|INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE||Activities of the ILO, 1994-95|
|International Labour Conference
83rd Session 1996
|Report of the Director-General|
A considerable part of the ILO's work consists of providing practical assistance to constituents for the alleviation of poverty through the creation of employment opportunities and the improvement of existing jobs. Guided by international labour standards and democratic principles, the ILO's work to combat unemployment and poverty takes a variety of forms. First and foremost, emphasis is placed on the adoption of relevant policies and the creation of an environment that is conducive to employment promotion. Advice and guidance is therefore provided to constituents on employment policy and is closely supported by work to enhance knowledge of the labour market situation at the national and international levels, including the compilation and analysis of labour statistics and other labour market indicators. An important aim in this respect is to gain more widespread acceptance of the ILO's principles and concerns at the international level, particularly by the international financial institutions.
Another related aspect of the work of the ILO is advising on and demonstrating policies and measures to improve the performance of enterprises, including micro-enterprises, and encouraging entrepreneurship, particularly amongst the poor, through the promotion of self-employment, small enterprises and cooperatives. In many developing countries, a high proportion of the workforce -- and particularly the most vulnerable workers -- is employed in the informal sector. Alongside activities to promote productivity and improve the policy environment for informal sector operators, an interdepartmental project was undertaken during the biennium which focused on improving the working conditions and social protection of informal sector workers in three major capital cities in the developing world. Other activities promoted the introduction of appropriate technologies and the adoption of labour-intensive methods in large-scale investment projects. This work is instrumental in raising standards of living, often from a very low initial level.
This chapter also covers the ILO's work in the field of human resources development, where emphasis continued to be placed on identifying skill needs, adapting training policies and systems to respond to them as efficiently as possible, and extending access to training to vulnerable groups of the population -- such as the poor, workers in rural areas, displaced persons and demobilized combatants in countries emerging from civil war.
All three groups of constituents played a very active part in the preparatory process and at the Summit itself, either as members of their national delegations to the Preparatory Committee and the Summit, or as members of the delegations of international organizations of employers and workers. The ILO was represented at the Summit by the Director-General and by a tripartite delegation appointed by the Governing Body.
As a result of this action, the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the Summit, which was attended by 121 Heads of State and Government, fully reflect the main objectives and concerns expressed by the ILO throughout the preparatory process. In the Declaration, the Heads of State and Government adopted ten commitments. All are of interest to the ILO, but of particular importance is commitment No. 3, in which the nations of the world undertake to promote "the goal of full employment as
World Employment 1995 Shortly before the Social Summit, the Office published the first of
its regular reports examining the world employment situation. The report,
entitled World Employment 1995, attracted a good deal of attention at
The employment situation has deteriorated in most parts of the world over the
past two decades. World Employment 1995 identifies the creationof
sufficient new jobs as the primary challenge of economic and social policy in
most countries of the world. The report reviews the worldwide employment crisis
and surveys global employment trends. It examines competing explanations for
the emergence of high levels of unemployment and discusses major policy options
for resolving the problem. It emphasizes the growing interrelationship between
employment problems across countries in the increasingly globalized world
economy and argues that strengthened international cooperation is therefore an
important element of employment strategies.
Without a change in present policies, World Employment 1995 warns
that, with few exceptions, prospects for job growth will remain gloomy
throughout the world. The relative neglect of employment issues (in contrast to
the priority attached to combating inflation) has gone too far. A universal
commitment to achieving full employment, a goal which many countries admittedly
now believe to be unobtainable, is therefore necessary because a defeatist
attitude risks becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy. The report states that the
post-Second World War international commitment to the goal of full employment
has been eroded, but that "its revival will provide the basis for the renewed
international cooperation that is so essential for solving the employment
crisis". Policy-makers need to recall that "a high and stable rate of
productive job creation is the mainspring of equitable economic and social
The participants at the Social Summit appear to have taken heed of this
central argument of World Employment 1995, since commitment No.3of the
Declaration adopted by the Heads of State and Government states that the goal
of full employment is a "basic priority of our economic and social policies".
Shortly before the Social Summit, the Office published the first of its regular reports examining the world employment situation. The report, entitled World Employment 1995, attracted a good deal of attention at the Summit.
The employment situation has deteriorated in most parts of the world over the past two decades. World Employment 1995 identifies the creationof sufficient new jobs as the primary challenge of economic and social policy in most countries of the world. The report reviews the worldwide employment crisis and surveys global employment trends. It examines competing explanations for the emergence of high levels of unemployment and discusses major policy options for resolving the problem. It emphasizes the growing interrelationship between employment problems across countries in the increasingly globalized world economy and argues that strengthened international cooperation is therefore an important element of employment strategies.
Without a change in present policies, World Employment 1995 warns that, with few exceptions, prospects for job growth will remain gloomy throughout the world. The relative neglect of employment issues (in contrast to the priority attached to combating inflation) has gone too far. A universal commitment to achieving full employment, a goal which many countries admittedly now believe to be unobtainable, is therefore necessary because a defeatist attitude risks becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy. The report states that the post-Second World War international commitment to the goal of full employment has been eroded, but that "its revival will provide the basis for the renewed international cooperation that is so essential for solving the employment crisis". Policy-makers need to recall that "a high and stable rate of productive job creation is the mainspring of equitable economic and social development".
The participants at the Social Summit appear to have taken heed of this central argument of World Employment 1995, since commitment No.3of the Declaration adopted by the Heads of State and Government states that the goal of full employment is a "basic priority of our economic and social policies".
At its 264th Session (November 1995), the Governing Body discussed action to be taken to follow up the Summit. It was agreed that the Office would strengthen its dialogue and cooperation with the Bretton Woods institutions in the field of employment. It would also undertake several comprehensive national employment policy reviews, the modalities of which would be discussed in March 1996 by the Governing Body Committee on Employment and Social Policy.
The ILO's activities at the international level, particularly in the context of the Social Summit and its dialogue with the Bretton Woods institutions, to ensure that sufficient emphasis is given to employment and social issues, were backed up by a number of studies on international trends and approaches to combating unemployment. These studies concerned: the employment implications of capital mobility;(1) shifts in the composition of output and employment by sector and their sustainability in the framework of adjustment;(2) lessons to be drawn for regional integration schemes from the experience of the European Union; the social effects of closer economic ties in East Asia; the changing pattern of world manufacturing production; and the relationship between direct foreign investment in developing countries and the relocation of polluting industries.
Economic policy and employment studies were undertaken at the regional level to advise constituents on ways in which macroeconomic policy might contribute to employment growth in an interdependent world.(3) These studies covered the situation in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, South-East Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, the OECD countries and Eastern and Central Europe. In general terms, the studies emphasized the need for the coordination of macroeconomic and labour market policies. They demonstrated that the principal requirement of macroeconomic policies was to ensure price stability, or if that was not possible, to adjust the exchange rate in order to preserve competitiveness. However, they stressed that labour market policies had to maintain a sustainable relationship between real wage growth and labour productivity through socially acceptable labour market institutions.
Unemployment problems are linked to changes in the sectoral distribution of employment, such as the decline of agriculture and the rise of services. As a guide to understanding this process and targeting policy measures, an analysis was made of sectoral shifts in employment over the past half century. It showed that, while manufacturing employment is falling in industrialized countries, it is rising in many developing economies; within manufacturing, the metal-based industries have enlarged their share of total employment. Some of the apparent shift in employment may also be due to the contracting out of activities from "manufacturing to "service enterprises.(4) Sectoral meetings in 1994-95 examined the specific characteristics of employment trends and changing skill requirements in the metal trades, railways, clothing and chemical industries.(5) The conclusions adopted by these meetings reflect a wide measure of tripartite agreement on the general policies that are appropriate to this situation, in particular industries, in respect of employment, training, work organization, redeployment, separation from the industry and related matters.(6)
The findings and recommendations of these studies were relayed to constituents through advisory services designed to increase their knowledge and understanding of both the domestic and global context as it affects employment strategies and policies. These services included assistance in developing proposals for poverty alleviation and employment-generation policies and programmes. Technical cooperation activities in a number of countries, including Argentina, Colombia, Gabon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Namibia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, were also carried out to increase capacities in the fields of labour market monitoring and the collection of labour market information, with a view to providing a better basis for policy formulation and implementation.
Structural adjustment policies and measures continued to be an important factor in the national policy environment in many member States during the biennium. As a basis for policy advisory services, the effects of these policies and measures on employment strategies were investigated in a number of country studies. In Barbados, an examination was made of how sound fiscal policies could lead to both stabilization and employment creation.(7) Other studies carried out in Guyana and Jamaica, India, Mexico and Colombia, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe concentrated on policy reform and poverty alleviation. They analysed the characteristics of the poor and sought to identify specific measures through which they could be provided with direct assistance. The studies concluded that, although structural reform programmes could help to alleviate poverty by raising the rate of economic growth and increasing demand for the goods and services produced by the poor, at best their contribution to poverty alleviation was only indirect and protracted. They also emphasized that, to be effective, anti-poverty programmes had to be carefully planned and well targeted.(8)
One of the findings of the interdepartmental project on employment and structural adjustment carried out during the biennium 1992-93 was that in many countries there was either no involvement or an insufficient level of participation by the social partners in the formulation of employment and adjustment policies. With a view to identifying an approach to remedy this failing, an investigation was carried out in Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe in cooperation with workers' and employers' organizations. The investigation concluded that the main reasons for the absence of consultation on adjustment and employment policies were a lack of technical capacity on the part of trade unions, combined with an unfamiliarity among governments of the structures and framework for effective tripartite consultation. Seminars were organized with the governments and the social partners to increase awareness of these issues and to recommend practical solutions by means of capacity building in workers' and employers' organizations.
