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The first round of studies undertaken by the ILO/JIL network of institutes of labour studies explored the topic, The Impact of Globalization on the World of Work. It analyzed the main issues arising from liberalization and globalization in the Asian region. Based on country-case studies, empirical data and analytical considerations are presented in respect of the Newly Industrialized Economies (NIE's), the newly emerging NIE's, the economies in transition, South Asia and the Pacific Islands.
The first round of studies undertaken by the ILO/JIL network of institutes of labour studies explored the topic, The Impact of Globalization on the World of Work, and the synthesis was published in 1996. The second round of studies focused on issues of equity and growth. Its starting point is that globalization means, firstly, trade liberalization and consequential growth in trade relations within the region and with countries beyond it; secondly, intensified flows of capital; and thirdly, greater mobility of workers across borders. The impact of trade, capital and labour flows on growth and equity are examined in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.
An ILO/UNDP review mission undertook a policy review of industrial relations and labour protection in Indonesia for the principal purpose of assisting the Government and its social partners in the formulation and implementation of the necessary programmes to promote sound labour relations and labour protection. This report of the mission describes and analyzes the current policy and practice in industrial relations that includes wage policy, working conditions, labour inspection and international labour standards. The report also presents policy advice addressing the key issues including an integrated plan of action and programme of technical cooperation.
This publication, besides providing examples of other countries' experiences, seeks to lay the analytical, empirical and institutional foundation for Indonesia's future productivity growth. It is meant to stimulate discussions among the government agencies responsible for improving productivity, employers' and workers' organizations, the private sector and other interested parties as to how a national framework and strategy for productivity improvement can be set up in Indonesia to restore and further improve its competitiveness. The first chapter by Gopal Joshi on regional competitiveness compares the labour productivity and total factor productivity of South-East Asian and East Asian countries in view of their competition to attract direct foreign investment and to further their respective exports. It demonstrates that Indonesia trails in competitivenenss and productivity. The second paper by Hananto Sigit on labour productivity in industry and trade in Indonesia points out the lopsided increase in productivity in those manufacturing and trading sectors which attracted large amounts of capital investments whereas smaller manufacturing activities remained stagnant, thereby inhibiting increases in employment. Thereafter, Joseph Prokopenko provides an international perspective on productivity improvement strategies for competitiveness. His chapter emphasizes the importance of competitiveness in the era of globalization, which has spurred global commodity chains and linkages in production. The last chapter by Didik Rachbini proposes an institutional framework and strategy for productivity improvement in Indonesia. In the annex, Mah Lok Abdullah's paper describes how Malaysia successfully adapted a productivity strategy to its requirement.
This publication reviews the progress made so far by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in addressing the tasks mandated to it and in the light of its findings considers alternative approaches that may lend themselves to resolving the problems ahead. It begins with a review of the context for policy reforms and the policy responses to the issues in skills training. It then goes on to analyze the achievement of the policy reforms and identifies the gaps in policy reforms. The aspects considered by the authors include the need for training/retraining programs for the retrenched workers, a more cost-efficient financing scheme for training, and increasing the awareness of the organized workers about skills training through their unions and federations. The authors conclude with recommendations for strategic direction that the skills training system should take to bridge the identified gaps. The publication also highlights some lessons that can be drawn from the policy reform process in the Philippines.
The Convention concerning Vocational Guidance and Vocational training in the Development of Human Resources (No. 142), also known as the Human Resource Development Convention, and its accompanying recommendation (No. 150) were adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1975. These instruments suggest approaches to human resource development, vocational guidance and vocational training. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority of the Philippines (TESDA) undertook a review of the provisions of these two instruments to assess if the changed work place environment since the adoption of the instruments have given rise to the need for reformulation of approaches for developing a more skilled work force capable of meeting the challenges of globalization. Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Human Resource Development - A National Perspective makes a set of recommendations on the basis of the Philippines experience for enhancing the effectiveness of these instruments.
