More than one million children are engaged in child labour in mines and quarries. This a serious violation of children’s rights that puts children’s health and safety at risk and deprives them of an education. It is a brake on the economic and social development of affected countries, as it limits productivity of work forces for entire generations. It is also a business challenge, because much of the minerals mined by children end up in global supply chains, including those of automobiles, banking, construction, cosmetics, electronics, and jewellery. In the face of this, there are growing demands for action from governments, workers’ and employers’ organizations, industry leaders, consumer groups and, particularly, mining communities themselves.