Many member States are facing critical decisions on structural adjustment measures, including privatization programmes, as they are trying to improve the effectiveness of public services without increasing poverty and social tensions. Analyses were made of the impact of structural adjustment, human resource development and other policies on public utilities in sub-Saharan Africa, on public services in selected African countries and on education services.(9) In this context, advisory assistance was furnished to Mali on public sector reorganization and to Mauritius on civil service administration; regional training programmes were also organized by the Turin Centre for the public administrations of French-, English- and Portuguese-speaking African countries. Similar assistance was delivered to the education and training services of English-speaking African countries.
In the field of labour market policies, a sound understanding of how jobs are created, preserved or destroyed is critical to the design and assessment of effective policies. One innovative way to achieve such an understanding is to collect enterprise-level data for examining how jobs are promoted and preserved. The ILO is at the forefront of the development of this approach through its enterprise labour flexibility surveys which have been carried out in 14 countries. During the biennium in question, this work provided the basis of the provision of assistance at the national level. One example was the Republic of South Africa, where the ILO commenced a comprehensive review of labour market developments in the country in support of the work of the Presidential Labour Market Policy Commission. Another illustration was China, where policy seminars were held, research carried out on important labour market issues and data collected and analysed. A survey of 300 enterprises in the country's five largest cities showed that state-owned enterprises were underperforming, employment was concentrated in large enterprises and the potential of small and medium-sized enterprises was undeveloped. It also provided further proof of the growing problem of the labour surplus in the urban industrial sector and indicated the policy reforms most desired by enterprises, including state assistance to redeploy workers and closer linkages between labour market reforms and reforms of the social services and social security system. The results of the survey were widely discussed at both the international and national levels, and provided a basis for the adoption of the Employment Promotion Law.
In 1994 and 1995, work on the development of statistical standards centred on the follow-up to the recommendations of the 15th ICLS and preparations for the 16th ICLS. One important aspect of this work was the revision of existing international standards for the measurement of underemployment. An alternative definition of underemployment was developed which overcomes many of the conceptual and measurement limitations of the current definition and which can be applied using conventional measurement methods. This definition is described in a report which has been distributed to a number of experts for comments and which will be submitted to a meeting of experts early in the next biennium.
The ILO's work on the development of statistical methodologies to measure child labour is described in the box opposite, while work dealing with the compilation of statistics on the informal sector is described later in this chapter.
The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) provides a basis for the compilation of internationally comparable statistics disaggregated by occupation and sector. The latest version of the Classification, ISCO-88, is now in use in about 50 countries, where a national classification of occupations based on ISCO-88 has been or is currently being developed; many other countries still use the previous version, ISCO-68. During the biennium, support was provided to the Statistical Office of the European Union (EUROSTAT) in its efforts to introduce a common occupational classification for European Union countries and in its activities to develop new occupational classifications in countries undergoing the transition to a market economy. Assistance was also provided to the Secretariat of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) for the development of a common classification of occupations for use by member States. A workshop on occupational classifications, organized in Moscow for these countries in November 1995, provided further support for the officials responsible for their application.
Various forms of technical assistance were provided to member States in the different fields of labour statistics. Technical advisory services on the production of labour statistics were provided to nearly 30 countries. Technical cooperation projects to support the development of national systems for the compilation of labour statistics were undertaken in Azerbaijan, Turkey and the Occupied Territories. With a view to assisting countries undergoing the transition to a market economy, a conference was organized in Belarus on the restructuring of labour statistics in transition countries. The participants took stock of what had been achieved and mapped out what still needs to be done to produce reliable and consistent labour market statistics as a basis for policy-making and in response to information needs in countries in transition. To provide further guidance to CIS countries, three statistical manuals were also published in Russian.
Developing statistics on child labour|
Member States need to be able to produce reliable statistical data on the various aspects of child labour in order to be in a position to develop effective strategies and programmes to combat the problem. However, an initial investigation of the availability and quality of statistical data on working children in more than 200 countries and territories showed that in the majority of cases no such data existed. Even in some of the countries where official statistics were available, they were deficient in a variety of ways.
The main reason for the dearth or absence of statistics on child labour is the lack of an appropriate survey methodology and the failure to identify clear concepts, definitions and classifications of the factors and variables related to working children. Special methodological approaches were therefore developed for the quantification of child labour in all its forms. These were based on the application of sampling techniques at various levels, including households, employers, street children, communities and villages and towns. Assistance was provided to the national statistical offices in Ghana, India, Indonesia and Senegal to test these methods through surveys, which confirmed that a very large proportion of children work in non-school activities.1
The results of the experimental surveys and the lessons learned were discussed at an interregional seminar attended by statisticians, child labour specialists and the survey team leaders from the four countries. The conclusions and recommendations of the seminar were published in a manual containing detailed technical guidelines to assist national statisticians collect reliable and detailed data on child labour through the application of the methodology, either by including a module on child labour in an ongoing national survey programme, or through separate child labour inquiries conducted at regular intervals.2
During the biennium, assistance was provided in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey for the application of this methodological approach and the execution of sample surveys of child labour. Survey instruments were also developed for a study of child labour in South-East Asian manufacturing industries, which was carried out in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. In addition, a special database (CHILDSTA) was established and is being updated with the data collected in various surveys.
1Child labour surveys: Results of methodological experiments in four countries, 1992-93 (forthcoming).
2Surveys of child labour and activities of children: An ILO manual on concepts, methods and procedures (in preparation).
The ILO continued to fulfil an important role in the dissemination of authoritative and internationally comparable statistics on labour matters covering a large number of countries. The 1994 and 1995 editions of the Year Book of Labour Statistics were published. The Year Books continued to be sold together with a volume of the series Sources and Methods: Labour Statistics. The first edition of Volume 6: Household income and expenditure surveys was sold as a companion volume to the 1994 Year Book, while the second expanded edition of Volume 2: Employment, wages, hours of work and labour cost (establishment surveys) accompanied the 1995 Year Book. The quarterly Bulletin of Labour Statistics continued to contain updated statistical tables, methodological information and notes covering a wide range of labour statistics. Two separate issues of the Bulletin presented the 1993 and 1994 results of the October inquiry on occupational wages and hours of work and on retail food prices. A new edition of Household income and expenditure statistics, No. 4, 1979-91 was also issued in 1995 containing data covering 82 countries.(10) This is the only publication containing comprehensive international information on the sources and distribution of household income and on patterns of household consumption expenditure according to income and expenditure levels. As such, it is widely recognized as a valuable source of statistical data for studies of income distribution and living standards.
The Institute's work focuses on the changing relationships between labour institutions, the organization of production and economic development. Throughout the period under review, this core theme was examined in the light of four issues: poverty and social exclusion, equality for working women, economic interdependence and labour standards. Work on social exclusion focused on the interrelationships between poverty, employment and social integration. Building on the outcome of a symposium on new approaches to poverty analysis and policies(11) and the findings of a comparative study on social exclusion in several countries and a number of subregions,(12) an approach to social exclusion was elaborated which emphasized the importance of participative institutions for social dialogue and highlighted the potential role of the ILO's tripartite constituency in ensuring the cohesion of civil society. Hitherto used mainly in policy debate in Western Europe, the concept of social exclusion was developed to make it relevant to the design of anti-poverty policies in a wide variety of country settings, including developing countries and those undergoing the transition to a market economy. This work paves the way for participatory policies which seek to transform the disadvantaged from passive recipients of social assistance to active agents in society and the economy. As a follow-up to this work, a publication on social exclusion(13) was prepared and discussed at an international symposium held in conjunction with the World Summit for Social Development. Two regional seminars in Asia and Latin America, and a national workshop in Chile, were also organized to examine the usefulness of the concept to policy-makers.
One aspect of the Institute's work during the biennium was to try and enhance the effectiveness of employment policy interventions in Africa by compiling and assessing data on the functioning of African labour markets. Two publications examined the nature of the institutions that determine how labour is mobilized, used and remunerated in selected sub-Saharan African countries. The first, on labour markets in Africa,(14) was based on three studies analysing the effects of structural adjustment programmes on labour markets, and particularly on access to employment, its level and composition and the incidence of poverty. It underlined a number of factors vital to the design of more effective policies to combat urban poverty. These included: a more pragmatic approach in the implementation of structural adjustment programmes; the rethinking of current policies for the promotion of self-employment; the reorganization of institutions linked to apprenticeship; and the development of new policies on education and training. An assessment was also made of the effectiveness of formal labour regulation in informal contexts where traditional cultural values play a major role. The second publication, on urban labour markets and poverty in Africa,(15) examined the relationship between deprivation and labour market mechanisms in six sub-Saharan African countries. It suggested that, with structural adjustment programmes influencing labour mobility towards the informal sector, targeted interventions towards the poorest groups were necessary and should include policies to promote access to training. Policies should be adopted to promote micro-enterprises and entrepreneurship and measures to assist the self-employed should be redesigned.
Labour markets in different parts of the world are becoming increasingly interlinked through foreign direct investment and changes in the organization of production. In January 1995, a forum was held in Bangkok to help define social policy options for enterprises, unions and governments in a world economy which is rapidly becoming global; this brought together representatives of the ILO's tripartite constituency and academics. The forum discussed the manner in which foreign direct investment and trade were linking the countries of East and South-East Asia in a vertical division of labour and considered the strategies they could pursue in attracting foreign direct investment and sustaining participation in regional and international markets on the best possible terms for employment and economic development. A research network of academics from North America and Europe was set up to explore the prevailing patterns in the multi-firm, cross-border organization of production, and identify strategies for local economic development that combine participation in international markets with good sustainable jobs and the potential for linkages to the local economy. Data from this project are expected to lead to the identification of the social and industrial policies most likely to assist countries gain access to global markets.
