentados que son nuevos en el revestimiento y mantenimiento de los caminos, y quienes necesitan juzgar si sus propios recursos y habilidades les capacitarán para convertir esto en una oportunidad de negocios atractiva.

El manual y el cuaderno de ROMAR están divididos cada uno en dos partes, la primera cubre los principios y la segunda trata de la práctica de revestimiento y mantenimiento de caminos con uso intensivo de mano de obra.

Los libros pueden usarse en el contexto de un programa de capacitación integrado, incluyendo las oportunidades para trabajar en contratos pilotos bajo supervisión, pero ellos también han sido diseñados en un formato adecuado para su auto-estudio.

Nuevas publicaciones en inglés

en español - en francés

  • Building Rural RoadsBuilding Rural Roads
    Bjorn Johannessen, International Labour Organization, 2008

    Rural roads are the last link of the transport network, however, they often form the most important connection in terms of providing access for the rural population. The permanent or seasonal absence of road access is a constraining factor in terms of providing rural communities with essential services such as education, primary health care, water supply, local markets as well as economic opportunities. The availability of such services and opportunities are difficult to sustain without a good quality and well-maintained rural road network, which provides regular and efficient transport access throughout the year. Building good quality rural roads is a particular skill in itself, requiring proper planning, experienced supervision, good workmanship and the selection of the correct technology and work methods. Their design and construction need to cater for the common type of vehicle loads and allow access throughout the year and in all kinds of weather conditions. Due to the size and extensive distribution of rural roads, road agencies are under pressure to find low cost solutions that allow authorities to build and maintain an extensive network of roads. This manual attempts to present a set of technical solutions and works methods commonly applied in a number of countries where the use of local resources is given serious consideration when building rural roads. Its success, in terms of emphasising the use of locally available resources such as labour, tools and light equipment, combined with good workmanship and high quality standards, has given this technology its due recognition. Based on best practices from rural road-building programmes in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, it describes a set of work methods and procedures proven to be effective both in terms of cost and quality.

  • Start Your Waste Recycling Business - book coverStart Your Waste Recycling Business - Training Package
    International Labour Organisation, October 2007

    The ILO has on demand now adapted training material originally developed for Zambia and Tanzania on waste management, to suit the Zimbabwean context, with a focus on waste recycling as a business idea for community based organisations. The adapted training package Start Your Waste Recycling Business comprises four key documents (i) Technical Handouts (pdf 2067 KB) (ii) Business Manual (pdf 422 KB) (iii) Business Plan (pdf 104 KB) and (iv) Trainers Guide (pdf 255 KB).

  • Rural Road Maintenance: Sustaining the Benefits of Improved Access - PDF 1,652 Kb
    Chris Donnges, Geoff Edmonds, and Bjorn Johannessen, International Labour Organisation, 2007

    The ASIST AP programme of the ILO has been involved with rural road maintenance as part of its overall programme of developing local capacity for sustainable provision of rural infrastructure. With the careful choice of implementation arrangements, including key issues such as choice of technology, decentralised management, involvement of the local construction industry, it is possible to establish efficient maintenance arrangements which can clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of allocating sufficient resources to the maintenance of rural roads. Investments in rural roads, including maintenance works, have significant potential for the use of local resources, and can thereby also support the local economy by creating increased employment opportunities and strengthening local commerce. Moreover, a constructed road merely creates access, maintenance sustains it.

  • Lao Houaphan Household survey - PDF 952 Kb
    Chloe Pearse, International Labour Organisation, June 2006

    This report describes the household transport and travel characteristics of five ethnic minority villages in southern Laos. Household level data was collected as part of an area-based development programme funded by UNDP and Norway with a community-based infrastructure development component. The survey and analysis followed procedures developed by ILO.

  • Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning at the Gram Panchayat Level, Orissa State, India - PDF 3,316 Kb
    International Labour Organisation, 2006

    This Guideline describes the different planning tools based on the Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning process for use at the Gram Panchayat level. A team of ILO and Orissa experts has developed and applied tools for local level infrastructure planning in the State of Orissa. The Guideline has been prepared for local level planners to inform them about the existence and relevance of the planning tools developed.

  • Situation Analysis of Rural Road Maintenance in Madhya Pradesh, Volume I: Strategy Elements and Options for Reforms - PDF 1,208 Kb
    International Labour Organisation, 2005

    This publication presents the findings and recommendations of a rural road maintenance study in India. ILO undertook the study upon request of the Ministry of Rural Development and in cooperation with the Madya Pradesh Rural Road Development Authority in two districts. Volume 1 of the study report covers strategy elements of rural road maintenance and volume 2 provides details on policy, institutional and financial aspects.

  • Situation Analysis of Rural Road Maintenance in Madhya Pradesh, Volume II: Policy, Institutional and Financial Aspects - PDF 658 Kb
    International Labour Organisation, 2005

    This publication presents the findings and recommendations of a rural road maintenance study in India. ILO undertook the study upon request of the Ministry of Rural Development and in cooperation with the Madya Pradesh Rural Road Development Authority in two districts. Volume 1 of the study report covers strategy elements of rural road maintenance and volume 2 provides details on policy, institutional and financial aspects.

  • Increased Application of Labour-Based Methods Through Appropriate Engineering Standards: Guideline for Quality Assurance Procedures and Specifications for Labour-Based Road Works - PDF 1,624 Kb
    ILO, 2006. ISBN: 92-2-119098-6 and 978-92-2-119098-1

    This Guideline provides information, guidance and instructions on quality assurance procedures and specifications applicable for road works executed using labour-based methods. The text covers aspects relating to the uniqueness of labour-based technology including problems that make conventional approval methods inappropriate. Simplification of what needs testing and methods for doing so are important considerations. The Guideline is limited to the construction of roads and related structures and is aimed at improving efficiency of the approval of labour-based road works. The Guideline was produced with a view to promoting method specification based quality assurance which, in turn, makes approval of works more efficient and less complicated.

    Use of method specifications for quality assurance is highly recommended but the conditions under which it should be applied need to be well defined. The conditions or parameters include materials specifications, construction methodology and available compaction equipment on site. The labour-based method of construction involves the use labour for the majority of activities and light compaction equipment. The method specifications should take these aspects into account in order to ensure applicability. Part A of the Guideline covers material specifications and Part B covers the method specification based quality assurance that is commensurate with the materials specifications and light equipment usually found on labour-based project sites. Part C covers planning, design and life-cycle costing.

  • RATP No. 15: Integrated Rural Access Planning (IRAP) in Mongolia - PDF 1,762
    Chloë Pearse , ILO, 2006

    This publication describes the IRAP planning process and steps that have been developed and field tested in Mongolia in the course of 2005. The Guideline is the final output of the collaboration between ILO's ASIST AP Programme and the Informal Economy, Poverty and Employment Project (IE). As part of the IE project a need was identified to develop appropriate local level planning tools to help local governments identify small scale infrastructure development and improvement projects.

  • RATP No. 14: Philippines Infrastructure for Rural Productivity Enhancement - Tools for Identifying Rural Infrastructure Investment Priorities - PDF 4,745 Kb
    Chris Donnges, Martha Españo, Nori Palarca, ILO, 2006. ISBN: 92-2-118606-7 & 978-92-2-118606-9

    ILO has been involved in sustainable rural infrastructure development in the Philippines for many years. Recent cooperation with the Department of Agriculture on an ADB-funded rural infrastructure improvement project has resulted in a number of technical tools to plan for investments in the construction, rehabilitation and maintenance of rural infrastructure. This publication describes these tools.

