On this page:
After Action Review • Briefing• Exit Interviews• Experience Capitalization• Good Practices• Mentoring • Peer Assists• Peer Coaching• Storytelling•
After Action Review
"The main purpose of after-action reviews is to learn from an activity or project during its course or as soon as it is completed. Choosing to do it at either of these times decreases the chance that knowledge is lost. The goal is simply to sum up lessons learned, rather than to solve problems, criticize or create a formal report. These reviews have the added benefit of making all members feel included and valued."
(Source: International Labour Office. 2006. I went to a knowledge sharing workshop and all I got was this guidebook (ILO, Geneva), p. 26).
Briefings provide concise information about a specific issue, subject, study or situation. They are usually accompanied by a short briefing note, which can efficiently update a person on an issue.
- Daretoshare (includes advice on how to write a briefing note)
Exit interviews have traditionally been conducted with employees leaving an organization in order to gather feedback on why they are leaving or what areas of the job/organization they think requires improvement. This concept has evolved into a knowledge management tool, whereby it is used to capture the knowledge necessary for a successful job performance.
Experience capitalization is "the transition from experience to shareable knowledge" (Villeval and Lavigne Delville, 2004, p. 2), or a way to increase organisational effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability by collectively learning from previous experiences.
Depending on the requirement, the following instruments can be used to record, present and consolidate experiences: brainstorming sessions, surveys, interviews, evaluations, SWOT analyses, case studies, document and portfolio analyses, cognitive mapping, scenario techniques, etc.
The experience capitalization process usually consists of the following four stages:
1.) Identification of needs
2.) Detailed planning
3.) Implementation of results
4.) Change of practice
For additional information on how to conduct experience capitalization please view: Experience capitalization: accumulating experience capital to prepare change processes, (pdf 473 KB)
(Sources: Daretoshare; Villeval, P; Lavigne Delville, P. 2004. "Learning and sharing experience: lessons for learning processes in NGOs", (pdf 374 KB) in Travers, October, No. 15, pp. 1-45)
Good practices are successful examples, methods, or experiences in an organization which can be used as a model for future strategies.
Mentoring is an important part of succession planning and knowledge sharing. Mentors are people who have more experience and knowledge in a specific area or profession that they are willing to share with newer colleagues. The relationship can be informal but is frequently formalized. Mentors answer questions, give advice and feedback and can help with professional development.
"Peer assist is a method of cooperation, based on dialogue and mutual respect, which seeks to share knowledge and understanding between people in similar fields but with different levels and types of experience. A meeting is called by a team (the ‘hosts’) when, for example, they are starting a new project. The hosts invite another group (‘the peers’) who have experience with a similar project. After outlining the project and its background, the hosts express their specific needs. Now both teams work together, using brainstorming and discussion, to identify possible solutions to the problem…Peer assist can be powerful as it provides a highly focused way to share knowledge. The host party is able to concentrate on a specific task and get quick results. Their peers also benefit, as any opportunity to talk and think about their experience is helpful. Everyone benefits from the chance to network and build relationships."
(Source: International Labour Office. 2006. I went to a knowledge sharing workshop and all I got was this guidebook (ILO, Geneva), p. 25)
Peer coaching is a method of professional development whereby colleagues agree to formally learn from each other. The role of the coach is to give constructive feedback and to give advice based on their own similar experiences.
"Humans have exchanged stories for thousands of years. Even today, stories are part of our daily lives and not only provide entertainment, but also convey knowledge. Storytelling can be an excellent tool in the workplace. We can use stories to describe project experiences, activities in a formal or informal way, and can transmit tacit knowledge. Stories, as opposed to theories, are a simple and accessible way to communicate complex ideas, key messages and lessons learned in a way that engages people’s minds, imaginations and emotions. They cannot replace analytical thought, however, and are often used in conjunction with, or to complement, other tools."
(Source: International Labour Office. 2006. I went to a knowledge sharing workshop and all I got was this guidebook (ILO, Geneva), p. 26)