With a view to disseminating information about the ILO, its programmes and its tripartite means of action among future policy-makers in the field of labour, and to providing a forum for dialogue, two internship courses on active labour market policies were organized in Spanish (1994) and English (1995) for 41 officials from labour ministries and employers' and workers' organizations.
In this context, technical assistance was provided in some 30 member States during the biennium. The principal aim of these activities was to influence investment policies with a view to maximizing their employment creation potential and enhancing the capacity of the private sector to generate employment and reduce poverty. Pilot projects were implemented and training provided to public officials, technicians and entrepreneurs to demonstrate how investment projects in the infrastructure and construction sectors could be implemented in a cost-effective manner using labour-intensive methods. In these activities, linkages were enhanced between investment and employment policies and private sector development. This approach provides a good opportunity to promote the relevant international labour standards by introducing appropriate criteria and social policy requirements into contract systems and procedures. The standards in question included those relating to minimum age, non-discrimination, minimum wages and protection against work accidents.
The policy principles and objectives underlying these activities were also disseminated through seminars, series of guidelines,(16) conceptual works(17) and training materials.(18) Tripartite seminars on employment-intensive investment policies and labour standards were held in Madras for eight South Indian states and in Harare for nine southern African countries. Another seminar was organized in January 1995 for labour-based practitioners in the road sector in sub-Saharan Africa.(19) With a view to applying employment-intensive works programmes for the reintegration of demobilized soldiers into civilian life, guidelines were produced on the basis of experiences in Uganda, Cambodia and Mozambique.(20) These guidelines were reviewed and redefined at a meeting of experts held in Harare in 1995. They show how the planning and implementation of employment-intensive works programmes can make a major contribution to the national reconstruction process and to the reintegration of demobilized soldiers, through the combination of large-scale job creation, the rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure and national capacity building. The guidelines take into account the situation in post-conflict areas, including the lack of
Employment-intensive works programme in the United Republic of
Tanzania The lack of a viable road network is a major impediment to
development. Road-building is therefore given high priority in developing
countries by both governments and donors. But there is a danger that countries
will not reap the full benefit from their investment, especially in terms of
employment generation, if international contractors are hired using
equipment-based techniques which are not adapted to subsequent local
The use of employment-intensive techniques is being promoted by the ILO in a
number of African and Asian countries, including Cambodia, Ghana, Indonesia,
Lesotho, Madagascar, Nepal, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
In the United Republic of Tanzania, the road network is undergoing extensive
rehabilitation and maintenance under the Government's Integrated Roads Project,
supported by some $900 million in funding from donors. In the context of a
three-year project, the ILO has been providing assistance in the use of
labour-intensive methods. This assistance has included the development and
application of labour-intensive road-building and maintenance techniques to
local conditions, the demonstration of these techniques and the provision of
training and advisory services to Tanzanian organizations, particularly the
National Construction Council, to institutionalize the use of
employment-intensive technology. The focal point of the assistance is the six
months' training, including trial contracts, provided to 30 contractors, each
of whom is expected to employ up to 200 workers.
Experience from similar projects shows that the application of these
techniques, instead of conventional equipment-based methods, increases
employment by over 300 per cent per kilometre of road; furthermore, this
approach is approximately 10 per cent cheaper and reduces the foreign exchange
cost by some 50 per cent. The work produced is entirely comparable in terms of
quality. A new rural and urban infrastructure rehabilitation project, designed
for implementation using mainly labour-basedmethods, has also been commenced in
the United Republic of Tanzania. Under the two projects it is estimated that,
with continued monitoring, up to 50,000 work-years will be created on a
short-term basis every year.
ILO involvement in the introduction of employment-intensive techniques also
provides a good opportunity for the gradual introduction of the relevant labour
standards in areas such as wages, minimum age, conditions of work and
non-discrimination, through clauses in contract documents and the integration
of these concerns in training courses. The result has been not only the
development of the entrepreneurial, managerial and technical skills of the
contractors, but also the creation of income-earning opportunities for women as
well as men, largely in rural areas.
The lack of a viable road network is a major impediment to development. Road-building is therefore given high priority in developing countries by both governments and donors. But there is a danger that countries will not reap the full benefit from their investment, especially in terms of employment generation, if international contractors are hired using equipment-based techniques which are not adapted to subsequent local maintenance operations.
The use of employment-intensive techniques is being promoted by the ILO in a number of African and Asian countries, including Cambodia, Ghana, Indonesia, Lesotho, Madagascar, Nepal, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
In the United Republic of Tanzania, the road network is undergoing extensive rehabilitation and maintenance under the Government's Integrated Roads Project, supported by some $900 million in funding from donors. In the context of a three-year project, the ILO has been providing assistance in the use of labour-intensive methods. This assistance has included the development and application of labour-intensive road-building and maintenance techniques to local conditions, the demonstration of these techniques and the provision of training and advisory services to Tanzanian organizations, particularly the National Construction Council, to institutionalize the use of employment-intensive technology. The focal point of the assistance is the six months' training, including trial contracts, provided to 30 contractors, each of whom is expected to employ up to 200 workers.
Experience from similar projects shows that the application of these techniques, instead of conventional equipment-based methods, increases employment by over 300 per cent per kilometre of road; furthermore, this approach is approximately 10 per cent cheaper and reduces the foreign exchange cost by some 50 per cent. The work produced is entirely comparable in terms of quality. A new rural and urban infrastructure rehabilitation project, designed for implementation using mainly labour-basedmethods, has also been commenced in the United Republic of Tanzania. Under the two projects it is estimated that, with continued monitoring, up to 50,000 work-years will be created on a short-term basis every year.
ILO involvement in the introduction of employment-intensive techniques also provides a good opportunity for the gradual introduction of the relevant labour standards in areas such as wages, minimum age, conditions of work and non-discrimination, through clauses in contract documents and the integration of these concerns in training courses. The result has been not only the development of the entrepreneurial, managerial and technical skills of the contractors, but also the creation of income-earning opportunities for women as well as men, largely in rural areas.
An important aspect of poverty alleviation programmes and policies is that they need to be based on sound information if measures are to be targeted accurately and effectively. Work continued during the biennium on improving the tools for poverty monitoring. The ILO's detailed compendium of data on the incidence of poverty in developing countries was updated and expanded to include statistics on poverty in industrialized nations and countries in transition, as well as data on income distribution for all types of countries.(21) On the basis of these data, a review was undertaken of trends in poverty and inequality in developing countries.(22) The review suggested that, although the overall incidence of poverty throughout the developing regions was likely to fall in the years to come, the ranks of the poor in sub-Saharan Africa were likely to swell. It also showed that, while poverty has tended to be more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, this asymmetry may disappear in the years to come.
To provide a strong theoretical basis for the poverty alleviation activities that the ILO has been carrying out for many years, and to ensure that these are fully adapted to current trends and events, a number of studies were undertaken to assess the reasons for the success or failure of anti-poverty policies, programmes and projects. Based on evaluations of a large number of projects and programmes, successful anti-poverty programmes were reviewed and recommendations formulated.(23) An analysis of recent experiences in Latin America emphasized the need for policies to ensure sustained economic growth and strengthen the link between such growth and poverty reduction.(24) A review of rural poverty issues in Asia pointed to the lessons for South Asian countries of the development experience in East Asia,(25) including the need for beneficiary groups to be involved in the targeting of interventions.
Acknowledging that progress was contingent upon a political base to support reform, an examination was undertaken of how to build constituencies for anti-poverty strategies.(26) The study examined the means by which coalitions and alliances could be formed to promote social action, and the ways in which support for social policies could be harnessed and organized. Another study was undertaken to analyse the consequences on the rural sector of the shift from state-sponsored to market-oriented development strategies and of the growing integration of the world economy.(27) The study pointed to the renewed interest in rural development policies and emphasized the significance of popular participation and the promotion of the non-farm sector. Finally, at the regional level, a review was undertaken of the special features of African economies and family structures with a view to explaining the lack of success of adjustment programmes and price reforms in bringing about a transfer of resources from urban areas to the rural sector and from food crops to export crops.(28) It found that adjustment programmes were locking African countries into their role of suppliers of primary products, the prices of which were declining. Indeed, a much wider vision of the role of economic policy was needed if African countries were to return to the path of development, rather than just growth -- and this included the diversification of their economies away from agriculture and export crops to industrialization.
Technological change is another important issue that has to be taken into account by policy-makers. Work was therefore undertaken on the impact of new technologies in the agricultural and industrial sectors. A survey of evidence from Latin America suggested that the jobs and incomes of the rural poor were threatened by the development of substitute products in advanced countries. The report stressed the need for timely policy measures for agricultural diversification and shifts in production to redeploy workers made redundant in the export sector.(29) In this context, an ILO household survey on the adoption of modern agricultural and soil conservation technologies emphasized that it was essential to take account of local agricultural conditions when selecting environment-friendly agricultural technologies. By way of illustration, employment-intensive soil conservation technologies would be appropriate in the highly overcrowded uplands in the Philippines; however, in scarcely populated Latin American highlands, where land conservation practices were being abandoned due to labour shortages, labour-saving soil conservation methods were needed.
The issues of poverty and sustainable human resources development are closely linked to the question of population policies. Assistance continued to be provided during the biennium to many developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, to support the development and implementation of national population policies. Capacity-building activities included the provision of support for national and regional training programmes, particularly in Asia and Africa, and the development and dissemination of training materials, including computer software packages for the preparation of population and labour force projections. Assistance was provided to employers' and workers' organizations to strengthen their capacity to undertake information and educational activities to protect the welfare of workers and their families. A workshop was organized in 1995, in collaboration with the Organization of African Trade Union Unity (OATUU), on the role of African trade unions in the formulation and implementation of national population programmes. Emphasis was placed in all these activities on promoting awareness of gender and equity issues.