  • RATP No. 13: Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning in Nepal - Guide - PDF 1,702 Kb
    Chris Donnges, Jagannath Ojha, Chloë Pearse, ILO, 2005. ISBN: 92-2-117045-4

    This document sets out the different steps of the Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning process as developed in Nepal. Various stakeholders were involved in the course of developing this publication. The Guideline uses examples of Rasuwa district and provides an objective basis for local development planning, needs-based project identification and prioritisation.

  • Contractor's Handbook for labour-based road works – PDF 1,855 Kb
    Roads Training School, Roads Department, Ministry of Works and Supply, Republic of Zambia, 2004

    This handbook is aimed primarily at small-scale contractors and covers all relevant and important aspects of labour-based road works in Zambia. However, certain modules might also be useful for any contractor working in other fields of construction than roads.

    The handbook provides practical tables, guidelines and recommendations in a concentrated format for use on site. It is written in an easy understandable language so that it may be also useful to site supervisors. The handbook, however, is not a training manual and has been prepared with the assumption that users have previously attended adequate training in road works.

  • Development of contractor registration scheme with a focus on small scale civil work contractors – PDF 555 Kb
    Uriyo, A., J. Mwila and L. Jensen, National Council for Construction and ILO, September 2004

    There is enormous potential in Zambia for job-creation and alleviation of poverty through employment of small contractors and the application of Labour Based Technology. Despite this potential, the absence of a fair and transparent registration scheme has been identified as one of the barriers that inhibits the effective participation and growth of contractors in the Zambian construction industry.

    In this respect, the National Council for Construction (NCC) of Zambia with assistance from the International Labour Organization (ILO) embarked on redressing this situation and commissioned this study for Development of a Registration Scheme with a focus on Small to Medium Scale Civil Works Contractors.

    The study aims at assisting local small to medium-scale construction companies in the civil works sector to participate effectively in the local construction industry through developing and seeking acceptance for a fair and transparent registration criteria, which if in place would provide an opportunity for contractors to access jobs in a fair and transparent manner, facilitate growth, provide a regulatory and development framework and enhance performance.

  • Cities at work – Employment promotion to fight urban poverty – PDF 932 Kb
    ILO, 2004. ISBN 92-2-115632-X

    Unprecedented urbanization in most developing countries is changing the face of poverty: increasingly, poverty is manifesting itself in cities. Millions of jobseekers, men and women, are resorting to the urban informal economy, where they earn just enough to survive, without any form of social security. Most cities cannot cope with this growth in population, basic infrastructure and services are underdeveloped and/or in a bad state of maintenance and often do not reach the poorest neighbourhoods. The urban poor are thus exposed to health hazards due to bad drainage, waste accumulation, lack of sanitary facilities and so on.

    Yet, cities are also places of opportunity. Improvements in infrastructures, including shelter, and services can directly and indirectly improve the lives of large numbers of people. But such improvements can hardly be sustainable if not supported by the simultaneous promotion of decent employment opportunities. This publication argues that employment generation should be a top priority for urban planners, managers and decision-makers, and that deliberate policies are necessary to promote employment for the urban poor. It highlights the convergence between the Millennium Goal of poverty reduction, the ILO's Decent Work agenda, and the objective of sustainable development recognized at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. It is hoped that "Cities at Work" will contribute to the appreciation of the central role of employment in urban poverty reduction, and strengthen the capacities of national and local stakeholders to consistently build this into their policies and strategies.

  • Reducing the decent work deficit in the infrastructure and construction sectors - The experience and proposals of ILO's Employment Intensive Investment Programme - PDF 4,147 Kb
    ILO, September 2004. ISBN 92-2-115456-4

    The ILO has been advocating employment-intensive growth strategies, workers' rights, social protection and dialogue for several decades, for reasons directly related to its historical mandate, in particular social justice and growth with equity.

