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map of South Asian Country - India

Socioeconomic indicators

  • - Total population (millions), 2005:1,134.4 (i)
  • - Annual population growth rate (%), 2005-15:1.4 (i)
  • - Population under age 15 (% of total), 2005:33 (i)
  • - Urban population (% of total), 2005:28.7 (i)
  • - Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2005:74 (i)
  • - Youth literacy rate (%, age 15-24), 2005:76.4 (i)
  • - Female youth literacy rate (%, age 15-24), 2005:67.7 (i)
  • - Primary school enrolment ratio (gross), 2000-07: Male 90/Female 87 (ii)
  • - Secondary school enrolment ratio (gross), 2000-07: Male 59/Female 49 (ii)
  • - Net primary school attendance, 2000-07 (%): Male 85/Female 81 (iii)
  • - GDP/capita (PPP US$), 2005:3,452 (i)
  • - Unemployment rate (current daily status in %),1996-2005:4.3 (i)
  • - Population living below $2 a day(%) 2005:80.4 (i)

(i) Human Development Report 2007-08
(ii) UNICEF: The State of the World’s Children 2009

Child labour situation

In India, the problem of child labour is well recognized. There are varying estimates of the number of working children in the country due to differing concepts and methods of estimation. The 2001 national census estimates the number of working children at 12.6 million ( 1 ) (out of a total of 210 million children aged 5-14 years), of whom 5.77 million are classified as 'main' workers ( 2 ), and 6.88 million as 'marginal' workers ( 3 ). The share of workers of the country aged 5-14 years to the total workforce is 3.15 per cent. ( 4 ).

  • The analysis of the 2001 census data shows that there are 6.8 million boys and 5.8 million girls in child labour. In addition, it is found that the majority of 'main' workers are boys, whereas the majority of 'marginal' workers are girls;
  • Many children are engaged in classified as 'hazardous labour', i.e. harmful to the physical, emotional, or moral well-being of children.
  • Although there are inter-state and inter-regional variations in India, the factors that contribute to child labour, and hazardous child labour in particular, include parental poverty and illiteracy; social and economic circumstances; lack of awareness; lack of access to basic and meaningful quality education and skills; high rates of adult unemployment and under-employment, and cultural values of the family and society.

Note 1 - ILO: Child Labour Facts and Figures an analysis of census 2001.
Note 2 - Those who have worked for 183 days or 6 months preceding the date of enumeration.
Note 3 - Those who have not worked for more than 183 days, but have done some work.
Note 4 - ILO: Child Labour Facts and Figures an analysis of census 2001.
Disclaimer - The above map does not reflect a position by the ILO on the legal status of any country or territory or the delimitation of any frontiers.

Last update: 15 October 2009 ^ top