A project advisory committee was set up in each of the three cities early in the biennium to engage in a continuous dialogue with the Ministry of Labour, the municipal authorities, local researchers, employers' and workers' organizations and other interested NGOs, as well as associations of informal sector producers. These bodies played an important role in enhancing the commitment of local partners to develop joint programmes in a demand-driven manner. At the end of the biennium, seminars were organized in each of the cities to review progress and identify action to replicate the demonstration projects.
Information-gathering activities and analysis in the three cities focused on the following seven related areas: the role of the informal sector in the wider economy, including its contribution in respect of employment, the national balance of payments and the achievement of social and economic policy objectives; the policy and regulatory framework within which micro-enterprises operate; the access of informal sector operators to productive resources, such as financing, training, the transfer of technology, marketing and subcontracting; the social security coverage of informal sector workers; how to improve working conditions in the informal sector; the prevalence and situation of child workers in the informal sector; and the various types of association of informal sector operators. A number of studies were carried out in each of these areas, including some innovative investigations based on information gathered from informal sector micro-enterprises, which provided the basis for a range of pilot projects in each city.(30)
Statistical methodologies were tested and large-scale statistical surveys undertaken in the three cities covered by the interdepartmental project. These surveys were instrumental in developing, testing and evaluating methodologies for informal sector data collection on the basis of the international guidelines adopted on informal sector statistics by the 15th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS). The methodology was based on mixed household and enterprise surveys. This method was considered most appropriate as the aim was to obtain comprehensive data on the informal sector as a whole (including activities conducted without recognizable business premises or any fixed location), and to analyse the various activities undertaken by the same households or enterprises.
The surveys showed that the informal sector played an important role in employment and income generation in the three cities. They also confirmed that there was a need to increase productivity in informal sector activities, provide basic social protection and improve working conditions through the gradual application of the relevant international labour standards.
On the basis of information gathered and the needs identified, a number of pilot projects were launched in each city. One of the pilot projects carried out in Dar es Salaam consisted of training to upgrade the skills of over 100 leaders of community associations in three neighbourhoods. In addition, leaders of associations of micro-enterprises received training on ways to improve their management and offer their members improved
Informal sector development in Benin The informal sector in Benin accounts for approximately 90 per cent
of the urban and semi-urban labour force. A number of projects have been
undertaken to survey the characteristics and needs of the informal sector, and
to demonstrate effective approaches to its development.
First an overall survey was carried out of the informal sector in Benin in the
ten major urban areas (this type of survey has been carried out in very few
countries).1 This was supplemented by sample surveys to determine
the contribution of various types of informal activities to the national
economy, as well as their potentials and constraints. Thematic surveys were
also undertaken to assess the need for policy and other reforms in such areas
as fiscal policy, training, marketing and financing. This work provided the
basis for the preparation of manuals to support the implementation of census
surveys and sectoral studies of the informal sector in other
Other innovative projects were implemented in four towns to develop the
informal sector through the creation of jobs and the improvement of
productivity and incomes. Informal sector operators were assisted through the
establishment of credit and savings associations, as well as centres for the
renting out of equipment that they would have otherwise been unable to afford.
A total of 70 credit associations provided loans to over 2,000 artisans,
equally divided between men and women. The associations are managed by the
beneficiaries and the recovery rate for the loans exceeds 90 per cent (the
required level for sustainability). Four equipment centres were established in
two towns. Three of the centres are now financially sustainable, generating
resources through the fees charged to members. In addition to renting out
equipment, they supply micro-entrepreneurs with new designs and product ideas,
provide space for meetings and storage, and organize training programmes. Both
types of associations have also been instrumental in endowing informal sector
operators with greater bargaining power and representation.
In view of the experience gained through these projects, the ILO has been
requested to act as the lead agency in a larger programme to strengthen the
private sector as a whole in Benin.
1Analyse des résultats du recensement national des
établissements économiques urbains du Bénin, C.
2Analyse des résultats de l'enquête sur les
établissements économiques du Bénin, C. Maldonado and
C. Moreau (forthcoming); Manuel méthodologique pour le recensement
des établissements économiques informels, C. Maldonado
(forthcoming); and Manuel méthodologique pour l'enquête des
unités économiques informelles, C. Maldonado (in preparation).
The informal sector in Benin accounts for approximately 90 per cent of the urban and semi-urban labour force. A number of projects have been undertaken to survey the characteristics and needs of the informal sector, and to demonstrate effective approaches to its development.
First an overall survey was carried out of the informal sector in Benin in the ten major urban areas (this type of survey has been carried out in very few countries).1 This was supplemented by sample surveys to determine the contribution of various types of informal activities to the national economy, as well as their potentials and constraints. Thematic surveys were also undertaken to assess the need for policy and other reforms in such areas as fiscal policy, training, marketing and financing. This work provided the basis for the preparation of manuals to support the implementation of census surveys and sectoral studies of the informal sector in other countries.2
Other innovative projects were implemented in four towns to develop the informal sector through the creation of jobs and the improvement of productivity and incomes. Informal sector operators were assisted through the establishment of credit and savings associations, as well as centres for the renting out of equipment that they would have otherwise been unable to afford. A total of 70 credit associations provided loans to over 2,000 artisans, equally divided between men and women. The associations are managed by the beneficiaries and the recovery rate for the loans exceeds 90 per cent (the required level for sustainability). Four equipment centres were established in two towns. Three of the centres are now financially sustainable, generating resources through the fees charged to members. In addition to renting out equipment, they supply micro-entrepreneurs with new designs and product ideas, provide space for meetings and storage, and organize training programmes. Both types of associations have also been instrumental in endowing informal sector operators with greater bargaining power and representation.
In view of the experience gained through these projects, the ILO has been requested to act as the lead agency in a larger programme to strengthen the private sector as a whole in Benin.
1Analyse des résultats du recensement national des
établissements économiques urbains du Bénin, C.
2Analyse des résultats de l'enquête sur les
établissements économiques du Bénin, C. Maldonado and
C. Moreau (forthcoming); Manuel méthodologique pour le recensement
des établissements économiques informels, C. Maldonado
(forthcoming); and Manuel méthodologique pour l'enquête des
unités économiques informelles, C. Maldonado (in preparation).
2Analyse des résultats de l'enquête sur les établissements économiques du Bénin, C. Maldonado and C. Moreau (forthcoming); Manuel méthodologique pour le recensement des établissements économiques informels, C. Maldonado (forthcoming); and Manuel méthodologique pour l'enquête des unités économiques informelles, C. Maldonado (in preparation).
The projects carried out in Manila included support and training guidance for volunteer health workers to improve the working conditions of retaso workers, who are mostly women working at home producing simple goods from remnants of material. A questionnaire survey was also conducted on the working conditions of community health workers working under Save the Children and guidance and training were provided on ways to improve these conditions through simple measures. Support, including training for trainers, was provided to trade unions operating in the informal sector to help them: organize credit cooperatives for tricycle taxi and jeepney operators; assist cooperatives of informal sector workers to provide services in the fields of social security and safety and health; disseminate information to informal sector associations and workers on existing social security schemes; and undertake activities to improve the safety and health of workers making stuffed toys.
The projects carried out in Bogota included setting up an advisory centre in Ciudad Bolivar, one of the largest slum suburbs of the city. The centre provides guidance in many areas to micro-entrepreneurs and their associations, particularly in the field of productivity improvement. In collaboration with four national trade union federations, activities were carried out to establish and strengthen associations representing various categories of informal sector workers, such as street vendors working from small kiosks. Seminars were held for the representatives of these associations on the services that are available to them, the improvement of working conditions and the extension of social protection to the informal sector. The seminar on social protection, held in November 1995, explored the possibility of informal sector entrepreneurs setting up mutual health enterprises (empresas solidarias de salud), which benefit from generous state subsidies in Colombia.
In addition to this aspect of the interdepartmental project, demand continued to increase for assistance in improving productivity, incomes, working conditions and the social protection of informal sector workers. The technical cooperation projects carried out in response to this demand concentrated on: promoting an enabling business and regulatory environment for micro-enterprises; improving their access to training and other services; facilitating access to more profitable markets and better premises; improving their linkages with sources of finance, such as banks and credit schemes; establishing and strengthening associations of informal sector operators; and improving working conditions and social protection for informal sector workers.
Assistance provided to the Government in the United Republic of Tanzania contributed to the adoption of the first national policy for the informal sector. Associations of informal sector operators were set up in several sectors, including food processing and the production of building materials, with premises found by the local authorities. Assistance was provided to one association to secure subcontracts from the local authorities for sanitation and garbage disposal, thereby associating the informal sector with the improvement of the environment. In the Philippines, the Government was advised on ways to restructure the public agencies involved in enterprise development by gradually transforming them into private or semi-private bodies, so that they might improve services to informal sector enterprises. Henceforth the role of government agencies will mainly be confined to improving the policy and regulatory framework for the informal sector. As a result of support provided to further strengthen the associations representing micro-entrepreneurs at the local, national and subregional levels in countries of Central America, these associations have now achieved sufficient recognition to advance the interests of their members through policy dialogue with the authorities at these levels.
Technology remains a major barrier to the development of many micro-enterprises. Technical cooperation projects were undertaken in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, the Philippines and Thailand to enhance productivity through improvements in technology in such sectors as food-processing, metal-working and the production of building materials. These projects aimed to strengthen associations of micro-enterprises by supplying them with improved equipment and tools, providing training in their use and promoting their production by local manufacturers. Activities also included the dissemination to users of technical information, for example through the organization of visits between equipment suppliers and informal sector operators.