    The Report of the ILO Director-General to the International Labour Conference of 2001, entitled: "Reducing the Decent Work Deficit - A global challenge" drew the attention to decent work deficits that continue to prevail. It highlighted the shortfalls that exist with regard to policy and decision-making institutions and to the organisational and negotiating capacities of the public and private stakeholders. The report called for comprehensive and better-integrated approaches to bring down these deficits and improve the effectiveness of the governments, social partners, and the entire world of work in taking up these challenges.

    The ILO's Employment-Intensive Investment Programme (EIIP) supports member States in their efforts to develop comprehensive policies and operational approaches to link public investment policy, employment policy and decent work in the infrastructure and construction sectors. This Working Paper attempts to show the relevance of these policies for employment generation and the reduction of the decent work deficits in these sectors, as well as the policy linkages that can and should be taken up.

  • Small Scale Contracting - Strengthening Local Capacity for Sustainable Rural Infrastructure - PDF 4,193 Kb
    Aniruth Thongchai, CTP 167. ILO ASIST Asia Pacific. May 2004. ISBN: 92-2-115705-9

    A study was conducted by ASIST - Asia Pacific (AP) to assess the present situation in Thailand relating to small contracting of infrastructure construction projects by local administrative bodies. The main objective of the study was to obtain information for developing training strategies to improve capabilities of personnel of the local administrative bodies and small-scale construction firms who are key players of the process. Information was collected by reviewing existing contract and construction supervision documents and interviewing personnel of a number of Tambon Administrative Offices (TAO) and construction firms.

    Ongoing construction sites were visited to observe actual construction practices and interview workers on site. Chiang Mai Province in the Northern Region and Khon Kaen Province in the North-Eastern Region were selected as the study areas. Initial findings were compiled and reported for further feedback and confirmation in a one-day workshop for TAO and contracting firm personnel.

    The study provides a good insight into the current challenges that local government institutions are now facing because of the recent move to decentralize authority and responsibilities for planning and implementation of rural infrastructure works from central agencies. Equally, it provides a good description of the work environment in which the local private construction industry operates, when carrying out public works. Finally, the report outlines some interesting solutions to capacity building at local level.

  • Planning and Implementing Local Infrastructure Works - Guidelines for Tambon Administrations - PDF 1,813 Kb
    CTP 168. ILO ASIST Asia Pacific. 2004. ISBN: 92-2-115460-2

    The Thai Government Policy of Decentralisation as defined under the Sub-district Council and Sub-district Administration Act of 1994 established the Tambon Administrative Organisation (TAO) in an effort to improve decentralized governance, and introduce participatory planning and decision-making at local level. The TAOs are now tasked with the provision of public utilities such as local roads, walkways, water transportation facilities, market places, recreation facilities, water supply, sanitation, storm water drainage and other local infrastructure. Equally, the TAOs are expected to increase the capacity of the Tambons to generate income by the creation of jobs and promotion of economic development. One of the strategies to achieve this goal is by promoting the effective use of local resources and by creating opportunities for the local communities to participate in solving typical local problems with initiatives taken by and for the people.

    The TAOs are the smallest unit in local government in Thailand. There are approximately 7000 Tambons, covering on average of 1000 households. Financial and human resources are therefore limited. Although Tambons have various sources for revenue collection, their annual income is limited. With the recent drive to transfer authority to this level of local government, there is obviously a strong demand for strengthening the capacity of the TAOs to carry out their newly acquired responsibilities.

    These guidelines have been prepared for the TAO engineers and technicians who are involved in the development and maintenance of local public facilities. They attempt to provide TAO technical staff with an introduction to appropriate planning and works implementation methods. The first section introduces the basic concept of integrated rural accessibility planning, a set of tools that can be used by TAO officials to identify and prioritise interventions in a participatory manner. The second part of the guidelines introduces the concept of labour-based works technology and explains how this technology can be effectively applied to the type of works commonly carried out by the Tambon administrative organisations.

    The guidelines are the result of a series of training courses carried out by the ILO for Tambon administrations in 2002. These guidelines are also available in the Thai language.

  • Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning at the Gram Panchayat Level, India State of Orissa - PDF 1,337 Kb
    Chris Donnges, PK Pattanaik, John van Rijn. RAPT 7. ILO ASIST Asia Pacific. 2004. ISBN: 92-2-115458-0

    In India, Gram Panchayats (local governments) are responsible for identifying and prioritising development projects within their areas of jurisdiction. Gram Panchayats identify beneficiaries of projects and decide on project locations. Some of the projects identified are included in the Panchayat Raj "Shelf of Projects" (project action plan) and implemented with local resources, while others are forwarded to higher level institutions with a request for funding. Development projects are in the areas of education, health, water supply, transport, marketing and economic development.

    Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP) consists of a set of planning tools, which can help local government officials in the identification of rural infrastructure projects and associated services. IRAP tools should be applied within the existing local level planning process and augment regular planning activities. These tools assist local officials in identifying investment priorities in the areas of education, health, water supply, transport and pro-poor economic development.

    This Guideline describes different planning tools based on IRAP for use at Gram Panchayat level. ASIST - AP in collaboration with a team of Orissa experts has applied the generic IRAP tools in a number of Panchayats and has modified the tools for use within the Orissa context. The Guideline has been prepared for planners at all levels to inform them about the existence and relevance of the planning tools developed. A how-to-do manual, in the local language Oriya, will accompany this Guideline. This manual will consist of step-by-step instructions on how to apply the different tools at Gram Panchayat level.

  • Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP) Modular Training Package - PDF 10,017 Kb
    Serge Cartier van Dissel, ILO ASIST - Africa. 2004. ISBN 92-2-11-4323-6

    IRAP is a planning tool for local level planning and prioritisation for rural investment. It is an easy-to-use cross-sectoral planning tool, which seeks to optimise the use of local resources available. The modular training package is meant for use by trainers carrying out training of local-level planners and other local government staff involved in rural investment planning and implementation. Its modular format is designed to facilitate step-by-step training for each step of the IRAP tool. The package should be used as a guide and built upon and adapted to suit the local circumstances.

  • Manual for Supervision of Labour-based Road Rehabilitation Works – PDF 5,896 Kb
    Simon Tembo et Frans Blokhuis, ILO/ASIST. 2004.

    This manual is based on experiences from the Feeder Road Programmes in Zambia and Tanzania and is specifically developed for use in Zambia and Tanzania. Target groups, which this manual aims to reach, are road works supervisors employed by the District Councils and road works supervisors employed by private contractors or consultants.

    The purpose of the manual is to provide supervisors of labour-based road construction works with an easy step by step guide, which at the end, will ensure that the road works are carried out to the specified standards, not only in respect of quality of works, but also in respect of construction methodology used. The aim of this manual is NOT to provide another guide on labour-based road construction techniques, but it aims at highlighting important aspects of Labour Based Technology, which should be remembered by the technician or engineer, who is responsible for or engaged in the supervision of the construction of a road built by labour-based technology.

    The Manual is designed in a manner that makes it easy to use for training and as a reference book. It is comprehensively illustrated with drawings and pictures to allow easy visualization with brief text to explain an activity.

  • Rapid Assessment of Poverty Impact Methodology – Field Test in Ethiopia
    Kwaku Osei-Bonsu, OIT/BSR Addis-Abeba

    As a way to address the concern for lack of a methodology for the assessment of poverty impact, ILO's Employment-Intensive Investment Branch (EMPINVEST) carried out research to develop procedures and methods to provide information on the evolution of the poverty situation on employment - intensive rural infrastructure development programmes/projects. The effort led to the development of the Rapid Assessment of Poverty Impacts (RAPI) method. The ILO Area Office and SRO Addis Ababa field- tested the RAPI methodology in Tigray, Ethiopia as part of the rural road project under the Emergency Recovery Programme. A report is available.

