Working papers
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Working papers


  1. International Migration Papers No. 118

    Promoting integration for migrant domestic workers in Europe: A synthesis of Belgium, France, Italy and Spain

    This report is based on the findings of research conducted in Belgium, France, Italy and Spain, as part of project on “integration of migrant domestic workers in Europe”, implemented by the ILO and its partners with the financial support of the European Union.

  2. International Migration Papers No. 117

    Promoting integration for migrant domestic workers in France (in French)

    The French country report of the European research project “Promoting the integration of migrant domestic workers” analyses the trajectories of migrants working in the domestic services sector in France. Although the sector has been significantly transformed, against a background of major socio-demographic changes, this research relates in particular to three groups of paid activities carried out in people’s homes: care for incapacitated adults (dependent elderly and people with disabilities), childcare, and household services used by private individuals (single persons or families) (In French)

  3. International Migration Papers No. 116

    Promoting integration for migrant domestic workers in Belgium

    Domestic workers provide an invaluable contribution to societies, yet still too often their work is not valued as such, and they remain a largely hidden and often vulnerable workforce. The Convention of the International Labour Organization (ILO) on Decent Work for Domestic Workers, 2011 (No. 189), can be perceived as recognition of the value of domestic work and as a call for action addressing the exclusion of domestic workers from protective regulatory frameworks.

  4. International Migration Papers No. 115

    Promoting integration for migrant domestic workers in Italy

    Since the 1970s, the labour market of domestic services has experienced a considerable growth in Italy, becoming over the past decade the main sector of employment for migrant women: in 2011, more than one foreign woman in two (51.3 per cent) was employed as a domestic worker or family assistant (CNEL, 2012). This phenomenon has been driven by the concomitance of a number of processes: an advanced process of population ageing (with one of the highest rates in the world of persons over 65), the increase of female participation in the labour market, the persistence of rigid patterns of gendered labour division in households, a public welfare budget heavily skewed in favour of monetary transfers (especially old-age and survivor pensions) to the detriment of welfare services in support of families.

  5. International Migration Papers No. 114

    Promoting integration for migrant domestic workers in Spain

    This case study of the Spanish situation is part of a wider international project, ‘Promoting Integration of Migrant Domestic Workers in Europe’, led and promoted by the ILO, funded by the European Commission and with research carried out by four international research institutions.1 The aims of the project are to: expand the knowledge on the characteristics, dimensions, and patterns of migration in Europe and its possible implications for the integration of migrant domestic workers; raise awareness of social actors in relation to the challenges of socio-economic integration of migrant domestic workers; and contribute to the planning and implementation of efficient policies and programmes to proactively promote social and labour integration of these workers


  1. International Migration Papers No. 113

    Decent work, youth employment and migration in Asia

    In this paper on *Decent work, youth employment and migration in Asia*, Dr. Piyasiri Wickramasekara (former Senior Migration specialist of the ILO) discusses migration trends and issues concerning young people in Asia - a region hosting more than 60 per cent of world’s youth population and one third of the global number of young migrants. He first outlines some methodological issues in understanding the nexus between decent work, internal and international migration, and causes of youth migration pressures. Drawing on a variety of data sources, he highlights the profile of young Asian migrant workers, their working conditions and protection issues in major destination countries. The study finds that both adult and young female and male migrant workers face exploitation and poor working conditions in destination countries. The paper points out that there are few programmes or policies in origin or destination countries that directly address the specific issues faced by youth migrants. It provides some suggestions on designing or improving effective policies and strategies to meet the youth employment and migration challenges and serve to promote decent work for migrant youth and their the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. International Migration Papers No. 112

    Migrant workers in the international hotel industry

    This paper is published jointly by the International Migration Branch of the Labour Protection Department of the ILO and by the ILO’s Sectoral Activities Department. We live in an increasingly mobile world, and it is a well-known fact that much migration today is driven by the search for employment. Indeed, most migration is linked to the world of work, in some way or other: families accompany workers to foreign countries, training and educational opportunities abroad lead into employment, changed patterns of labour force participation and social reproduction in one place set off migration flows from another, etc. However, the important links between migration and labour markets  including the quantity and quality of jobs in both origin and destination countries, and the contribution of labour market policies to growth and development  are often ignored or not well understood. This discussion paper makes a contribution in this area of research, in focussing on a particular sector, namely Hotels, catering and tourism. Our interest here is migrant workers in the international hotel industry. Hotel work is diverse and challenging at all levels, from front-line and housekeeping staff to senior management and migrant workers are represented in all areas of work within the sector across most developing and developed countries


  1. International Migration Papers 111

    Gender, brain waste and job-education mismatch among migrant workers in Switzerland

    This study examines the incidence and determinants of over- and underqualification among documented migrant workers in the Swiss labour market using cross-matched data from two sources of comprehensive information. At the same time, our statistical analysis aims at investigating the existence of gender differences in terms of brain waste.

  2. Publication

    Rural Policy Briefs: Labour Migration Governance for Rural Development

    Migration provides many poor rural households with a livelihood strategy. However, it can also disrupt local employment, undermine family and community cohesion and engender dangerous and exploitative working conditions.

  3. Publication

    Formalizing the informal insurance inherent in migration - Microinsurance Paper #7

    In our increasingly global economy, labor continues to be a major export commodity for many developing countries. Migration can help families mitigate their risks by increasing overall income levels and diversifying income sources. Yet, many migrants tend to find themselves in positions of vulnerability in their host countries without any access to social safety nets.

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