In the developing world and in economies in transition, the accelerating trend towards market liberalization makes it imperative for cooperatives to improve their management and competitiveness and to expand the participation of their members. Acting as a facilitator in this process, the ILO helps constituents identify factors which can contribute to the creation of a favourable national environment for the development of genuine cooperatives. An analytical study was carried out in Asia on the legal, structural and managerial issues involved.(31) A Meeting of Experts on Cooperative Law was also held in May 1995 to review the regulatory role of the State, the impact of labour law on labour relations in cooperatives and the linkages between cooperative law and international labour standards. The meeting analysed the current situation in industrialized and developing countries, as well as in economies in transition, and recommended a series of measures for the liberalization of cooperative legislation. The experts emphasized the need for a reduced role of the State in cooperative affairs. They also pointed to the need to adapt labour law, including such aspects as safety and health and social security, to work performed by independent, self-employed and non-salaried workers so that it would take account of codetermination and participatory forms of collective work, rather than being based on the employer/employee or owner/worker relationship. This guidance was used to develop the assistance provided to constituents through COOPREFORM. Under this programme services were provided, information disseminated and workshops organized for policy-makers to support the formulation of coherent cooperative development policies and reform cooperative legislation. The programme was active in countries where the cooperative movements were affected by structural adjustment programmes, particularly in Southern Africa and Asia.
|A cooperative for Bhumij tribal women in Durgapur|
Following in the footsteps of other ILO cooperative programmes, such as ACOPAM, which have been promoting the alleviation of poverty through self-reliance for a good many years now, a new programme was launched (INDISCO) to support the development of tribal people through participative organizations. It commenced with a number of pilot projects, one of which covered the village of Durgapur in the Indian State of Orissa.
Durgapur has a total population of just over 600 from the Bhumij tribe, who live well below the official poverty line. The economy is based on very small-scale agriculture, with fairly undeveloped cottage industries involved in silkworm rearing, sabai grass cultivation and rope making, as well as the collection of sal leaves to make leaf cups. The project commenced with a general meeting of the village to identify an activity that could be developed. Although a feasibility study had shown that sal leaf cup making was not the most profitable of the potential activities, it was the easiest and cheapest to develop.
The villagers decided to set up a Mahila Mandal cooperative association with 20 women members. They also decided that, instead of selling the sal leaves in the local market, they would purchase machines to make the leaf cups directly. The women were taught how to use these machines and received training to improve their literacy. They were helped with the formalities of registering their association and in gaining access to credit to buy further machines and materials. They soon expanded their activity to take in other village members and, as the quality of their work improved, buyers started coming to the village to collect the bundles of cups.
When it started to develop, leaf cup making provided gainful employment for 20 households, with the workers earning twice the daily wage of male agricultural labourers. As the women earned money, their status in the community changed. It was then decided to set up a larger cooperative society to provide further employment in other activities, such as rope making and silkworm rearing. The pilot project was also extended to cover another five villages, with the establishment of a larger apex cooperative body.
During the biennium, four pilot projects were launched in both India and the Philippines. Training materials were also developed and extension workers trained as a basis for the further expansion of these activities.
The COOPNET programme, working closely with the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA), supported networks of cooperative management training institutes in Africa, Asia and Latin America so that they might assist each other in improving the design and implementation of cooperative management training programmes, human resource development planning and the training of trainers. Through the provision of information, advice and consultancy services, as well as the organization of regional and national workshops and seminars, it promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience in human resource development, and informed affiliated institutions about new developments and innovative approaches in this field.
The INTERCOOP programme promoted commercial exchanges, business partnerships and exchange of know-how between cooperatives in developing countries and their counterparts in the developed countries. For products which responded to a real demand and were of high quality, the assistance consisted of informing cooperative-type enterprises about export/import potential, bringing cooperative enterprises into contact with importers or exporters and providing international market information on quality requirements, new technologies and changes in demand. As well as giving advice on marketing, legal, financial and other issues, it arranged for direct technical exchanges and mutual advice between cooperative trade partners. It covered West Africa, East Africa, the Maghreb countries and Eastern and Central Europe.
A poverty alleviation programme, based on the participatory methodology developed in the ACOPAM project, was implemented to strengthen national capacities for the promotion of sustainable social and economic development at the grassroots level. Work continued, particularly in Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal, on the development and strengthening of cooperatives in activities suited to local conditions. These activities included the management of irrigated and wooded areas; the management of agricultural land -- particularly through the establishment of cereal banks and marketing cooperatives; and the development of cooperative activities for women, including financing schemes. ACOPAM was active mainly in French-speaking Africa. As a result of its work over the years, the programme has significantly increased the food security of its beneficiaries. A local economic development (LED) programme promoted cooperative entrepreneurial initiatives through an active partnership including all the socio-economic actors in a local community. The programme covered Central America (PRODERE), West Africa and Central and Eastern Europe. The interregional programme to support self-relianceof indigenous and tribal communities through cooperatives and other self-help organizations (INDISCO) also commenced pilot activities in India and the Philippines to support the application of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169). Under this programme, the cooperative approach was applied to the development of the indigenous economy with a view to alleviating the effects of involuntary displacement, managing natural resources and protecting the environment in areas inhabited by indigenous and tribal peoples.
In all of these activities, human resource development continued to be a priority, both at the grass-roots and managerial levels. Training in cooperative principles and management enabled low-income rural producers, tribal and indigenous people to organize and manage their own enterprises and social services through cooperative associations. In this regard, the ACOPAM programme in the Sahel and the INDISCO programme in Asia supported rural and tribal groups in the identification, planning and implementation of their own cooperative businesses and social services, while protecting their own natural resource base and cultural integrity.
In an increasingly globalized economy, quality jobs can only be created and sustained by viable and competitive enterprises. Assistance was therefore offered to member States in the promotion of productivity improvements. Guides and technical materials on improving enterprise performance and on productivity and quality management were prepared and disseminated.(32) Technical assistance in this field was provided to
Reintegration of demobilized soldiers in Mozambique Following the 1992 signing of the peace agreement in Rome between
the Government of Mozambique and the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO),
the country was faced with the enormous task of reintegrating 100,000
demobilized soldiers, 1.7 million refugees from neighbouring countries and 4
million internally displaced persons. The economic and social devastation
resulting from 17 years of civil war meant that there were few employment
opportunities available. Because of their importance in the consolidation of
the peace process and future national stability, priority was given to the
economic integration of demobilized soldiers.
A project was commenced in July 1994 under which the ILO cooperates with the
National Employment and Vocational Training Institute. The project is designed
to provide demobilized soldiers with the necessary skills and basic tools to
find a job, or to become productively self-employed. It also includes the
provision of assistance, including business training, to a limited number of
former soldiers -- and particularly officers -- to help them set up small
enterprises. Development activities at the community level have also been
By September 1995, new training activities had been developed in seven
provinces and the project covered the whole of the country. Over 100 contracts
had been concluded with training providers, with 4,000 trainees benefiting from
training courses. Some 1,500 toolkits, adapted to a variety of artisanal
activities, had been distributed, with others being provided to trainees as
they completed their training courses. A specially adapted "Start Your
Business" course was also organized, initially for 270 former soldiers. These
trainees are now being provided with further support, including monitoring,
advice and help in gaining access to credit, so that they can put their
training into practice.
Based on this experience, avenues are being explored for the provision of
further assistance by the ILO in Mozambique, particularly in the field of small
enterprise development among newly demobilized and other displaced persons, as
well as in the context of a comprehensive national employment programme.
Following the 1992 signing of the peace agreement in Rome between the Government of Mozambique and the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO), the country was faced with the enormous task of reintegrating 100,000 demobilized soldiers, 1.7 million refugees from neighbouring countries and 4 million internally displaced persons. The economic and social devastation resulting from 17 years of civil war meant that there were few employment opportunities available. Because of their importance in the consolidation of the peace process and future national stability, priority was given to the economic integration of demobilized soldiers.
A project was commenced in July 1994 under which the ILO cooperates with the National Employment and Vocational Training Institute. The project is designed to provide demobilized soldiers with the necessary skills and basic tools to find a job, or to become productively self-employed. It also includes the provision of assistance, including business training, to a limited number of former soldiers -- and particularly officers -- to help them set up small enterprises. Development activities at the community level have also been undertaken.
By September 1995, new training activities had been developed in seven provinces and the project covered the whole of the country. Over 100 contracts had been concluded with training providers, with 4,000 trainees benefiting from training courses. Some 1,500 toolkits, adapted to a variety of artisanal activities, had been distributed, with others being provided to trainees as they completed their training courses. A specially adapted "Start Your Business" course was also organized, initially for 270 former soldiers. These trainees are now being provided with further support, including monitoring, advice and help in gaining access to credit, so that they can put their training into practice.
Based on this experience, avenues are being explored for the provision of further assistance by the ILO in Mozambique, particularly in the field of small enterprise development among newly demobilized and other displaced persons, as well as in the context of a comprehensive national employment programme.
The Improve Your Business (IYB) training programme is an important element of the ILO's efforts to promote small enterprise development. It consists of a number of interrelated training packages and support materials which provide small-scale enterprise owners and managers in developing countries with the business management skills they need to make their enterprises grow. IYB includes the original "Improve Your Business" materials, aimed at managers wishing to improve the performance of their existing business; "Improve Your Business Basics", aimed at entrepreneurs with limited formal education; and "Start Your Business" for potential entrepreneurs. IYB is implemented through institutions already involved in small enterprise development. The ILO trains the trainers working for these support organizations, who, in turn, train the entrepreneurs. By applying this multiplier strategy, large numbers of entrepreneurs benefit from the programme. Information about the quality and impact of the courses is obtained through a special monitoring and evaluation system. See Chapter 4 for a description of the IYB programme in Uganda.