  • The economic value of incremental employment in the South African construction sector. A report commissioned by the International Labour Organisation for the support of the efficient application of labour-based methods in the construction sector – PDF 565 Kb
    Barry Standish, SETP N°14. BIT/Programme HIMO. 2003. ISBN 92-2114837-8

    The macro-economic case for using labour-based, as opposed to equipment-intensive technology in the infrastructure and construction sectors, has been made in many developing countries on the grounds of lower unit costs, increased employment generation, higher contribution to GDP, higher multiplier effects, higher levels of household income and consumption, reduced foreign exchange requirements and hence, reduced import dependency. These conclusions apply to countries characterized by surplus labour, low wages and a weak local industrial capacity to produce tools and equipment. The ILO commissioned a study to investigate whether the macro-economic outcomes of labour-based versus equipment-based construction would still favour the labour-based option in South Africa, where higher wages and an established domestic industry producing equipment create a different situation. The study makes an important contribution to the debate on the macro-economic potential of labour-based investment technology not only in South Africa, but also more generally in the context of global efforts to foster employment-intensive growth - where economically cost effective and technically feasible - with a view to combatting poverty and reducing inequalities.

  • Improving access in rural areas – Guidelines for Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning – PDF 1,060 Kb
    Chris Donnges, ILO, Bangkok. 2003. ISBN 92-2-113649-3

    This A5-size book introduces the Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP) approach.Everybody, man or woman, rich or poor, urban or rural, farmer or trader, needs physical access to locations and facilities where they can avail themselves of the goods, information, and services they require. Access is hereby defined as the ability (i.e. the relative level of difficulty) to reach facilities and locations to use or obtain goods, information, or services. A lack of access limits the opportunity one has to improve and sustain one's social and economic well-being. Improved access and poverty reduction are correlated; lack of access is perceived as one of the main underlying factors of poverty, particularly in rural areas in developing countries.

    This book details the different steps of the generic IRAP approach. IRAP simultaneously seeks to improve rural transport systems and the distribution of and access to facilities and services in a cost-effective manner. The book introduces a set of generic IRAP planning tools that are based on the access needs of rural people and seeks to maximize the use of local resources. Local planners should, as part of their routine planning activities, make use of these tools when defining priorities for different sectors and communities. The IRAP process enables the planner to quickly assess what should be done where and to identify rural infrastructure priorities.

    The book first provides a brief overview of the concept of accessibility and the general IRAP approach. It then provides generic guidelines for developing an IRAP approach at local government level, based on extensive experience of IRAP application in a number of Asian countries. It can be used to develop country-specific guidelines. The final chapter gives insights on participatory rural access planning at village level.

  • Building local government capacity for rural infrastructure works – PDF 1,929 Kb
    Geoff Edmonds et Bjørn Johannessen, ILO, Bangkok. 2003. ISBN: 92-2-113591-8

    Decentralising responsibility for the provision and maintenance of infrastructure is a growing trend. Although the degree and form of such initiatives vary, the rationale is usually to enhance local participation, enhance the sense of ownership, and generally improve efficiency in planning and implementation. The provision of rural infrastructure often consists of a large number of comparatively small investments over a geographically large area. Having the appropriate management tools and sufficient resources puts local authorities in a good position to effectively plan and supervise rural infrastructure works. The nature of these works offers significant potential for the use of local resources, including small- and medium-sized contractors, builders, labour, and materials.

    This publication discusses the sustainable provision of rural infrastructure in a decentralised government structure with the involvement of the local private sector. Rather than describing the virtues of local governance, it outlines possible implementation arrangements as regards the construction and maintenance of rural infrastructure programmes of scale in developing countries. It covers all aspects of a development programme, from planning and identification, to works execution and maintenance. A general description of capacity-building requirements and design of training programmes for this purpose is also included.

    The paper is targeted at planners and senior management staff involved in design and implementation of rural infrastructure works, including senior government staff, project task managers and donors. Case studies from three countries demonstrate the viability of the systems recommended. The implementation strategies described follow the approaches applied by the ASIST - Asia Pacific in its programme of providing technical and managerial advisory support to infrastructure works programmes in the region.