This publication contains the presentations made at the January 1999 workshop on reintegrating migrant workers or the research summaries prepared for it. The Philippines Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) initially sets out what is known about the characteristics of Filipinos going overseas on limited-time work contracts. The Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) then explains its 10 year involvement in activities to support return migrants who wish to become self-employed workers or micro-entrepreneurs. H. Fajardo's two contributions analyze, firstly the various governmental or non-governmental support schemes and, secondly, how the Government and NGOs could best work together. She presents her own model of how support to potential micro entrepreneurs might best be arranged. The International Catholic Migration Commission's chapter highlights the features of the NGOs which were most successful in the economic sphere of migrants' reintegration. The conclusions of the workshop round off this publication.
The surest path to profits need not be exploitation of workers and communities. Companies can improve their business performance by taking the "high road" of caring about their workers and their community, and so becoming more productive and profitable. This is one of the main findings of a new ILO study on corporate social responsibility and working conditions in the Philippines.
The pressures of globalization on companies to achieve global competitiveness has led some to cut back, not only on their workforce, but also the conditions under which their workers toil. The havoc wreaked by the Asian financial crisis has rightly raised fears of a downward spiralling of wages and working conditions and of disruption or worse in their communities. But many other companies are responding to the crisis in the same way that they responded to earlier times of growth and prosperity, through policies of corporate social responsibility.
The ILO's findings are based on three detailed case studies of companies in the Philippines. The case studies were initially conducted just before the onset of the Asian financial crisis in mid-1997 and reviewed in early 1999. The report finds that "all three companies found that it is entirely possible for a company to increase productivity, quality and overall enterprise performance as well as improve working conditions."
The issues of corporate social responsibility and its contribution to human resources development will be the subject of a Regional Tripartite Conference to be held in Shanghai, China, from 14 to 16 July 1999.
This study on the Philippines explores in depth and in a historical context the prospects of generating employment-friendly growth in the new international economic environment. Some of the major conclusions reached on the need to base growth on macro-economic stability and international competitiveness, to remove biases in economic policies against exports and agriculture, to diversify both the composition and the destination of exports in the rapidly expanding international and regional markets, to implement anti-monopoly measures to increase the competitive structure of the economy and the need for active policy measures for cost-effective and efficient human resources development, are all very relevant not only to the Philippines but also to other countries in the region in their pursuit of increasing the pace of employment generation and poverty eradication.
This book examines the problems and the potential of the sector. Aside from describing the issues of poor working conditions, child labour, absence of social protection and low productivity, the monograph also presents a view of the sector as capable of improving itself with small doses of strategic interventions. It therefore includes considerable discussion of ways to improve productivity and income, especially through enterprise development.
This manual shows how hospital workers and unions or associations, collectively, can be a major player in the implementation of good waste management system through the promotion and application of simple, low-cost and effective ideas on waste handling, segregation and storage, pre-treatment, collection and transportation and disposal. It also offers ideas on better worker participation in waste management awareness and promotion. Likewise, workers can get concrete actions which unions and workers' organizations can take to be in the mainstream of hospital waste management.
This publication aims to achieve a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of existing policies, laws and institutional arrangements based on national and international labour standards. It makes recommendations for a policy framework, guidelines and operational strategy, including in relation to coordination within the Ministry for Employment and Youth (formerly the Industrial Relations Department) and between the Ministry and other Ministries and agencies. These recommendations focus particularly on options for strengthening the institutional capacities of the Government and workers' and employers' organizations to improve workers' protection, making the most effective use of limited resources and mobilizing resources for improving the protection of workers. A National Tripartite Workshop on Labour Administration and Workers Protection was held in Port Moresby from 10 to 11 November 1997, in cooperation between the ILO and the then Department of Industrial Relations, to consider the report and to make recommendations for national priorities in the areas covered by the report. The workshop reports and the conclusions adopted by it are reproduced in this publication.
Interested readers are welcome to contact SEAPAT staff to enquire about the availability of reports deriving from various SEAPAT activities that are in the public domain but which have not been issued as publications.
For further information, please contact the South-East Asia and the Pacific Multidisciplinary Advisory Team (SEAPAT) at
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