Developing the competence of managers is an important means of promoting sustained enterprise growth and employment with reasonable working conditions. Many activities were undertaken in Africa, including support for national workshops and technical cooperation projects, to strengthen management development institutions. Similar activities were also undertaken in Asia, where assistance was concentrated on the transfer of innovations in the field of management. In countries in transition, support for management development institutions concentrated on the development of managerial capacities for enterprise restructuring. Training materials were prepared on management development and consultancy, including internal management consulting. Documentation on management innovations and best practice was also prepared and disseminated.(33) Futhermore, networking was developed as a means of fostering exchanges of experience between productivity centres, management development institutions, small enterprise support institutions and NGOs to enhance capacity building. For this purpose, close links were maintained with INTERMAN, the international management development network. Assistance was also provided in the development of regional networks. In support of this work, subregional workshops and seminars on management development were held in Central Asia, the Caribbean and South Asia.
Many large member States are currently implementing privatization and enterprise restructuring programmes. Assistance was provided to help them improve the effectiveness of these programmes and minimize their social cost. In support of these activities, studies were prepared on the management of privatization programmes.(34) One important issue in this context is the conversion of military bases for enterprise development purposes. By way of illustration, more than 100 military bases were closed in Belarus after the break-up of the USSR. The ILO is assisting the Government to devise ways of creating new jobs for those affected by the closures and of putting abandoned facilities to productive use by converting them into enterprise development zones. The human and physical resources of the former military bases are being audited, business development opportunities analysed and over 120 local consultants trained to provide assistance to local entrepreneurs. Similar activities have been undertaken in the Russian Federation and the Ukraine.
These activities were supported by a number of guides and resource packages covering the provision of services to small enterprises.(35) They contain guidance on how to analyse the effect of legal and administrative systems on small enterprises, together with recommendations on how they can be made more effective. The guides also cover measures and policies to improve the feasibility and sustainability of small enterprise support programmes. Advisory services were provided in over 15 countries to assist in the adaptation of legislation respecting small enterprises and the establishment of an institutional framework for small enterprise support. Technical cooperation projects were undertaken in Comoros, Indonesia, Jordan, Madagascar, Mali, Malawi, Niger, Papua New Guinea and the South Pacific to develop and strengthen institutions which provide support services to small enterprises, such as training, consultancy, credit, information on technology and market access, and linkages with other enterprises. Small enterprise components were also included in employment programmes for countries emerging from armed conflict, such as Angola, Cambodia, Mozambique and Haiti.
Access to finance remains a serious barrier to the development of small and micro-enterprises. Many activities were undertaken to address this issue, including conceptual work, institution building and the provision of policy advice. These activities focused on ways to compensate for size-related constraints in access to financial services and measures to improve the capacity of small and micro-enterprises to use these services efficiently. In a number of Asian and French-speaking West African countries and in Madagascar, support was provided to assist small and micro-enterprises to organize into financial self-help groups, such as mutual guarantee associations. Pilot projects were undertaken, consisting of capacity-building activities and training for staff in non-governmental credit institutions. Assistance was given to local government agencies and NGOs in several countries to improve the effectiveness of credit schemes; this took the form of training for the staff of government agencies, financial institutions and NGOs in the development and effective operation of micro-finance programmes. In April 1995, government officials, bank staff, national researchers and representatives of small enterprise associations in Africa were brought together in a regional seminar held in Dakar for both English- and French-speaking African countries. The seminar examined ways of alleviating the negative impact on small enterprises of financial reform measures adopted within the context of deregulation policies and the liberalization of national financial markets. A project was also undertaken in South-East Asia to demonstrate to commercial banks how they could use different forms of collateral, including group liability and crop pledging, without affecting the quality of their loan portfolio.
In a context of rapidly evolving labour market demands, training systems must be able to react increasingly rapidly to changing conditions, while at the same time extending their services to cover the needs of the disadvantaged categories of the population. This is a particular challenge in developing countries and economies in transition, where training policies and systems are faced with the difficult task of trying to equip enormous numbers of new workers every year with the skills they require to find employment in a situation of erratic and low demand in the wage economy. This situation is compounded by severe resource constraints in both the public and private sectors. Some countries, among them the poorest, also have to support the burden of sheltering large numbers of refugees and other displaced persons, many of whom are inadequately educated or trained. In the industrialized countries, including newly industrialized countries, rapid technological change, intensified competition and the widespread reorganization of work are making it necessary for training systems to adjust ever more rapidly to shifting labour market demands.
In response to these constraints and priorities, the ILO's activities during the biennium focused on developing the policy-making capacity of governments, employers' and workers' organizations and on strengthening dialogue and cooperation in the field of training. These activities took the form of the dissemination of information to constituents, policy dialogue and the provision of advisory services.
Various guides on training policy analysis were prepared and tested for those responsible for the design, implementation and evaluation of training policies. The methodology adopted, which has been applied in advisory services and training activities, consists of a step-by-step process for the investigation of the national situation, followed by reflection, dialogue and the formulation of policy options. The guides cover issues such as the diversification of sources of financing for vocational training and making more effective use of vocational training resources.(36) A review was undertaken of current trends and best practices in training policies and systems in 15 developing countries and economies in transition. The results of the review will be published in a joint World Bank/ILO paper.(37)
These activities helped extend the Office's capacity to provide advisory services for the formulation of training policies and programmes within a context of a more integrated approach to human development planning. Technical assistance of this type was delivered to a wide range of countries, including Cyprus, Djibouti, Greece, Haiti, India, Jordan, Pakistan, Tunisia and Zambia. In the case of Jordan, the assistance was provided jointly with the World Bank to prepare a strategy, action plan and investment programme for technical and vocational education and training up to the end of the century. Workshops on the development and analysis of training policies were organized at the national level in Eritrea, Indonesia and Mauritius and for the Caribbean subregion in Jamaica. A seminar was also held in Jerusalem for policy-makers from the Occupied Territories.
An important factor in the capacity of policy-makers to design effective education and training strategies is their access to information and their ability to analyse it. An approach was developed to assist constituents in the identification, design and implementation of measures for the collection and analysis of information needed for policy decisions, based on the concept of "employment and training observatories". Assistance in the establishment and evaluation of such observatories was proposed to constituents, whose response is reflected in country objectives, particularly in Africa and Latin America. A meeting was held in Côte d'Ivoire to evaluate sources of information on employment and training. Advisory services were provided in Murmansk (Russian Federation) to offer guidance on the collection and analysis of the information needed to make better use of the regional training system.
Many of the activities undertaken in the field of training focused on helping policy-makers adapt training policies and programmes in the context of structural adjustment measures and the transition to a market economy. Emphasis was placed on responding to the training needs of unemployed and redundant workers. By way of illustration, activities in Poland and the Russian Federation focused on promoting the use of modular training to retrain and upgrade the skills of adult workers, including training for self-employment in rural areas. These activities were supported by the development of an international network of modular training providers with a view to exchanging experience and advancing modular training concepts and practices.
Policy advice on the adaptation of training policies and systems in the context of structural adjustment took various forms. Case-studies were undertaken in Indonesia and Tunisia to examine ways in which training concerns were debated with the social partners and integrated into the design and execution of the structural adjustment programme. An analysis was undertaken in China of the implications of the transition to a market economy on education and training policies as a basis for the formulation of policy recommendations.(38) In Egypt, human resource development policy options were identified with a view to making better use of the available labour force as the economy became increasingly market-oriented. These concerns were also addressed in a seminar on training and change in southern Africa. The seminar was held in Swaziland and brought together senior civil servants from both the "front-line" States and South Africa.
The changing role of governments and the increasing involvement of the private sector is an important and topical issue in the provision of training and in its adaptation to labour market skill requirements. There are several issues relating to the involvement of employers in the provision of training. Many enterprises or groups of enterprises are training providers in their own right; and employers often play an important role in policy determination by participating in training boards at various levels. They are also a source of funding. Under all these systems, coordination between public and private provision of training is vital for the effectiveness of the system as a whole. In order to identify innovative partnerships between the State and enterprises, a study was undertaken of the policy environment for private sector training in 20 developing and industrialized countries.(39) In December 1995 the findings of this study and its policy implications were discussed at a regional meeting organized in Japan for policy-makers involved with training. Technical advisory services were provided in Chad, Guinea and Madagascar to assist in the establishment of training funds with the participation of employers. The Government of Pakistan was also assisted in improving the effectiveness of its training programmes through increased participation by employers in the national and provincial training boards, as well as in the management committees of training centres and in local skills development councils. A meeting was held in Zimbabwe on the role of employers in human resource development. Advisory services were also provided in a number of countries, including South Africa, to examine and develop human resource development policies in the private sector through the expansion of training in the enterprise and the extension of enterprise training capacities. The assistance provided to the Government of Indonesia concentrated on developing arrangements for the provision of training by groups of companies and strengthening the linkages between the training provided by enterprises and institutions. In Bangladesh, advisory services focused on enhancing the role of enterprises in the design and evaluation of in-plant and apprenticeship training.