  • Jobs or machines: Comparative analysis of rural road work in Cambodia – PDF 1,258 Kb
    ILO ASIST – Asia-Pacific, Bangkok. 2003. ISBN 92-2-113812-7

    The use of labour-based works technology has formed a central part of the delivery mechanism for reinstating rural access in Cambodia over the past decade. The use of labour-based work methods for constructing and maintaining rural roads has provided effective solutions in terms of both costs, quality, and time, while at the same time increasing employment opportunities in the rural areas.

    For this choice of technology to be widely applied and mainstreamed in the construction sector, it is necessary to demonstrate its outputs are competitive with those of conventional methods, which rely on the extensive use of heavy construction equipment. This study compares the costs and potential benefits of various implementation arrangements and the choice of technology for rural road rehabilitation and maintenance, as applied in various recent projects in Cambodia.

    The study examines the results of a number of projects in which different implementation modalities were chosen, including force account operations, the involvement of local contractors, the use of equipment, as well as the application of labour-based methods supported with light construction equipment.

    The appropriate technology brings with it additional benefits that relate to issues beyond the confines of the rural road sector. Through a careful choice of technology, it is possible to increase employment and cash earnings among people living in rural areas. Through appropriate contracting arrangements, the works can provide the local construction industry with increased market prospects. This study looks at such potentials as a result of the decision to mainstream the use of labour-based work methods carried out by local contractors for the provision of rural roads in Cambodia.

    This study uses primary data to assess the cost effectiveness of labour-based equipment-supported methods of road construction. It clearly shows that investing in labour-based methods is just as financially viable as investing in equipment. Given the additional social and economic benefits associated with labour-based methods, this is a significant conclusion, especially in the context of Cambodia. Of equal importance is the conclusion that the use of the private sector is more cost effective, regardless of the technology used.

  • Nuevas publicaciones en francés

    en español - en inglés

    Réduire le déficit de travail décent dans les secteurs de l'infrastructure et de la construction – L'expérience et les propositions du Programme d'investissement à haute intensité de main-d'œuvre (HIMO) du BIT - PDF 4,609 Kb
    BIT, septembre 2004. ISBN 92-2-215457-6

    Depuis des décennies, le BIT milite en faveur des stratégies de croissance à haute intensité d'emplois, des droits des travailleurs, de la protection sociale et du dialogue social, pour des raisons directement liées à son mandat historique, en particulier la justice sociale et la croissance dans l'équité.

    Le rapport du Directeur général du BIT à la Conférence internationale du Travail de 2001, intitulé "Réduire le déficit de travail décent – Un défi mondial" a attiré l'attention sur les déficits de travail décent qui demeurent omniprésents. Il a mis en évidence les lacunes qui existent en ce qui concerne les institutions chargées de l'élaboration des politiques et de la prise de décisions et les capacités d'organisation et de négociation des parties prenantes, publiques et privées. Le rapport a plaidé en faveur d'approches globales et mieux intégrées pour réduire ces déficits et améliorer l'efficacité des gouvernements, des partenaires sociaux et de l'ensemble du monde du travail dans les réponses à apporter à ces défis.

    Le Programme des investissements à haute intensité de main-d'œuvre (HIMO) du BIT apporte son soutien aux États membres dans les efforts qu'ils déploient pour élaborer des politiques globales et des approches opérationnelles afin de relier la politique d'investissement public, la politique de l'emploi et le travail décent dans le secteur de l'infrastructure et celui de la construction. Ce document de travail vise à montrer la pertinence de ces politiques pour la création d'emplois et la réduction des déficits de travail décent dans ces secteurs, ainsi que les liens stratégiques qui peuvent et devraient être établis.

     

     


 
Puesto al día: 08.03.2007 ^ arriba