A variety of activities were undertaken during the biennium with a view to targeting training policies and systems more effectively on the alleviation of poverty and unemployment to ensure that they addressed the needs of the most vulnerable. As a basis for this work, a number of evaluations were carried out of training programmes aimed at disadvantaged groups of the population. These included a study of the United States Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA)(40) and another of the delivery and impact of the European Social Fund training programmes addressing poorer areas or countries. A further study was carried out of training programmes in the Andean area (Colombia, Ecuador and Peru). The findings of these evaluations will be used as a basis for the development of guidelines on improved methods of integrating training into poverty alleviation programmes and on the design of more cost-effective training programmes. This work was supplemented by a series of studies on the linkages between training policies and youth unemployment in France, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and the Southern Cone of Latin America (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay).(41) One of the principal conclusions of these studies was that the various programmes targeted on young persons had often been unsuccessful, particularly as a result of the failure to adopt an integrated approach encompassing closer links between education and training systems -- and between training institutions and enterprises. Advisory services were provided to a number of countries to help them target training systems on specific categories of workers. In Zambia, assistance was provided with a major policy review of vocational education and entrepreneurial training, in which emphasis was placed on training for work in the informal sector. In Nicaragua, the activities undertaken to strengthen vocational training systems in the country included the expansion of services to train young persons, the disabled and women.
One system of training delivery that is particularly effective in alleviating poverty and combating unemployment amongst the most vulnerable categories is community-based training to promote income-generating activities for disadvantaged groups in the rural and urban informal sector. During the biennium training guidelines and manuals for decision-makers and programme planners were developed and published on community-based training.(42) Assistance was provided for community-based education and training projects in Belarus, Honduras, Kenya, Nepal, the Philippines, the Russian Federation and the United Republic of Tanzania. Technical advisory services were carried out for the development of programmes of this type in Azerbaijan, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Jamaica and South Africa. In support of these activities, a regional workshop was organized for 14 Asian countries which developed regional and national strategies for the promotion and development of community-based training for employment and poverty alleviation.
Assistance was also provided in several countries during the period under review to contribute to the process of the reintegration of war-affected groups through training and employment programmes. A number of country case-studies (Ethiopia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zimbabwe) were carried out in Africa, and a framework for reintegration of ex-combatants through skills and entrepreneurship training was prepared following an ILO African Regional Experts' Meeting held in Harare in July 1995.(43) The studies found that in none of the five countries had a comprehensive approach been adopted to the reintegration of ex-combatants, largely due to the complex nature of the task and the limited availability of external funding. The full importance of employment and training programmes as a central component of reintegration had only gradually been realized. The experts attending the Harare meeting discussed the various aspects of the reintegration of demobilized combatants into civilian life through employment, training and related support for self-employment, including small and micro-enterprise development. They agreed on guidelines for workable solutions in the extremely difficult situations encountered by countries emerging from armed conflict.
The Centre's more traditional areas of support for ILO programmes, including employers' and workers' activities, training and enterprise and cooperative development, continued to account for an important proportion of its activities. However, there was also a strengthening of collaboration with technical programmes in the fields of employment, social security, international labour standards, labour legislation and industrial relations, women's issues, working conditions and environment, and sectoral issues. The increase in activities in relation to standard-setting activities and tripartite dialogue was particularly important. In this context, emphasis was placed on educational activities to enhance the capacities of trade union leaders and employers' representatives to analyse issues and options arising out of social policy and labour market reforms.
The establishment and consolidation of a small design and development unit has increased the Centre's capacity to produce training materials, many of which are multi-media. These materials are developed in support of the ILO's training activities and at the request of other clients. The Centre has also established a laboratory on new training technologies and provides training in the use and application of these technologies.
Over recent years, the Centre's cooperation with the organizations of the United Nations system has expanded and now consists of some 25 self-financed training projects annually. These activities are mainly focused on the management of operational activities and technical cooperation -- areas in which the Centre has continued to build up its expertise. The programme also includes activities in the fields of human rights, humanitarian affairs and peace-keeping, for which the Centre places its training facilities and capacities at the disposal of its partners in the United Nations system and assists in the production of appropriate training materials.
Networking with other development partners also expanded during the biennium, in the form of collaborative arrangements with regional and national training institutions in both the developing and industrialized world. Formal cooperation agreements were concluded with a number of institutions, including the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok and the Training Centre in Bialobrzegi, Poland. Joint training activities were undertaken during the biennium in the fields of: adult education in Poland; small enterprise development in the Russian Federation and Slovenia; human resource management in the public sector in French-speaking Africa; development management and national capacity building in Asia and Africa; and the reform of vocational training systems in Italy.
Notes (1).International capital flows and employment creation in developing countries, by E.K.V. Fitzgerald and G. Mavrotos (manuscript).
(2).Country studies on employment growth and structural adjustment, by L. Taylor (in preparation).
(3).Employment expansion and macroeconomic stability in an era of increasing globalization, A.R. Khan and M. Muqtata (eds.) (forthcoming).
(4)."Sectoral trends in world employment, by J. Wieczorek, Sectoral Activities Programme, Working Paper No. 82, and (same author) "Sectoral trends in world employment and the shift toward services, in International Labour Review, 1995/2.
(5).Metal Trades Committee, Thirteenth Session, 1994: Report II: Consequences of structural adjustment for employment, training, further training and retraining in the metal trades; Tripartite Meeting on the Consequences for Management and Personnel of the Restructuring of Railways, 1994: Consequences for management and personnel of the restructuring of railways; Fourth Tripartite Technical Meeting for the Clothing Industry, 1995: Report II: The effects of technological changes in the clothing industry; Chemical Industries Committee, Eleventh Session, 1995: Report II: The implications of structural change for employment and training in the chemical industries. In relation to railways see also I. Valkova, Consequences for Management and Personnel of the Reorganization of Railways in the Russian Federation -- 1990-92, Sectoral Activities Programme, Working Paper No. 72.
(6).Metal Trades Committee, Thirteenth Session, 1994: Note on the Proceedings; Tripartite Meeting on the Consequences for Management and Personnel of the Restructuring of Railways, 1994: Final Report; Fourth Tripartite Technical Meeting for the Clothing Industry, 1995: Note on the Proceedings; Chemical Industries Committee, Eleventh Session, 1995: Note on the Proceedings.
(7).Structural adjustment and fiscal policy: A case study for Barbados, by R. van der Hoeven, G. Pyatt and P. Richards, Employment Papers No. 3.
(8).Adjustment and social funds: Political panacea or effective poverty reduction? by F.Stewart and W. van der Geest, Employment Papers No. 2.
(9).Les services publics africains à l'épreuve de l'assainissement: Une évaluation économique et sociale, by J.-Y. Lesueur and P. Plane (Paris, L'Harmattan, 1994); Document d'orientation sur les politiques de privatisation du secteur public, by A. Adérito, Sectoral Activities Programme, Working Paper No. 90; Privatization in Mauritius: Semi-privatization, counter-privatization and closure, by P. Ujoodha, Sectoral Activities Programme, Working Paper No. 88; Privatization of public services and public utilities, by C. Oestmann, Sectoral Activities Programme, Working Paper No. 70; Sectoral Activities Programme Working Paper on structural adjustment and human resource management in the public service of Mali by M.M. Sissoko, No. 89 (forthcoming), Mauritius, by R. Mudhoo, No. 92 (forthcoming), and Senegal, by A.A. Tall, No. 87, 1995; Joint Meeting on the Impact of Structural Adjustment on Educational Personnel, Geneva (scheduled in 1995 but postponed to April 1996): Report II: The impact of structural adjustment measures on the employment and training of teachers (forthcoming).
(10).Statistical publications issued during the biennium included: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 53rd issue, 1994, and 54th issue, 1995; Sources and methods: Labour statistics, Vol. 6 (first ed.): Household income and expenditure surveys, and Vol. 2 (second ed.): Employment, wages, hours of work and labour cost (establishment surveys); eight regular issues of the Bulletin of Labour Statistics (quarterly), plus two separate issues containing the 1993 and 1994 October inquiry results; and Household income and expenditure statistics, No. 4, 1979-91.
(11).New approaches to poverty analysis and policy, Vol. I: The poverty agenda and the ILO: Issues for research and action, G. Rodgers (ed.); Vol. II: Reducing poverty through labour market policies, J.B. Figueiredo and Z. Shaheed (eds.); Vol. III: The poverty agenda: Trends and policy options, G. Rodgers and R. van der Hoeven (eds.).
(12).Social exclusion and South Asia, by A. de Haan and P. Nayak, Discussion Paper No.77: Social exclusion in the Philippines: A review of literature, Discussion Paper No.79; Bibliographie sur l'exclusion dans les pays arabes du Maghreb et du Machreq, by M.Bédoui, Discussion Paper No. 80; Policies to combat social exclusion: A French-British comparison, by H. Silver and F. Wilkinson, Discussion Paper No. 83; Social exclusion revisited: Towards an analytical and operational framework, by A. Bhalla and F. Lapeyre, (manuscript); Poverty and social exclusion: Conceptual differences and analytical relationships, by C. Gore (manuscript); Patterns and processes of social exclusion in Tanzania, by A. Tibaijuka et al. (forthcoming); Social exclusion in Brazil: Theories and evidence, by P.Singer (forthcoming); Social exclusion in Cameroon, by S. Inack Inack etal. (forthcoming); Social exclusion from a welfare rights perspective: The case of India, by A. Vaidyanathan et al. (forthcoming); Social exclusion and inequality in Peru, by A.Figueroa et al. (forthcoming); Social exclusion in Russia: Patterns and processes, by N.Tchernina (forthcoming); Rights to livelihoods and employment in Thailand: Contesting social exclusion, by P. Phongpaichit et al. (forthcoming); Venezuela: Exclusion and integration. A synthesis in the building?, by V. Cartaya (forthcoming); Goals for social integration, realities of social exclusion: The Republic of Yemen, by M.Hashem et al. (forthcoming).
(13).Social exclusion: Rhetoric, reality and responses, G. Rodgers, C. Gore and J.B. Figueiredo (eds.) (a contribution to the World Summit for Social Development).
(14).The labour market in Africa, by J.-P. Lachaud, Research Series No. 102.
(15).Pauvreté et marché du travail urbain au sud du Sahara: Analyse comparative, by J.-P. Lachaud, 1993.
(16).These guidelines were published as series on: Improve your construction business (handbook and workbook), covering pricing and bidding (IYCB 1), site management (IYCB2), and business management (IYCB 3); Road maintenance and regravelling (ROMAR) training package (not yet published); Guidelines on expanding labour-based methods in road programmes (manuscript).
(17).Technical choice in civil engineering practice: Experience in the road sector, 1995.
(18).Labour-based road engineering: Orientation course; Undergraduate course; Postgraduate course (three course notes), by J. Howe and H. Muller, 1995.
(19).Labour-based technology: A review of current practice (two volumes) (report for a regional seminar for labour-based practitioners in the road sector in sub-Saharan Africa), 1995.
(20).Relevance and potential of employment-intensive works programmes in the reintegration of demobilized combatants, case-studies on Uganda, Cambodia and Mozambique, 1995.
(21).Statistics on poverty and income distribution: An ILO compendium of data, by H.Tabatabai (forthcoming).
(22)."Poverty and inequality in developing countries: A review of evidence", by H.Tabatabai, in The poverty agenda: Trends and policy options, International Institute for Labour Studies, 1995, op. cit.
(23).The political economy of fighting poverty, by P. Streeten, Issues in Development, Discussion Paper (No. 1).
(24).Poverty, equity, and social welfare in Latin America: Determinants of change over growth spells, by A. de Janvry and E. Sadoulet, Issues in Development, Discussion Paper (No. 6).
(25).Reflections on South Asian prospects in East Asian perspective, by A. Saith, Issues in Development, Discussion Paper (No. 7).
(26).Successes in anti-poverty, by M. Lipton, Issues in Development, Discussion Paper (No.8).
(27).State, market and civil organizations: New theories, new practices and their implications for rural development, A. de Janvry, S. Radwan, E. Sadoulet and E. Thorbecke (eds.) (Macmillan for ILO, 1995).
(28).Structural adjustment and rural labour markets in Africa, by V. Jamal (Macmillan for ILO, 1995).
(29)."Employment impacts of biotechnologies in Latin America: Coffee and cocoa in Costa Rica, by R. Galhardi, in Assessing the impacts of agricultural biotechnologies: Canadian-Latin American perspectives (Ottawa, International Development Research Centre, 1995).
(30).The following studies are available in manuscript form: General: Informal sector survey, objectives and methodologies, by R. Hussmanns; Informal sector data collection -- International standards and national experiences, by R. Hussmanns; ILO_s assistance on methodologies concerning informal sector data collection, by R. Hussmanns; The urban informal sector: A note on the concept and definition, by S. Sethuraman; Incorporating the informal sector into the macroeconomic information base: Some definitions and conceptual issues, by P. Bangasser; The applicability in the urban informal sector of international labour Conventions dealing with basic social rights, child labour and general principles of occupational safety and health: An overview, by M. Ndiaye; Economic linkages for promoting the informal sector, by P. Bangasser; Franchising as an integrating approach to the informal sector: Some preliminary ideas, by P. Bangasser; Public services franchising to the informal sector, by P. Bangasser; Social security for the informal sector: Issues and options, by W. van Ginneken. From Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam informal sector pilot survey, by S.B. Buberwa; Coping with informal sector in Dar es Salaam: Issues and strategies, by S.V. Sethuraman; Brief on national policy for micro-enterprise and informal sector promotion, by N.B. Mwaduma; Regulations and legal framework for informal sector in Dar es Salaam, by M. Tueros; Labour relations in the informal sector, by D. Tagjman; Financial services, by M. Bastianen; Skill acquisition and training in the informal sector, by M.G. Monji; Marketing and sales capacity in the informal sector ..., by A. Tarimo; Locational strategies for informal trading and services, by P. Pathak; Disabled informal sector operators, by D. Tsigwa; A study for the implementation of occupational health and safety strategies ..., by P.G. Riwa and D. Swai; Social protection for the informal sector: Health care services provision and health insurance schemes, by A.D. Kiwara; Social protection scheme for informal sector cooperatives in Dar es Salaam, by M. Laiser; Self-help organizations in the informal sector of the Dar es Salaam region, by P. Wenga et al.; Informal sector clusters, by C.M.F. Lwoga; Institutional linkages between trade unions and informal sector associations in Ghana, by F.A. Parry. For Metro Manila: Informal sector: Labour law and industrial relations aspects, by R. Ofreneo; Legal and regulatory framework for the informal sector in Manila, by D. Roaring; Subcontracting in Metro Manila: Operations and perspectives, by L. Raring; Assessing the efficiency and outreach of micro-finance schemes, by R.T. Chua and G.M. Llanto; People with disabilities in the urban informal sector, by H. Fajardo; Feasibility study for the establishment of a common facilities centre in Marikina for footwear and leather goods manufacturers, by SEA consultants; Snapshot of working conditions in the urban informal sector, by J. Batino; Copper field: Child workers in shoe manufacturing activities in Marikina, by Trends-MBL Inc.; A study of self-help associations (including case-studies), by G. Llanto, et al.; A survey on self-help associations, by L. Espinoza. From Bogota: Legislación laboral y sector no estructurado, by M.E. Pacheco Restrepo; Las organicaciones del sector informal, by M. Julio Cely; Diagnosis of trade union activities with regard to the informal sector, by B. Herrera and J. Galindo; Platform for action for trade unions with regard to the informal sector, by three national and one city level union.
(31).Creating a favourable climate and conditions for cooperative development in Asia, K.K. Taimni, Cooperative Development, 1994.
(32).Management consulting focused on productivity, by J. Prokopenko (Enterprise and management development Working Paper No. 3); Productivity management for sustainable development, by A.L. Tolentino (Enterprise and management development Working Paper No. 11); Productivity and quality management: A modular programme, J. Prokopenko and K. North (eds.) (forthcoming); and Making global production work locally: Diffusion of best practices in manufacturing, by K. North et al. (forthcoming).
(33).Management consulting: A guide to the profession (third revised edition), M. Kubr (ed.) (forthcoming); Small business and environmentally sound production: Looking for a relevant approach, by C. Bengtsson (Enterprise and management development Working Paper No.10); Human resource management and development is an important task for economies in transition, by J. Prokopenko (in Russian); Developing internal management consultancy, by J. Prokopenko and H. Johri (forthcoming).
(34).Management for privatization: Lessons from industry and public service, J.Prokopenko (ed.) (Management development series No. 32); Managing privatization, by D. Rondinelli and M. Iacono (manuscript); Consulting in privatization, by R. Berger, M.Bauer and M. Kubr, with contributions from V. Klaus and E.S. Savas (Enterprise and management development Working Paper No. 7).
(35).The following issues of the International Construction Management Series were published: Constructive change: Managing international technology transfer, by D. Miles (No. 5); Financing international projects, by A.D.F. Price (No. 3); International project accounting, by A.D.F. Price (No. 1); International bidding case study, by A. Baldwin, R.McCaffer and S. Oteifa (No. 2); International bid preparation, by A. Baldwin, R.McCaffer and S. Oteifa (No. 4); International project marketing, by D. Miles (No. 6). Also published were: Interactive contractor training, by T. Hernes (Module 1: Estimating and tendering; Module 2: Project planning; Module 3: Site productivity); Small enterprise development: Taxonomy of intervention schemes applied to the Swiss case, by P.H. Dembinski and T. Volery (Enterprise and management development Working Paper No. 2); Guidelines for the analysis of policies and programmes for small and medium enterprise development, by A.L. Tolentino (Enterprise and management development Working Paper No. 13).
(36).Diversifying sources of vocational training finance (a set of training modules) (manuscript); Making more effective use of vocation training resources (a set of training modules) (manuscript).
(37).Constraints and innovations in vocational training reform (a joint World Bank/ILO publication) (in preparation).
(38).China: Employment and training policies for transition to a market economy, Vol.1: Synthesis report, Vol. 2: Analysis and policy options, Vol. 3: Action programme, ILO/EASMAT, 1995.
(39).Strategic training partnerships between the State and enterprises, by A.G. Mitchell, discussion paper, ILO/APSDEP Seminar, Dec. 1995.
(40).Evaluating job training programmes in the United States: Evidence and explanations, by W.N. Grubb, Training Policy Studies No. 17.
(41).Training and employment policies and the school-to-work transition in the UK, by R.M. Lindley (manuscript); L_insertion des jeunes et les politiques de formation: rapports entre droit à la formation et droit au travail, by J. Gaude (manuscript); Diagnóstico sobre el paro juvenil y políticas para facilitar la entrada al primer trabajo, by L. Garrido Medina, Training Policy Studies No. 16; La nouvelle donne de l_insertion professionnelle en France, by F. Lefresne (manuscript); Training in employment policies in relation to school-to-work transition in Germany, by C. Wolfinger (manuscript); Un acercamiento a la relación entre juventud, trabajo y educación -- El caso del Cono Sur de América Latina, by J. Ruétalo (manuscript).
(42).Community-based training for employment and income generation: A guide for decision-makers, by H.C. Haan, Vocational Training Systems Management Branch, 1994. Community-based training for employment and income generation: Vol. 1: Institutional and programme planning; Vol. II: Identification of economic opportunities and training needs; Vol. III: Training organization and preparation; Vol. IV: Training delivery; Vol.V: Post-training support services; Vol. VI: Monitoring, evaluation and documentation (in preparation).
(43).Reintegrating demobilized combatants:
Experiences from four African countries, 1995.